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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That passage is 1. broadly, a passage is any negotiable part of cave system, though the usage is commonly restricted to those elements that tend towards the horizontal rather than vertical or sub-vertical sections. cave passages very in size and shape, with the latter relating to the mode of origin and providing evidence of the nature of cave development mechanisms. perhaps the largest passage in the world is deer cave, which is up to 170m wide and 120m high, in the mulu karst of sarawak [9]. 2. a comparatively small underground opening made along fractures, fissures, and bedding-plane partings by running water but through which it is possible to pass [20]. 3. in a cave, the opening between rooms or chambers [10]. synonyms: (french.) galerie; (german.) gallerie, stollen; (greek.) ypohios thiothos; (italian.) cunicolo, galleria; (russian.) hod; (spanish.) galeria; (turkish.) gecit; (yugoslavian.) galerija. see also chamber; room.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for support (Keyword) returned 281 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 281
The evolution of the Eastern North American Isopods of the Genus Asellus (Crustacea: Asellidae)., 1973, Fleming Laurence E.
This paper is the second in the three part series dealing with the evolution of the North American isopods of the genus Asellus. The generic status of Asellus is discussed with emphasis placed on the newly proposed genera of Henry and Magniez (1968). Use is made of comparative anatomical and where feasible statistical methods during this investigation. The first, shorter portion of the study deals with the presentation of evidence supporting the viewpoint that if 'Pseudobaicalasellus" is to be considered a valid genus then it must include the members of the Cannulus Group of Steeves (1965). The second portion of the study is concerned with the determination of the generic status of the eastern North American isopods. From the data presented it is felt that it is inadvisable to elevate species; groups of Asellus to the rank of genera. A generic diagnosis of the genus Asellus is presented. A list of North American species of the genus Asellus as well as a key to North American species of Asellus is included. The reduction to synonymy of certain nominal species of the genus Asellus is also given.

The natural populations of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (trgoglobic Crustacea Asellota)., 1973, Magniez Guy
Many cavernicolous and phreatic localities are known for the species Stenasellus virei. Some of these, which harbor a rather abundant population have been studied for several years. The endemic populations from permanent waters of some fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include especially large individuals (juvenile stages being rare). They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution in size groups with a normal percentage of juveniles. These differences in the structure of populations may result from physical differences between the habitat in free waters of caves and in phreatic water, and from differences between the associations of species that these two types of hypogean habitat may support.

Ecological and evolutive aspects of the communities of temperate and tropical caves: observations on the biological cycles of some species of Ptomaphagus (Coleoptera Catopidae)., 1973, Sbordoni Marina Cobolli, Sbordoni Valerio
Differences between tropical and temperate cave communities are an important topic in the actual biospeleological thinking. Among the most striking differences is the paucity of terrestrial troglobites in tropical caves. This fact may depend on the higher energy input into tropical caves which lessens the selection pressures for energy-economizing troglobite adaptations. Consequently evolutionary rates would be slowed in tropical caves and, in a date group, troglobites would appear later in such caves than in temperate ones with lower energy input. In order to investigate this point the authors studied the degree of adaptation to the cave environment in two species of Mexican Ptomaphagus which, being phylogenetically related, probably descend from the same epigean ancestor. Among these species the first one, P. troglomexicanus Peck, lives in a typical temperate cave (i.e. cold, high altitude cave, with scarce food supply) in the Sierra de Guatemala (Tamaulipas), the other one, P. spelaeus (Bilimek), populates tropical caves (i.e. warm, lowland cave, with rich food supply) in the State of Guerrero. In addition a comparison is made with P. pius Seidlitz, an epigean species from southern Europe. The results show a striking difference between P. troglomexicanus on a side and the other two species. Differences chiefly concern morphological features such as relative antenna length, structural complexity (i.e. the number of sensilla) of the antenna chemioreceptor organs in the 70, 90, 100 segments, degree of reduction of eye, wing and pigmentation and physiological ones such as the length of the life cycle. The possible causes of these differences are discussed. According to the authors these differences appear due to the different selection pressures acting in the two types of caves. In addition a comparison between the "tropical cave" species, P. spelaeus, with the epigean one, P. pius, does not point out the differences that one could expect by the diverse ecology of these species. These observations support the idea that evolutionary rates in cavernicoles are strongly affected by the ecology of the cave, mainly depending on the degree of energy input, and are poorly consistent with the hypothesis that mutations affecting degenerative processes are selectively neutral.

