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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That subsoil karst is karst covered by soil, usually residual soil [17]. synonyms: (british.) soddy karst; (french.) karst vert, karst subcutane; (german.) bedeckter karst, bodenbedeckter karst, grukarst, subkutan karst; (greek.) ypethaphikon karst; (russian.) zadernovanny karst; (spanish.) karst subcutaneo; (turkish.) toprakalti karsti; (yugoslavian.) pokriveni krs (kras). see also covered karst.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for zagros (Keyword) returned 31 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 31
Lithological control on water chemistry in karst aquifers of the Zagros Range, Iran, 2006,
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Ashjari, Javad And Ezzat Raeisi.
The Zagros Range of south-central Iran is characterized by long and regular anticlinal and synclinal folds. Most highlands are karstified limestone and dolomite aquifers, which are sandwiched between thick non-karstic marl, marlstone, manly limestone, gypsum and anhydrite formations. Hydrochemical data from 195 karst springs, emerging from five different karstic formations, were used to determine the factors controlling spring water quality. The size and boundaries of catchment area of each spring were determined using water balance and geological methods. The springs were classified based on water type and specific conductance; and discrimination analysis was performed on the major anions, cations, and the specific conductance of all the springs to confirm the proposed classification. The Piper diagram reveals bicarbonate, bicarbonate-dominant, sulphate-dominant, or chloride water type with specific conductances ranging from 190 to 13500S/cm. The lithology of the neighbouring formations and its extent of outcrop into the catchment area of the karst springs have a major effect on water quality. Large exposures of marl, marlstone, and manly limestone on the catchment area of the karst springs can change bicarbonate water to bicarbonate-sulphate, whereas gypsum and anhydrite produce sulphate-type waters. Salt domes, and saline water from adjacent lakes or alluvial aquifers are the main sources for chloride-type water.

Influences of anticlinal structure on regional flow, Zagros, Iran, 2006,
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Ashjari J. , Raeisi E.
Carbonate karstic formations outcrop in about 23% of the Zagros Region. Seventy-two karstic anticlines were selected to study regional flow. Based on geometry of the anticline and outflow position, a conceptual model is presented for delineation of flow direction, at least within Zagros. The anticlines were divided into two main groups based on presence or absence of hydraulic connectivity between the limbs. The geological and tectonic settings are the main controlling factors within these two groups. Sixty-four out of the seventy-two anticlines showed no hydraulic connectivity between their limbs. Each group was further classified into four subgroups based on the location of the discharge zones, namely one or both plunge apex noses, limb, traversing river, or a combination of plunge apexes, limbs and river. The discharge zones may be located in the adjacent or in the successive anticlines. The discharge zones are mainly controlled by local base level. In most of the cases having no hydraulic connection between the limbs, the direction of flow is initially along the bedding plane dip and finally parallel to the strike at the foot of the anticline. In most of the cases having connections between two limbs, the regional directions of flow, in the connected part, are opposite from the direction of bedding plane dip and eventually parallel to strike. The results show that the primary controlling factors of regional flow are the anticlinal structure of aquifers and geometry of the bedrock.

Hydrogeological uncertainties in delineation of leakage at karst dam sites, the Zagros Region, Iran, 2007,
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Mohammadi Z. And Raeisi E.
Leakage from dam reservoirs has been reported in different karst regions of the world. Water leakage occurs through the karst features directly or indirectly. The estimation of leakage locations, path(s), and quantity are subject to error due to uncertainties in the non-homogenous nature of a karst formation, method of study, and limited investigation due to time and cost factors. The conventional approaches for study on the karst development are local boring at the dam site and geological mapping. In this paper, uncertainties associated with conventional hydrogeological approaches are addressed from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. No major solution cavities were observed in boreholes and galleries of some dam sites in the Zagros Region, Iran, but huge karst conduits were discovered during the drilling of a diversion tunnel. This inconsistency is due to the point character of boreholes and the inherent nonhomogeneity of karst. The results of dye tracing tests in boreholes may be significantly affected by location of the injection and sampling points, as tests executed at the Saymareh and Tangab Dam sites in the Zagros Region, Iran show. The quantitative uncertainty of leakage is analyzed for diffuse and conduit flow systems for cases with and without any grout curtain, under the combined effect of input uncertainties at the Tangab Dam site, southern Iran. Assuming a diffuse flow system, the mean leakage at 95% confidence interval for both strategies is estimated at less than 5% of the mean annual discharge of the river. Accordingly, the dam can be constructed without the necessity of a grout curtain. However, assuming a conduit flow system, the results reveal a significant uncertainty. A small diameter conduit can convey significant amounts of water under high reservoir pressure heads. The leakage of a 4 m diameter conduit (cross section area of 12.5 m2) is 163 times more than the leakage of 0.5 m diameter conduit (cross sectional area of 0.2 m2) while the cross sectional area ratio is 60. The uncertainty may be decreased if a detailed study is carried out on the stratigraphic and tectonic settings, karst hydrogeology, geomorphology, speleogenesis, and by performing several dye tracing tests, especially outside the proposed grout curtain area.

