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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pressure cell is the pressure difference occurring between two points along a stream line in a flow system [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for moss (Keyword) returned 29 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 29 of 29
The role of flow velocity in the vertical distribution of particulate organic matter on moss-covered travertine barriers of the Plitvice Lakes (Croatia), 2006, Milisa M. , Habdija I. , Primchabdija B. , Radanovic I. , Kepcija R. ,
We investigated the distribution patterns of particulate organic matter (POM) on travertine barriers in respect to flow velocity. Research was conducted on the barrage-lake system of the Plitvice Lakes, Croatia. Four layers were distinguished within the substrate (moss mat three travertine layers) in three hydraulic habitats at three sites. Substrate samples were collected monthly with a core sampler. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of moss mats and travertine substrate to accumulate POM; to ascertain the role of flow velocity and to produce a model of POM distribution pattern. The average of POM deposited in the 10 cm deep zone decreased significantly in the three sites along longitudinal profile of the system. Most POM was deposited in the moss mats, and the amounts decreased exponentially with depth. This was observed for coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), ultra-fine particulate organic matter (UPOM) and total organic matter (TPOM) while fine organic matter (FPOM) deposition appeared unaffected by depth. More POM was accumulated in hydraulic habitats of low flow velocity. Correlation between flow velocity and POM accumulation was generally negative. Positive correlations between flow velocity and deposition rates were noted for CPOM in moss mats and top travertine layers; the deposition of other POM fractions was negatively influenced by the flow velocity. The influence of flow velocity decreased with increasing depth. In the deepest layers (7-10 cm) flow velocity influenced only the deposition of the smallest particles (UPOM)

tude des transferts de masse et de chaleur dans la grotte de Lascaux: le suivi climatique et le simulateur., 2007, Lacanette D. , Malaurent Ph. , Caltagirone J. P. , Brunet J.
Study of heat and mass flows in Lascaux cave: the climatic monitoring and the simulation tool. The cave of Lascaux, discovered in 1940 and located in the Dordogne area in France, is inscribed on the Unesco World Heritage List. It is considered as one of the major prehistoric caves in the world. Since its discovery, several problems have occurred, due to the huge amount of visitors, and their release of vapour and carbon dioxide by their breath, causing the formation of calcite and the apparition of green algae and mosses. The Ministry of Cultural Affairs had the cave closed in 1963. Since then, prehistorians, archaeologists, geologists, hydrogeologists, have tried hard to maintain the cavity in the most stable state as possible, using remote metering to record the variations in temperature, hygrometry, and carbon dioxide gas pressure. The biological equilibrium remained fragile and, in 2001, colonies of micro-organisms, mushrooms and bacteria developed on the rock edges and on the floor. This attack made the authorities and the Minister of Culture and Communication create the scientific international comity of the Lascaux cave, a multidisciplinary comity (composed of archaeologists, physicists, geologists, hydrogeologists, conservators working altogether) to understand the mechanisms of apparition of the micro-organisms in order to stop their propagation. Among the measures taken by the comity, a better understanding of the flows in the cave has appeared very important, and has induced the creation of a simulation tool, the "Lascaux Simulator". The non intrusive character of simulation is one of the major assets of this method. Thus, the numerical simulation in fluid mechanics is here dedicated to the conservation of the cave of Lascaux. The simulator is based on a computational fluid dynamics code named Aquilon. A three dimensional survey has been leaded in the cave using laser scanning and an accurate topology of the environment is incorporated in the simulator. Starting from this point, governing equations of the fluid mechanics are solved and parameters such as temperature, velocity or moisture content are known in every point of the cavity. Thermal conditions are chosen, basing on the analysis of the calculated and measured temperature data for more than 50 years. In this article, two configurations are chosen, the first one in September 1981, period during which the cave remained in a stable state regarding condensation, and the other one in December 1999; at this time, temperature were reversed, the ground of the cavity was colder than the vaults. This phenomenon implied an inversion of the air flow in the cave. Finally, the removal of the dividing wall of the Bauer airlock has been simulated, and it has been showed that the impact on the cavity would be negligible.

Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves, 2009, Roldn M. And Hernndezmarin M.
Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from various taxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated with rock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain) were studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study these organisms and acquire three-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individual biofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differed according to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types were defined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of light exposure

Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves, 2009, Roldn M. , Hernndezmarin M.

Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from various taxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated with rock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain) were studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study these organisms and acquire three-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individual biofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differed according to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types were defined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of light exposure.


Tanella cave (Monte Baldo Verona, Italy): a record of environmental data on the Last Glacial period, 2011, Zorzin Roberto, Agostini Laura, Montecchi Maria Chiara, Torri Paola, Accorsi Carla Alberta,

Since 2003, an extensive hydrogeological investigation has been carried out on Monte Baldo, in order to make a census of springs occurring along the west side of the mountain and to evaluate the quality of their water. The investigation included morphological and hydrogeological observations concerning the Tanella cave and interdisciplinary investigations performed on the deposits found in the cave. This paper shows the first data concerning the hydrogeology of the cave, as well as data on stratigraphy, pollen and micro-charcoals obtained from the analyses of a well preserved sequence located at ca. 80 m from the entrance (sequence A). The aim of the study was to reconstruct the environment of the area around the cave along the time span testified by the sequence. The sequence is 60 cm thick and was built up by fluvioglacial sediments followed by lacustrine sediments. Five samples taken along the sequence plus three recent control samples (mosses), collected in places assumed as origins of the pollen input, were studied for pollen and micro-charcoals. Pollen preservation was good and concentration varied from 101 to 103 p/g. Pollen spectra from the cave showed the evolution from a landscape of alpine grassland above the timberline, likely of glacial age, to a more forested Holocene landscape similar in flora to the current one testified by the control samples. Pollen probably arrived in the cave by air, water and animals and from plants growing near the cave. It appears to have been continuously underwater after its deposition due to its very good state of preservation. Micro-charcoals suggested that fires were sometimes lit near the cave.


From sink to resurgence: the buffering capacity of a cave system in the Tongass national forest, USA , 2011, Hendrickson Melissa R. , Groves Chris

The Tongass National Forest of Southeast Alaska, USA, pro­vides a unique environment for monitoring the impact of the cave system on water quality and biological productivity. The accretionary terrane setting of the area has developed into a complex and heterogeneous geologic landscape which includes numerous blocks of limestone with intense karstification. Dur­ing the Wisconsian glaciation, there were areas of compacted glacial sediments and silts deposited over the bedrock. Muskeg peatlands developed over these poorly drained areas. The dom­inant plants of the muskeg ecosystem are Sphagnum mosses, whose decomposition leads to highly acidic waters with pH as low as 2.4. These waters drain off the muskegs into the cave sys­tems, eventually running to the ocean. In accordance with the Tongass Land Management Plan, one of the research priorities of the National Forest is to determine the contributions of karst groundwater systems to productivity of aquatic communities. On Northern Prince of Wales Island, the Conk Canyon Cave insurgence and the Mop Spring resurgence were continuously monitored to understand the buffering capacity of the cave sys­tem. Over the length of the system, the pH increases from an average 3.89 to 7.22. The insurgence water temperature, during the summer months, ranged from between 10oC to 17oC. Af­ter residence in the cave system, the resurgence water had been buffered to 6oC to 9oC. Over the continuum from insurgence to resurgence, the specific conductance had increased by an order of magnitude with the resurgence waters having a higher ionic strength. The cave environment acts as a buffer on the incom­ing acidic muskeg water to yield resurgence water chemistry of a buffered karst system. These buffered waters contribute to the productivity in aquatic environments downstream. The waters from this system drain into Whale Pass, an important location for the salmon industry. The cool, even temperatures, as well as buffered flow rates delivered by the karst systems are associated with higher productivity of juvenile coho salmon.


Spatial and temporal distribution of protozoa at Cueva de Los Riscos, Quere´taro, Me´xico, 2011, Sigalaregalado I. , Maye´, Nestrada R. , Moralesmalacara J. B.