Biology and ecology of the El Convento cave-spring system (Puerto Rico)., 1974, Nicholas Brother G.
The El Convento Cave-Spring System is located at the head of the Quebrada de Los Cedros, approximately 20 km. west of Ponce, southwestern Puerto Rico. Although situated in an arid environment, the gorge receives sufficient moisture from the cave-spring system to support an abundant flora, with Bucida buceras and Bursera simaruba as the dominant trees. The cave is frequently flooded and possesses a rich nutrient substrate in the form of bat guano. Numerous orthopterans (Aspiduchus cavernicola and Amphiacusta annulipes), decapoda (Macrobrachium carcinus and Epilobocera sinuatifrons), and chiroptera (Brachyphylla cavernarum and Artebius jamaicensis) are present. In addition, approximately a dozen other species of invertebrates are found in lesser abundance throughout the system. None of the forms collected demonstrated specific cavernicolous adaptations. Because of the numerous entrances and frequent flooding the possibility of the presence of troglobites is minimal.

Continental Pleistocene Climatic Variations from Speleothem Age and Isotopic Data, 1974, Thompson Peter, Schwarcz Henry P. , Ford Derek C. ,
Speleothems from continental North American caves have been dated by means of the 230Th/234U method. Oxygen isotopic variations in the dated samples and phases of speleothem deposition can be interpreted in terms of climatic change. A glacial chronology constructed from the age and isotopic data lends support to the astronomical theory of climatic change

The adaptations to volvation of the external cephalic skeleton of Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus, a subterranean waters Isopod., 1976, Marvillet Claude
The study of the cephalic capsule of Caecosphaeroma burgundum, a subterranean waters Isopod, demonstrates improved adaptations to volvation; these concern in a similar manner the other regions of the body, particularly the pleotelson. From a primitive aquatic Isopod structure, the head of this blind Spheromid has been completely fashioned by many mechanical factors: posterior margin of pleotelson providing support on the head, relation of anterior angles of the second pereionit and, above all, the mandibular palps and antennae which retract into two deep grooves of the face. The comparative study of the head of other volvational Isopods shows the importance of that "antennary factor", e.g. in Oniscoids, epigean Spheromids and some other subterranean waters Isopods (two Spheromids and one Cirolanid). This comparison shows that Caecosphaeroma burgundum is certainly the most specialized of all; it approaches perfection in volvation for it is the only one which rolls up into a hermetic sphere without outwards projections. Volvation seems to play a two-fold role. It is a mean of defence against predators used by single specimens and by copulating pairs, males and females being then associated in two concentric spheres. Furthermore, it is a very important way for passive dissemination allowing settlement of these Crustacea in distant subterranean waters.

The fine structure of Hamann's organ in Leptodirus hohenwarti, a highly specialised cave bathysciinae (Coleoptera, Catopidae)., 1978, Accordi Fiorenza, Sbordoni Valerio
Hamann's organ in Leptodirus hohenwarti a highly specialized cave Bathysciinae, has been studied under the TEM, SEM and light microscope. This receptor organ located in the 7th, 9th and 10th antennal articles and previously referred to as the "vesicule olfactive" and as the "antennal organ" or "antennal vesicle", reaches its highest degree of structural complexity in leptodirus. This paper attempts to establish some degree of synonymy among the terms used by earlier authors in describing the various antennal parts and sensilla. Five types of sensilla to be found in the organ are described, namely cribrose-stick sensilla, cribrose-utricular sensilla, star-shaped sensilla, claviform sensilla and branching setae. Comparisons within Bathysciinae species and among the latter and other subfamilies of Catopidae reveal differences in the number of vesicles and in the number and structures of sensilla, these differences appear to depend on i) the degree of phylogenetic relationships among taxa and 2) the degree of specialization to cave environment. The considerable complexity of Hamann's organ, unrivalled by other insects organs, apart from light receptors, suggests that it has a plurality of functions. Its hygroreceptor role, supported by recent experimental work, is discussed here.

Quaternary Paleoclimatology of the Black Sea basin, 1979, Schrader Hans Joachim,
The occurrence of polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline diatom, silicoflagellate, ebridian and chrysomonad populations in late Quaternary Black Sea sediments (DSDP Leg 42B) forms the basis for reconstruction of surface water paleosalinities in the Black Sea basin over the last 3 million years. Four major periods with increased salinites are separated by extended freshwater periods. Based on paleosalinites, indicators of trophic freshwater conditions and changes in diatom species diversity, a correlation is made to the northern Europian glacial--interglacial stratigraphy and this correlation is used to place paleoenvironmental events into a chronostratigraphy. The `synchronous' late Quaternary occurrence of sediments rich in organic carbon in both the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea supports this interpretation.Three different stages in the interaction between the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are defined: Stage A (exchange of freshwater and marine water similar to the present day flux) during the Holocene, Eemian, Holsteinian and Pliocene; Stage B (freshwater conditions with only occasional marine spills) during the Saalian, the Waalian, the Tiglian and the Praetiglian; and Stage C (freshwater conditions with no inflow of marine waters) during the Weichselian, the Elsterian and Eburonian

Equilibrium Versus Events in River Behaviour and Blind Valleys at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales, 1980, Jennings J. N. , Haosheng Bao, Spate A. P.

