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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bubble gage is a stage recorder based on the principle of equating a gas pressure to water level [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for yugoslavia (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 32
Heavy metals in sediments_'problems concerning determination of the anthropogenic influence. Study in the Krka River estuary, eastern Adriatic coast, Yugoslavia, 1989, Prohi'_ Esad, Jura' I'_,

COMPARISON OF THE C-14 ACTIVITY OF GROUNDWATER AND RECENT TUFA FROM KARST AREAS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1989, Horvatincic N. , Srdoc D. , Silar J. , Tvrdikova H. ,
C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Description
Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

Contents
List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989
Imprint: ELSEVIER


Two new Niphargus species (Amphipoda) from caves in Yugoslavia., 1990, Karaman Gordan, Sket Boris
Niphargus numerus sp. n. from the Cavlinska pecina near Obrovac (Dalmatia) and N. factor sp. n. from Vjetrenica (Herzegovina) are described. Both new species from Yugoslav caves belong to the N. transitivus aggregate of species.

Influence of construction on hydrogeological and environmental conditions in the karst region, eastern Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, 1990, Milanovi'_ Petar,

KIMMERIDGIAN TITHONIAN EUSTACY AND ITS IMPRINTS ON CARBONATE ROCKS FROM THE DINARIC AND THE JURA CARBONATE PLATFORMS, 1991, Strohmenger C. , Deville Q. , Fookes E. ,
The Upper Jurassic stratigraphy and the facies development of the Dinaric carbonate platform of Slovenia (northwest Yugoslavia) are compared with the Jura carbonate platform of southern Jura (southeast France). The similar facies development between the two platforms during the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian, as well as a pronounced discontinuity in the same stratigraphical position (controlled by dasycladacean algae and/or ammonites), made it reasonable to correlate the two regions. This discontinuity is marked by a bauxite horizon and a karst breccia in south Slovenia (inner platform), and by a black-pebble conglomerate (inner platform) and a reef breccia (outer platform) in the southern Jura. These features are interpreted as type 1 sequence boundaries related to a global fall of sea level. In southern Jura, biostratigraphical elements situate the sequence boundary between the Eudoxus and the <> ( = Elegans) zones, most probably at the end of the Beckeri ( = Autissiodorensis) zone. Integrating this discontinuity into the eustatic sea level curve proposed by the Exxon group (version 3.1) is difficult because the only suitable sequence boundaries, SB 139 and SB 142, are respectively too young (younger than the <> zone) or too old (older than the Eudoxus zone). We therefore suggest to introduce a new sequence boundary within the upper part of the Beckeri zone which would correspond to a <> sequence boundary SB 140. The investigations further show that Clypeina jurassica FAVRE and Campbelliella striata (CAROZZI) BERNIER most likely appear in the Beckeri zone in the realm of the Jura carbonate platform. The same dasycladacean algae assemblage defines a cenozone identified as <> in Slovenia. It therefore seems possible to correlate the stratigraphic limit between <> and <> of the Dinaric carbonate platform with the beginning of the Beckeri zone

CONTRIBUTION TO THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN THE KARST-BAUXITE DEPOSITS OF YUGOSLAVIA AND GREECE, 1991, Maksimovic Z. , Panto G. ,
Distribution of the rare earth elements (REE, including La-Lu, Y) along vertical profiles is presented for four well-studied karst-bauxite deposits from Yugoslavia and Greece. For one deposit from Jamaica, La and Y contents are given. All deposits display a downward enrichment of the REE culminating at the base, where authigenic REE minerals have been formed. This REE pattern is characteristic for karst-bauxites formed in situ through the bauxitization of argillaceous material collected in karstic depressions. In this way, the highest enrichment of the REE in the sedimentary cycle has been achieved. Both light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) were 'mobile' during the bauxitization process and were concentrated at the alkaline barrier of the carbonate footwall. In four out of five studied deposits, the ratios SIGMA-LREE/SIGMA-HREE and La/Y in bauxites decrease downwards, showing an enrichment of the HREE relative to LREE. A further fractionation of the REE took place in the formation of authigenic REE minerals, which exhibit a very high enrichment of LREE relative to HREE. In spite of this, these minerals and bauxites in four studied deposits have a general similarity of the REE distribution patterns, which indicate a close genetic relationship

RHYTHMIC KARST SPRINGS, 1991, Bonacci O, Bojanic D,
Rhythmic springs (ebb and flow springs, intermittent springs, potajnice) belong to the group of springs which appear exclusively in karstified terrains. The paper describes various types of rhythmic springs and gives their classification. It also develops a mathematical model for the functioning of this type of springs based on the principle of recharge and emptying of the underground reservoir through siphon action. Applying this model, according to the observed hydrographs of some rythmic springs in Yugoslavia, the paper explains in detail the structure of the underground reservoir located in the karst