Protozoa are important members of ecosystems, but protozoa that inhabit
caves are poorly known worldwide. In this work, we present data on the record and distribution of thirteen protozoa species in four underground biotopes (water, soil, bat guano, and moss), at Cueva de Los Riscos. The samples were taken in six different months over more than a year. Protozoa species were ciliates (eight species), flagellates (three species), amoeboid (one species), and heliozoan (one species). Five of these speciesare reported for the first time inside cave systems anywhere, and an additional three species are new records for Mexican caves. Colpoda was the ciliate genera found in all
cave zones sampled, and it inhabited the four biotopes together with Vorticella. The biotopes with the highest specific richness were the moss, sampled near the main cave entrance, and the temporary or permanent water bodies, with ten species each. The greatest number of species was observed in April 2006 (dry season). With the exception of water, all biotopes are studied for the first time


Karst and caves of headstreams of the Lena River , 2011, Philippov V. M. , Filippov A. G. , Indyukov A. E.

Karst phenomena of headstreams of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia between junctions of the Zolotokan Creek and  Chanchur River are described in the paper. Wide spreading of karst is determined by: areal occurrence of marine carbonate rocks  of the Lower and Middle Cambrian, their monoclinal bedding, increased tectonical fracturing of karstiferous rocks, relatively high  roughness of surface topography, flattened dividing ranges, relatively humid climate (precipitation 400-500 mm per year), and long  history of continental regime of the area. The relics of ancient gently sloped river valleys at dividing ranges are the most karstified.  There is no surface drainage in their limits, and groups of dolines up to 40-80 individuals per square kilometer are common. Karst  development determines an existence of vast meadows covered with the dwarf birch, reindeer moss and herbs (Trollius asiaticus Scutellaria baialensis, Rhodiola rosea, Veratrum lobelianum, Gentiana sp., Allium sp. .) among stocked coniferous taiga at  the altitude of 1080-1150 m a.s.l. at the watershed divides of the Lena and Levaya Tongoda rivers (Mongolian Steppe Stow), and  Lena and Pankucha-2nd rivers. On the rest of the territory, dolines do not form large groups, but they occur as isolated individuals  or scattered clusters consisting of 3 to 5 individuals. Karst dry valleys are widely spread. Their total length is not less than 397  km, and 126 km of them belongs to the watershed of the Yukhta-1st River. Residual hills having morphology of pillars, towers and  ridges were observed. Descriptions of two karst caves and two crevice caves are given


Karst and caves of headstreams of the Lena River, 2011, Philippov V. M. , Filippov A. G. , Indyukov A. E.

Karst phenomena of headstreams of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia between junctions of the Zolotokan Creek and Chanchur River are described in the paper. Wide spreading of karst is determined by: areal occurrence of marine carbonate rocks of the Lower and Middle Cambrian, their monoclinal bedding, increased tectonical fracturing of karstiferous rocks, relatively high roughness of surface topography, flattened dividing ranges, relatively humid climate (precipitation 400-500 mm per year), and long history of continental regime of the area. The relics of ancient gently sloped river valleys at dividing ranges are the most karstified. There is no surface drainage in their limits, and groups of dolines up to 40-80 individuals per square kilometer are common. Karst development determines an existence of vast meadows covered with the dwarf birch, reindeer moss and herbs (Trollius asiaticus Scutellaria baialensis, Rhodiola rosea, Veratrum lobelianum, Gentiana sp., Allium sp. .) among stocked coniferous taiga at the altitude of 1080-1150 m a.s.l. at the watershed divides of the Lena and Levaya Tongoda rivers (Mongolian Steppe Stow), and Lena and Pankucha-2nd rivers. On the rest of the territory, dolines do not form large groups, but they occur as isolated individuals or scattered clusters consisting of 3 to 5 individuals. Karst dry valleys are widely spread. Their total length is not less than 397 km, and 126 km of them belongs to the watershed of the Yukhta-1st River. Residual hills having morphology of pillars, towers and ridges were observed. Descriptions of two karst caves and two crevice caves are given.

 


Show Caves, 2012, Cigna, Arrigo A.

Show caves are caves that have been developed for visitation by the general public, usually with payment of a fee. Show cave development requires the construction of stairs and trails and the installation of lighting. Properly done, show caves can also serve a conservation role. Care must be taken to avoid excessive heat load on the cave due to both lighting and visitors. Lighting should be constructed to avoid moss, algal, and other plant growth (lampenflora). Trails, stairs, and handrails should be constructed from materials that are compatible with the cave environment. Managers and guides must be trained to recognize their roles in both education of the public and preservation of the cave.