Seventeen blind valleys of the Yarrangobilly karst are describes especially with reference to shifting streamsink location and phases of downward incision. A series of measures of them, based partly on ground traverses and partly on contoured maps, is presented and discussed. Standard morphometry of the basins ending in the blind valleys is presented also. These truncated basins are shown to have normal morphometric relationships. Whether a stream sinks or not in the limestone appears generally to relate to the length of limestone to be crossed in relation to full stream or basin length, though basin relief ratio may intervene. The hypothesis that there will be dynamic equilibrium between the dimensions of blind valleys and sinking stream catchments finds only limited support in the data. This is because underground stream capture represents an abnormal event in drainage basin development liable to upset equilibrium relationships and its timing may be adventitious in that development. With a larger population of blind valleys to be analysed, this factor of timing might become subordinate, and a batter predictive model of blind valley volume be derived.


Gulemwawaya: A Cave in Welded Tuff At Budoya, Fergusson Island, Papua New Guinea, 1981, Ollier, C. D.

A 30m cave in pyroclastic deposits on the flank of a volcano is thought to be made by eluviation and fluvial erosion, and possibly supported mechanically by welded tuffs above. This note is to record a small but significant cave that deserves further attention. I visited the cave for about half an hour in July 1980 and had no facilities for survey or photography.


Cavern Development in the Dimensions of Length and Breadth. PhD Thesis, 1982, Ewers, Ralph Owen

Three conceptual models are proposed for the integration of the large systems of conduits responsible for groundwater flow in soluble rocks. These models are supported by laboratory experiments with scaled solution models, flow-field analogues, and evidence from existing caves.
The three models reflect different boundary conditions imposed by geologic structure and stratigraphy. They have three characteristics in common. First, the smaller elements of the larger systems propagate separately from points of groundwater input toward points of discharge as distributary networks. Second, the integration of the smaller networks proceeds headward from the resurgence, in a stepwise fashion. Third, the result of the integration process in each case is a tributary system with many inputs discharging through a single discharge point.
The potential for growth of each of the smaller networks, within a common pressure field, is related to its distance from the discharge boundary and the distribution of other inputs. The first input to establish a low-resistance link to the discharge boundary will effect a localized depression within the potential field, thus attracting the flow and redirecting the growth of nearby networks until they eventually link with it. As additional orders of links develop, the system takes on a tributary pattern.
The first model applies to steeply dipping rocks. Inputs occur where bedding planes are truncated by erosion, and discharge takes place to the strike. Conduits in this case evolve as a roughly rectangular grid of strike and dip oriented elements. Dip elements are the initial form, with subsequent integration along the strike. The type example is the Holloch in Switzerland.
The second model applies to flat-lying rocks. Inputs occur over a broad area, and discharge takes place along a linear boundary. Conduits in this case evolve in a trellised array with elements normal to the discharge boundary predating those parallel to it. These latter conduits integrate the flow. The type example is the Mammoth Cave Region, Kentucky.
The third model applies to simple systems which occur beneath an impermeable cap rock. Inputs occur where erosion has breached the capping beds. The type example is Cave Creek, Kentucky.


Further Studies at the Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part I, Climate and Hydrology, 1983, Jennings, J. N.

Previous study of the temporal and spatial distribution of limestone solution at Cooleman Plain rested on monthly discharges and water analyses of the Blue Waterholes over 4 years. For this study automatic recording of discharge (8 years), rainfall (8 years), evaporation (7 years) and temperature (4 years) was attended by variable success in the face of interference, rigorous climate and inaccessibility. The most important aspect of the climatic data was the support obtained for the earlier assumption of similar water balances in the forested igneous frame and the grassland limestone plain. Runoff was again shown to be highly variable from year to year and to have an oceanic pluvial regime, with a summer-autumn minimum owing much to evapo-transpiration. The flow duration curve from daily discharges puts this karst amongst those where neither extremely high nor low flows are important. The stream routing pattern offsets the effect of 71% of the catchment being on non-karst rocks, damping flood events. An inflection of 700 l/s in a flow duration plot based on discharge class means is interpreted as the threshold at which surface flow down North Branch reaches the Blue Waterholes. Storages calculated from a generalised recession hydrograph parallel Mendip data where baseflow (fissure) storage provides most of the storage and quickflow (vadose) storage only a secondary part. Water-filled conduit storage (the phreas) could not be determined but is considered small. The baseflow storage seems large, suggesting that it can develop independently of caves in some measure. A quickflow ratio for floods derived by Gunn's modification of the Hewlett and Hibbert separation line method appears relatively low for a mainly non-karst catchment and is again attributed to the routing pattern. For analysis of variation of the solute load over time, estimates of daily discharge during gaps in the record where made for the author by Dr. A.J. Jakeman and Mr. M.A. Greenaway (see Appendix). A small number of discharge measures of two contrasted allogenic catchments of the igneous frame shows a unit area yield close to that for the whole catchment. Together with the guaging of most of the allogenic inputs, this supports the idea that the water yield is much the same from the forested ranges and the grassland plain. This is important for the estimation of limestone removal rates.