The impact of geology and geomorphology on cave and rockshelter archaeological site formation, preservation, and distribution in the Zagros mountains of Iran, 2007,
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Heydari, Saman

This paper is a first attempt to explore the impact of geological and geomorphological settings on formation processes of shelter sites in the karstic Zagros Mountains of Iran. In general, the Zagros Mountains can be divided geologically and geomorphologically into two main zones, highland and folded, which are located parallel to each other and run from the northeast to the southwest in western Iran. Both the geological and geomorphological zones have implications for the formation processes of archaeological deposits at shelter sites. These environmental differences also influence the preservation of archaeological deposits at these types of sites. It is suggested that apart from site formation and post-depositional processes, the local geological and geomorphological structure might also have had some influence on the distribution of prehistoric sites in the region.


Ground-water storage calculation in karst aquifers with alluvium or no-flow boundaries, 2008,
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Raeisi E.
The determination of water-budget parameters, such as change in storage and subsurface inflow and outflow, is costly and unreliable due to heterogeneities of karst aquifers. Some karst aquifers may have one or a combination of boundaries such as impermeable formations, alluvial aquifers, and known ground-water divides. Karst water only discharges through springs or flows to the adjacent alluvium. A new procedure is proposed to estimate volume of storage in region during the dry season in these settings. The subsurface inflow and outflow can be measured in the adjacent alluvium using equipotential and flow lines, cross-sectional area, and transmissivity of the alluvial aquifer. The dry season makes it possible to calculate the karst spring recession coefficient and karst aquifer dynamic volume at the beginning and end of the hydrological year. The change of storage is the difference between the dynamic volumes of the karst aquifer at the beginning and end of the hydrological year. The volume of water which flows to the adjacent alluvium or spring is measured by plotting the discharge as a function of time and estimating the recession coefficient at the beginning (or end) of the hydrological year. Known equations are used to calculate the dynamic volume of springs. A general equation is proposed to calculate the dynamic volume of a karst aquifer when there is a combination of springs, and subsurface inflow and outflow from the karst aquifer. The proposed method is applicable to the Zagros Folded Zone in Iran.

NEW INSIGHTS INTO KARST AND CAVES OF NORTHWESTERN ZAGROS (NORTHERN IRAQ), 2009,
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Stevanovi? Zoran, Iurkiewicz Adrian & Maran Aleksandra
During 2002, several reconnaissance speleological explorations were undertaken by the authors and local enthusiasts in the karst of Northwestern Zagros in Northern Iraq. Some of the caves were visited for the first time and explored to a great depth by the scientists, while the Shanidar cave is a world-famous site representing one of the oldest discovered and investigated human settlements. The explored caves are located in well-karstified limestones of the Cretaceous age as well as in younger Eocene limestones. This paper contains the data from the nine largest caves. Their total explored lengths range from a few tens of meters up to several hundred meters. Four caves are fossil, containing only percolated water, while %ve represent still hydrogeologically active features. Two of them have resulted from the dissolution of carbonate or evaporate rocks stimulated by water oversaturated in H2S which migrated from deeper oil-bearing structures.

Periodic breakthrough curve of tracer dye in the Gelodareh Spring, Zagros, Iran, 2009,
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Karimi, Haji And Javad Ashjari.
The Patagh Dam is under construction in the Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. The right abutment of the dam is located on Ilam-Sarvak limestone, which has the potential of karstification. This limestone is drained by several springs including Gelodareh Spring. In order to study possible leakage through the dam, a dye tracing test was organized in borehole PC208 near the dam. The recession coefficients and hydrochemical data of the Gelodareh Spring show that the flow regime of the area is of diffuse type. The dye appeared in the water samples from borehole PC206 and Gelodareh Spring, which are located downstream of the dam. This demonstrates a hydraulic connection between the injection well and these points. Therefore, there is the potential for seepage through the right abutment of the dam. The measured mean flow velocity to borehole PC206 (0.86 m/h) indicates a diffuse flow regime. The breakthrough curve of the Gelodareh Spring shows multiple peaks without significant tail except the last one. Additionally, the high flow velocity (11.8 m/h) is at odds with a diffuse flow regime. The ambiguous behaviour of the dye breakthrough curve of the Gelodareh Spring is explained by a combination of siphon and diffuse flow systems. Existence of a siphon flow system explains the multiple periodic peaks of the breakthrough curve and the lack of tails. The tail on the last peak is the result of diffuse flow system. A neck, close to the spring or the main conduit, which conveys water to the spring, might be causing the pseudo-steady state behaviour of spring discharge and diminishes the periodic discharge fluctuation, which is created by a siphon. It is probable that the siphon level is situated in the zone of water level fluctuation.