Karst and caves of headstreams of the Lena River, 2012, Philippov V. M. , Filippov A. G. , Indyukov A. E.

Karst phenomena of headstreams of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia between junctions of the Zolotokan Creek and Chanchur River are described in the paper. Wide spreading of karst is determined by: areal occurrence of marine carbonate rocks of the Lower and Middle Cambrian, their monoclinal bedding, increased tectonical fracturing of karstiferous rocks, relatively high roughness of surface topography, flattened dividing ranges, relatively humid climate (precipitation 400-500 mm per year), and long history of continental regime of the area. The relics of ancient gently sloped river valleys at dividing ranges are the most karstified. There is no surface drainage in their limits, and groups of dolines up to 40-80 individuals per square kilometer are common. Karst development determines an existence of vast meadows covered with the dwarf birch, reindeer moss and herbs (Trollius asiaticus, Scutellaria baialensis, Rhodiola rosea, Veratrum lobelianum, Gentiana sp., Allium sp. .) among stocked coniferous taiga at the altitude of 1080-1150 m a.s.l. at the watershed divides of the Lena and Levaya Tongoda rivers (Mongolian Steppe Stow), and Lena and Pankucha-2nd rivers. On the rest of the territory, dolines do not form large groups, but they occur as isolated individuals or scattered clusters consisting of 3 to 5 individuals. Karst dry valleys are widely spread. Their total length is not less than 397 km, and 126 km of them belongs to the watershed of the Yukhta-1st River. Residual hills having morphology of pillars, towers and ridges were observed. Descriptions of two karst caves and two crevice caves are given.


Chemical characterization of biofilms formed in hypogene spring caves of Budapest, 2013, Svoly Z. , Dobosy P. , Barkcs K. , Erő, Ss A. , Kuzmann E.

Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review., 2014,

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems). Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm), this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally) a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and cosmopolitan. These are, in order of frequency: Hantzschia amphioxys, Diadesmis contenta, Orthoseira roeseana, Luticola nivalis, Pinnularia borealis, Diadesmis biceps and Luticola mutica. Due to the peculiarity of the subterranean habitats, the record of rare or new species is relatively common. The most important environmental factors driving species composition and morphological modifications observed in subterranean populations are analysed throughout the text and tables. In addition, suggestions to prevent and remove the corrosive biofilms in view of an environmentally sustainable cave management are discussed.


The influence of light attenuation on the biogeomorphology of a marine karst cave: A case study of Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan, the Philippines, 2015, Coombes Martin A. , La Marca Emanuela C. , Naylor Larissa A. , Piccini Leonardo, De Waele Jo, Sauro Francesco

Karst caves are unique biogeomorphological systems. Cave walls offer habitat for microorganisms which in-turn have a geomorphological role via their involvement in rock weathering, erosion and mineralisation. The attenuation of light with distance into caves is known to affect ecology, but the implications of this for biogeomorphological processes and forms have seldom been examined. Here we describe a semi-quantitative microscopy study comparing the extent, structure, and thickness of biocover and depth of endolithic penetration for samples of rock from the Puerto Princesa Underground River system in Palawan, the Philippines, which is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Organic growth at the entrance of the cave was abundant (100% occurrence) and complex, dominated by phototrophic organisms (green microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens). Thickness of this layer was 0.28 ± 0.18 mm with active endolith penetration into the limestone (mean depth = 0.13 ± 0.03 mm). In contrast, phototrophs were rare 50 m into the cave and biofilm cover was significantly thinner (0.01 ± 0.01 mm, p b 0.000) and spatially patchy (33% occurrence). Endolithic penetration here was also shallower (b0.01mm, p b 0.000) and non-uniform. Biofilm was found 250 m into the cave, but with a complete absence of phototrophs and no evidence of endolithic bioerosion.

We attribute these findings to light-induced stress gradients, showing that the influence of light on phototroph abundance has knock-on consequences for the development of limestone morphological features. In marine caves this includes notches, which were most well-developed at the sheltered cave entrance of our study site, and for which variability in formation rates between locations is currently poorly understood.


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