Further Studies At The Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part II, Water Chemistry And Discussion, 1983, Jennings, J. N.

The 1969-77 data confirm that groundwater temperature is significantly higher than air temperature at mean catchment altitude but provide only partial support for an explanation in terms of soil temperature and insulation of drainage from cold air ponding over the Plain. Higher pH of output than input streams is attributed mainly to percolation water chemistry. Water chemistry of two contrasted input streams suggests non-karst rock weathering has an important effect on allogenic input streams. An inverse relationship between carbonate hardness and output discharge is found again and attributed mainly to faster transit through the limestone at high flows. Summer has a steeper regression than winter due to precipitation and high flows depressing carbon dioxide and carbonate concentrations more in that season than in winter. Picknett graphs show how solutional capacity varies through the hydrologic system, with aggressive input streams, mainly saturated percolation water, and rarely saturated output springs because of the allogenic component in the last. The total carbonate load of Cave Creek is directly related to discharge, with little seasonal difference so the annual regression is chosen for later calculation. When the carbonate load duration curve and frequency classes for Cave Creek are compared with those for other karsts, it falls into an intermediate class in which neither very high nor low flows dominate the pattern. This is attributed to a combination of a large allogenic input with a complex routing pattern. Consideration of most input stream solute concentration on one occasion indicates such close dependence on catchment geology that doubt is cast on the smallness of the 1965-9 allocation of carbonate contribution from non-karst rock weathering to the allogenic input. This is explained by new CSIRO rainfall chemistry figures from the Yass R. catchment which are smaller than those used before and by elimination of a previous error in calculation. This time subtraction of atmospheric salts is done on a daily basis with a decaying hyperbolic function. Correction of Cave Creek output for allogenic stream input follows the method adopted in 1965-9 but on a firmer basis, with the assumption of approximately equal water yeild per unit area from the non-karst and karst parts of the catchment being more factually supported than before. It remains a substantial correction. The correction for subjacent karst input to Cave Creek is also improved by putting the calculation in part on a seasonal basis; it remains small. The exposed solute load output shows the same seasonal pattern as was determined earlier, with a winter/spring maximum, and it again evinced much variation from year to year. So did annual rates. The mean annual loss of 29 B was slightly greater than for 1965-9. If this difference is real and not an experimental error, the reduced allowance for atmospheric salts and greater annual rainfall in the second period could explain the increase. This erosion rate of 29 B from an annual runoff of about 400mm places this karst where it would be expected in the world pattern of similar determinations in terms of both runoff and its proximity to the soil covered/bare karst dichotomy of Atkinson and Smith (1976). Combined with the other work at Cooleman Plain on erosion at specific kinds of site, an estimate of the spatial distribution of the limestone solution is presented. It agrees well with the similar attempt for Mendip by Atkinson and Smith (1976), when allowance is made for certain differences in method and context. The main conclusions are the great role of solution in the superficial zone and the unimportance of the contribution from caves. Conflict between this process study and the geomorphic history of Cooleman Plain remains and once again an explanation is sought in long persistence of a Tertiary ironstone cover inhibiting surface solution.


The Origin of the Kelly Hill Caves, Kangaroo Island, S.A., 1984, Hill, A. L.

The Kelly Hill caves in soft, homogenous, extremely porous dune limestone differ markedly in morphology from those in the more usual, dense, bedded limestones. Solution occurs at depth with great lateral spread through swamps overflowing into the base of the hill. Development occurs by roof breakdown as areas of solution become so large that the roof cannot support the weight; a theory of the mechanics is presented. Domes and tunnels of collapse rise above the watertable; at maturity there are isolated infalls from the surface. Water percolating down from the surface only builds secondary calcite deposits.


Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru, 1985, Lynch Thomas F. , Gillespie R. , Gowlett John A. J. , Hedges R. E. M. ,
Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Reevaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago

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