On the Temporal Behavior of Karst Aquifers, zagros Region, Iran: A Geostatistical Approach, 2009,
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Mohammadi Z. And Field M.
A geostatistical approach was used to study temporal structures in a time series of discharge and electrical conductivity (EC) in 15 karst springs from the Zagros mountain range, Iran. Two types of temporal behaviors, a periodic structure and nugget effect, plus one or two temporal structures, were identified and interpreted. These correspond to characteristics of karst systems, such as the catchment area, percent of conduit flow, and general degree of karst development. Springs were grouped into three categories based on their ranges (e.g., residence time) obtained by variogram analysis. The first group of springs include those that present the same temporal behaviour in variograms of discharge and EC. These springs are characterized by generally constant EC with increasing discharge suggesting the existence of a large underground reservoir. The second group of springs are those with varying temporal periodic behavior in variograms of discharge and EC. Positive correlation between discharge and EC values is themain characteristic of these springs and is interpreted to result from a piston-flow system in poorly developed karst aquifers. The third group of springs includes those that exhibit different temporal behaviors when compared with the periodic and non-periodic variograms. This group exhibits a negative correlation in scatterplots of discharge versus EC values suggesting a well-developed solution-conduit system that facilitates rapid response of the karst system to precipitation events. This studys results document the role of variogram analysis in delineating temporal structures of spring behaviors by means of time series of discharge and EC. Variogram analysis can be considered as a valuable tool for hydrogeological investigations in karstic terranes.

Conceptual modelling of brine flow into aquifers adjacent to the Konarsiah salt diapir, Iran, 2010,
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Zarei Mehdi, Raeisi Ezzat

The Konarsiah salt diapir is located in the Simply Folded Zone of the Zagros Mountain, south Iran. Salt,extruding from two vents along a fault, spreads downslope as a salt glacier over the adjacent formations. Eight small permanent brine springs emerge from the Konarsiah salt body, with average total dissolved solids of 327.3 g/L. The diapir is in direct contact with several aquifers, namely, the karstic Eastern and Western Sarvak, karstic Eastern Asmari, Firouzabad, Konarsiah Plain and Shour. It is also surrounded by a number of impermeable formations. The springs and seepage sections emerging from the aquifers adjacent to the diapir are unexpectedly saline or brackish. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, flow rate, temperature and major ion concentrations were measured monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at 37 sampling sites, including springs, surface waters, boreholes and wells.
The study indicates that the source of salinity of the adjacent aquifers is halite dissolution of the diapir. Conceptual models of groundwater flow are proposed for the adjacent karst aquifers based on the geological setting, water budget, local base of erosion, isotope data and the profile of the water table. The share of the diapir brine in the Eastern Sarvak aquifer, the Western aquifers (Sarvak, Asmari and Shour) and Konarsiah Plain are 1.8 L/s, 0.8 L/s and 9.1 L/s, respectively. Most of this brine ultimately releases into the Firouzabad River and changes the TDS of this river from 9.21 g/L to 11.61 g/L.
To drain the brine flowing into the Eastern Sarvak aquifer and hence reduce the aquifer's salinity it might be feasible to construct a qanat (a man-made underground gallery transferring groundwater to the surface by gravity) at the aquifer's contact with the Konarsiah diapir. To exploit the fresh karst water of the Western Sarvak aquifer before it is contaminated by the Konarsiah brine, several wells could be constructed well away from the diapir.


A dye-tracing investigation in the Poshte-Naz Karstic aquifer, Alburz Mountain, northern Iran, 2011,
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Kalantari N. , Mohammadi R.

The tracing technique has been recently used in karstified Zagros structural belt in northern Iran. A tracer study (uranine injection) was conducted in Jurassic limestone of the Poshte-Naz area in the Alborz belt to evaluate aquifer parameters and hydraulic relations between a large (about 100 m in diameter) sinkhole and springs. A main goal of the project was to find out the source of turbidity of the Emarate drinking water supply spring (SP4) in rainy seasons. Eight springs, three wells and the Neka River were selected for monitoring and totally 989 samples in 107 days were collected. In order to select reliable sampling stations, hydrochemical analysis of major ions was carried out and for better interpretation of concentration-time curve, spring discharge was also measured. The results of the tracing by sampling water indicated only a hydraulic connection between the injection point and the Sange-Nou spring (SP8) and, whereas the charcoal bags analysis revealed tracer exits also from spring SP1, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP8, in wells W1 and W2, and in the Neka River. This paper discuses concentration/time curves from charcoal bags for qualitative analysis and tracer exit curves for quantitative analysis.