GEOCHEMICAL MAPPING OF CARBONATE TERRAINS, 1991, Pirc S. , Mcneal J. M. , Lenarcic T. , Prohic E. , Svrkota R. ,
Surface drainage samples, the usual media employed in mapping national territories, cannot be used for the geochemical mapping of carbonate terrains because of the absence of a regular surface-drainage pattern on karst. Suitable sampling media have been studied in Yugoslavia, one-third of which consists of karst terrain. Sampling designs for the work were based on analysis of variance techniques. During initial investigations of various sampling materials in northwest Yugoslavia sediment and aquatic moss from karst springs, along with soil, were established as the most appropriate media. Modified sampling procedures were then carefully applied along the entire Yugoslav karst belt, which includes terrains of contrasting topography, climate, pedology and vegetation. The studies indicate that climate and relief do not systematically influence the geochemical composition of soil. Regional and local variability was assessed for 21 chemical elements and the feasibility of producing stable regional geochemical maps was determined for a number of elements on the basis of sampling aquatic moss and sediment from karst springs and soil

HYDROLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF THE FLOW IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE CRNOJEVICA SPRING, 1993, Bonacci O, Zivaljevic R,
This paper deals with various methods of solving the complex problems of the hydrological transformation of rainfall into runoff in karst terrains. As an example of a typical karst catchment, the Crnojevica spring, located in deep Dinaric karst, is used to illustrate, explain and solve several hydrological problems in karst. The introduction deals with the geographical, geological and meteorological factors which conditioned a specific system of surface and underground flows, typical for karst terrains. The paper also explains some basic activities related to the identification of such a system. Special attention has been paid to the karst terrain of the Cetinje polje and its flooding, which occurred in February 1986. This flood initiated numerous intensive investigations which made it possible to define the catchment area of Crnojevica spring and the volume of the underground karst reservoir

BRIEF COMMUNICATION - ADDITIONAL CRANIAL REMAINS FROM VINDIJA-CAVE, CROATIA, 1994, Smith F. H. , Ahern J. C. ,
Two additional cranial specimens from Vindija cave, Croatia, are described. One specimen is a zygomatic, providing the first information about the midfacial anatomy of the Vindija hominids. The other specimen is a frontal/supraorbital torus fragment. Both specimens exhibit morphology typically associated with Neandertals. They derive from level G, and provide further indication that both the level G, and G, hominids at Vindija represent Neandertals. (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc

An example of identifying karst groundwater flow, 1998, Stevanovic Z. , Dragisic V. ,
Hydrogeological investigations for the purpose of regulating the karst aquifer were carried out in the mountain massif of Kucaj in the Carpatho-Balkan range of eastern Serbia. Different geo-physical methods were applied in order to identify the position of karstified zones with active circulation of karst underground streams. Especially good results were obtained by using the spontaneous potential method for the exploration and construction of boreholes and wells. In the valleys of Crni Timok and Radovanska reka the measurements have been carried out upstream along the whole width of the alluvium to the limestone periphery. A number of positive and negative anomalies have been recorded. In the centres of positive anomalies several boreholes were located: HG-19 (centre of anomaly 30 mV, total length of the biggest cavern is 9 m); HG-1 ( mV, cavern of 2m); HG-15 (max, ? mV, effective cavernousness is 17%)

The environmental impacts of human activities and engineering constructions in karst regions, 2002, Milanovic P. ,
With increasing demands on water resources in karst regions, an important issue is how to keep the balance between the necessity for development and preservation of complex and unpredictable hydrogeological systems. Karst terrains have been modified and adapted through a range of human activities as needs for drinking water, hydroelectric power and other resources increase. In many regions, reclamation projects, construction of large dams and reservoirs, deep underground excavations and complex foundation structures have had a detrimental impact on the environment. However, because each karst region is unique, the nature of environmental change is unpredictable, often occurs very rapidly, and similar situations are seldom, if ever, repeated. Changes in karst function can have a profound impact on regional ecological, infrastructure, social and political systems. The majority of impacts can be foreseen and mitigated by appropriate designs. Ecological and environmental protection is more difficult when the changes are unexpected and source of problem is some distance from the impacted area. Optimal environmental protection requires a multidisciplinary approach, a lot of patience and perseverance, and adequate funds. Legal aspects and insurability are also very important basic elements in karst environmental protection. Criteria for determining the environmental protection, as well as regulatory procedures that are applicable for nonkarst regions are generally not suitable for karst terrain. Successful solutions require serious and complex geological/hydrogeological investigation programs and close co-operation of a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers: geologists, civil engineers, biologists, chemists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists, sociologists and many others. In karst areas where interrelations and interactions are inadequately known, the ultimate aim is identification of crucial parameters that define causes and consequences between human activities and the resulting impact (cause-and-effect relations). As a consequence of human activities and engineering construction in karst regions, the common negative environmental impacts are: severe spring discharge change, groundwater quality deterioration, endemic fauna endangering, waste disposal failures, induced seismicity, induced sinkholes, and a number of different secondary uncertainties. In some cases, socio-economic problems related to migration from submerged regions are very pronounced. Similar problems are related with flooding of cultural and historical monuments and natural rarities. The major aims of proper planning of water resource systems in karst terrain are to minimize negative and to maximize positive environmental impacts. The optimal strategy of water resources development in karst areas is a key requirement for regional socio-economic development

Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology, 2003, Kunaver, Jurij

The stage of the scientific terminology is by all means one of the indicators of the development of the scientific branch, to which it belongs. Therefore the publishing of the Slovene karst terminology in 1973 was an important event for further development of Slovene karstology. Still more, the efforts for a comparative national karst terminologies of former common state Yugoslavia were successfully achieved in publishing the Serbian and Croatian karst terminology also, a year later. In fact, the former Association of the geographical societies of Yugoslavia decided to give full support to its subcommission in preparing the project Karst terminology of the Yugoslave nations and to a joint Yugoslave symposium on Karst terminology, held in Ljubljana from 22-23th October 1971, both guided and organised by prof. Ivan Gams, who was also the original initiator of this idea. All this efforts were newertheless combined and connected with the international work of that time to find most appropriate terms and definitions for the karst phenomena and to make them comparable in terms of national terminologies. Ivan Gams was therefore not only a most important promoter of the Slovene karst terminology and one of the leading persons of the scientific karstology in the time concerned but was due to his global ideas also one of the central persons in the international karstology.


Evolution of the Adriatic carbonate platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics, 2005, Vlahovic I. , Tisljar J. , Velic I. , Maticec D. ,
The Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP) is one of the largest Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Perimediterranean region. Its deposits comprise a major part of the entire carbonate succession of the Croatian Karst (External or Outer) Dinarides, which is very thick (in places more than 8000 m), and ranges in age from the Middle Permian (or even Upper Carboniferous) to the Eocene. However, only deposits ranging from the top of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) to the top of the Cretaceous can be attributed to the AdCP (defined as an isolated palaeogeographical entity). Although the entire carbonate succession of the Karst Dinarides was deposited within carbonate platform environments, there were different types of carbonate platforms located in different palaeogeographical settings. Carboniferous to Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposits were accumulated along the Gondwanian margin, on a spacious epeiric carbonate platform. After tectonic activity, culminating by regional Middle Triassic volcanism recorded throughout Adria (the African promontory), a huge isolated carbonate Southern Tethyan Megaplatform (abbreviated as STM) was formed, with the area of the future AdCP located in its inner part. Tectonic disintegration of the Megaplatform during the middle to late Early Jurassic resulted in the establishment of several carbonate platforms (including the Adriatic, Apenninic and Apulian) separated by newly drowned deeper marine areas (including the Adriatic Basin as a connection between the Ionian and Belluno basins, Lagonero, Basin, and the area of the Slovenian and Bosnian troughs). The AdCP was characterised by predominantly shallow-marine deposition, although short or long periods of emergence were numerous, as a consequence of the interaction of synsedimentary tectonics and eustatic changes. Also, several events of temporary platform drowning were recorded, especially in the Late Cretaceous, when synsedimentary tectonics became stronger, leading up to the final disintegration of the AdCP. The thickness of deposits formed during the 125 My of the AdCP's existence is variable (between 3500 and 5000 m). The end of AdCP deposition was marked by regional emergence between the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene. Deposition during the Palaeogene was mainly controlled by intense synsedimentary tectonic deformation of the former platform area-some carbonates (mostly Eocene in age) were deposited on irregular ramp type carbonate platforms surrounding newly formed flysch basins, and the final uplift of the Dinarides reached its maximum in the Oligocene/Miocene. The Adriatic Carbonate Platform represents a part (although a relatively large and well-preserved one) of the broader shallow-water carbonate platform that extended from NE Italy to Turkey (although its continuity is somewhat debatable in the area near Albanian/Greece boundary). This large carbonate body, which was deformed mostly in the Cenozoic (including a significant reduction of its width), needs a specific name, and the Central Mediterranean Carbonate Platform is proposed (abbreviated to CMCP), although the local names (such as AdCP for its NW part) should be kept to enable easier communication, and to facilitate description of local differences in platform evolution,

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