Hypogene Processes of the Gypsum Beds in Sangaw Sinkholes, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq, 2011,
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Ameen, B. M.

The Sangaw region is located at the western part of Zagros orogenic belt at the boundary between Low and High Folded Zones, Sulaimani governorate in Kurdistan region. The area characterized by low amplitude folds that are trending northwest southeast and arranged in en echelon pattern. The exposed formations are Eocene Pila Spi (limestone), middle Miocene Fat`ha(lagoon) and Upper Fars (clastics) formations. Many large and small sinkholes are found around Ashdagh anticline; some of them about 50 m in diameter and about 30 m deep. Some are developed into complicated cave systems with collaps blocks and breccias in addition to narrow passages and fissures. The largest of them is located directly to the west of Darzilla village at the southeastern plunge of Ashdagh anticline. The sinkholes occur in Fat`ha and in the Pila Spi Formations. The walls of the sinkholes are covered by secondary gypsum, sulfur, bitumen and secondary calcite. Inside the cave collapse, breccias and blocks with lensoidal stratified clayey sediments as weathering product could be seen. The water is acidic (pH=4) inside the caves and discharges as large spring (200L/S) with white milky color; it is called in the local Kurdish language, “Awa Spi “which means white stream. The weathering of the carbonate rocks is intense inside the cave and appears as honeycombs and rills mark which have very rough surface with dull color. The sinkholes were produced from the dissolution of thick gypsum and limestone beds. The origin of these caves has been proposed to be hypogenic speleogenesis due to the presence of gypsum and bitumen. These materials with the aid of bacteria enrich the water with H2S which aciditfies the water and precipitates the sulfur and secondary gypsum on the cave wall. The formation of H2SO4 by oxidaton of H2S is the main reason that aid the sinkhole hypogene generation in Sangaw area. A realistic model is drawn to interpret and connect the following: 1- The stratigraphy and structure of the area encourage the generation of underground stagnant pond suitable for reacting with the emanating H2S necessary for the hypogene generation of the sinkholes and precipitation of secondary native sulfur and gypsum.2- dissolution of gypsum and its reduction by bacteria. 3- upward migration of bitumen from nearby oil traps(hydrocarbon accumulation).


Groundwater in the Arab Middle East , 2012,
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Wagner, Wolfgang

The region covering the Arabian Peninsula and the adjoining northern Arabian countries coincides approximately with a specific large geologic struCture: the Arabian Plate. Politically the region includes the countries of the Arabian Peninsula together with the northern Arab countries: AI Mashreq - the eastern part of the caliphate or of the Arab World. In a geographic political view the region may be denominated Arab Middle East (Ash Sharq al Awsat) or Western Asia.
The Arab Middle East with an area of 3.7 million lan2 forms a small subcontinent between the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, the Gulf and, in the north, the Zagros-Taurus mountain chains. About 90% of the region are semiarid to arid steppe or desert areas. As perennial rivers exist only in the northern and western margins of the Arab Middle East, the use of groundwater resources is an essential basis for the economic development and survival of the countries. The
region includes 12 Arab countries; water demand/supply previews indicaTe precarious siruations in the near future for mosu of these countries.
The idea ci compiling a book on "Groundwater in the Arab Middle East" arose from the professional activities of the author as hydrogeologist in the services of the German Government between 1965 and 1998, much of which was devoted to groundwater projectS in the Middle East. The information presented in the book is based on reviews of a large number of publications, reportS and documents as well as on field experience in various Arab countries.
The groundwater projects in the Middle East, in which the author had the
chance to panicipate, were carried out in the framework of Technical Cooperation between national or international institutions of the region and the Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR, Hannover, partly in connection with activities of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, GTZ, Eschbom. The projects were sponsored by the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Bonn. Regional information on groundwater conditions in the Middle East were obtained, in panicular, through long-term assigrunents of  the author to international institutions: The Arab Centre for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands of the Arab League (ACSAD), Damascus, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Amman and Beirut. 


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013,
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Koleini M. , Van Rooy J. L. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013,
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Koleini Mehran, Van Rooy Jan Louis, Bumby Adam

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality.


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013,
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Koleini M. , Louis J. , Rooy V. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


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