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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That doline lake is a small karst lake occupying a doline or closed depression in limestone. the term implies that the doline is at or near the ground-water table and in hydrological continuity with it, or that the base of the doline is sealed with an impermeable layer such as clay [20]. see also sinkhole pond. synonyms: (french.) lac de doline; (german.) dolinensee; (greek.) limni dholina; (italian.) lago di dolina, lago carsico; (russian.) karstovoe ozero; (spanish.) dolina laguna, torca laguna; (turkish.) obruk golu; (yugoslavian.) krsko jezero, krasko jezero.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for regions (Keyword) returned 380 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 380
Comparative Morphogenetic Study of Karst Regions in Tropical and Temperate Areas, 1973,
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Balazs D.

The British Speleological Expedition to Ethiopia, 1972 : Caves of the Rift Valley and Volcanic Regions, 1973,
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Morton W. H.

A new cavernicolous species of the Pseudoscorpion Genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones) from the Balkan peninsula., 1973,
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Curcic Bozidar P. M.
Roncus (Parablothrus) pljakici, a new species of cave living pseudoscorpions, is described from the cave 'Pecina u selu Vrelo' on Mt. Stara Planina, East Serbia. The problem of its taxonomic position in the subgenus is discussed. The new species is the first representative of Parablothrus to be found in Serbia. It seems possible that R. (P..) pljakici represents an endemic species, specialized for a cavernicolous way of living. The analogies of this and other species of the subgenus point to some similar phenomena which occur in other genera of Balkan false scorpions (Curcic 1972). In all these cases, a close relationship among the species inhabiting East Serbia, Macedonia and Herzegovina was noticed. It is probable, therefore, that the three regions represent the autochthonous areas of the original populations of the analysed groups of species, out of which new species came into existence.

Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973,
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Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

A new cavernicolous species of the Pseudoscorpion Genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones) from the Balkan peninsula., 1973,
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Curcic Bozidar P. M.
Roncus (Parablothrus) pljakici, a new species of cave living pseudoscorpions, is described from the cave 'Pecina u selu Vrelo' on Mt. Stara Planina, East Serbia. The problem of its taxonomic position in the subgenus is discussed. The new species is the first representative of Parablothrus to be found in Serbia. It seems possible that R. (P..) pljakici represents an endemic species, specialized for a cavernicolous way of living. The analogies of this and other species of the subgenus point to some similar phenomena which occur in other genera of Balkan false scorpions (Curcic 1972). In all these cases, a close relationship among the species inhabiting East Serbia, Macedonia and Herzegovina was noticed. It is probable, therefore, that the three regions represent the autochthonous areas of the original populations of the analysed groups of species, out of which new species came into existence.

Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973,
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Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

Karst; important karst regions of the Northern Hemisphere [book review], 1973,
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Geze B,

Hydrological and Ecological Problems of Karst Regions, 1973,
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Legrand H. E. ,

Lethargy in the cavernicolous Chiroptera in Central Africa., 1976,
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De Faveaux Michel Anciaux
From his personal research undertaken in the subterranean field (natural and artificial cavities) in Shaba (ex-Katanga, in S.E. Zaire) and Rwanda, the author briefly defines the macroclimate of the prospected regions as well as the microclimate of the subterranean habitat (humidity and temperature). A reversible hypothermia has been noticed in the dry season only (from May till August) in eleven species of troglophile Chiroptera belonging to the following families: Rhinolophidae (7 species of Rhinolophus), Hipposideridae (only Hipposideros ruber) and Vespertilionidae (Miniopterus inflatus rufus, Miniopterus schreibersi arenarius & M.s. natalensis, Myotis tricolor). No sign of lethargy has been noticed in the Megachiroptera (Lissonycteris angolensis, Rousettus aegyptiacus leachi), Emballonuridae (Taphozous perforatus sudani), Hipposideridae (Cloeotis percivali australis) or Nycteridae (3 species of Nycteris). There could be correlations between lethargy and breeding if one takes into account the phenomena of late ovulation and delayed implantation. The entry into lethargy is not caused by the scarcity of food. It does not concern all the individuals of a colony or in various populations of a cave. The degree of humidity appears to be more important than the temperature as far as the conditions for hibernation are concerned.

The vertical distribution of stygorhithral ciliates in the Fulda-River (Contribution to the knowledge of mesopsammal ciliates in running freshwater)., 1976,
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Lupkes Gunther
19 species of ciliates were found in interstitial biotopes of the Fulda Headwater. Two of these were new: Haplocaulus hengsti, n.sp. and Epistylis rotti, n.sp. (Peritrichida). The number of ciliate species decreases from the surface down so deeper layers; in a depth of 50 cm, only three species were found: Haplocaulus hengsti and Epistylis rotti and another small ciliate Trachelophyllum apiculatum. There was little detritus in this layer, and so, the abundance of the ciliates was low. On the other hand, there is little predation in deeper layers of stygorhithral sand and gravel. Small, long and thin ciliates seem so be specially adapted to life in deeper regions of the stygornithral Stygorhithral ciliates are related to custygal species with respect to several characteristics of their morphology and general biology.

The adaptations to volvation of the external cephalic skeleton of Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus, a subterranean waters Isopod., 1976,
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Marvillet Claude
The study of the cephalic capsule of Caecosphaeroma burgundum, a subterranean waters Isopod, demonstrates improved adaptations to volvation; these concern in a similar manner the other regions of the body, particularly the pleotelson. From a primitive aquatic Isopod structure, the head of this blind Spheromid has been completely fashioned by many mechanical factors: posterior margin of pleotelson providing support on the head, relation of anterior angles of the second pereionit and, above all, the mandibular palps and antennae which retract into two deep grooves of the face. The comparative study of the head of other volvational Isopods shows the importance of that "antennary factor", e.g. in Oniscoids, epigean Spheromids and some other subterranean waters Isopods (two Spheromids and one Cirolanid). This comparison shows that Caecosphaeroma burgundum is certainly the most specialized of all; it approaches perfection in volvation for it is the only one which rolls up into a hermetic sphere without outwards projections. Volvation seems to play a two-fold role. It is a mean of defence against predators used by single specimens and by copulating pairs, males and females being then associated in two concentric spheres. Furthermore, it is a very important way for passive dissemination allowing settlement of these Crustacea in distant subterranean waters.

The effect of cave entrances on the distribution of cave-inhabiting terrestrial Arthropods., 1976,
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Peck Stewart B.
Populations of cave invertebrates are generally considered to be food-limited. The cave entrance is a major source of food input into the community in the form of decaying organic matter. Thus, the densities of scavenging terrestrial cave invertebrates should be related to the distance from the cave entrance because this represents a measure of food abundance. A test showed this expectation to be true in Crossings Cave, Alabama. A population density peak occurred 10 m inside the cave where the dark zone and detritus infall regions meet. The greatest population peak occurred at 100 m where densities of crickets and their guano are highest. The pattern should hold for most caves, but the actual distances will vary in each site depending on its circumstances. When the fauna was removed from the cave, the remnant had not regained community equilibrium a year later. Removal of the dominant scavenger, a milliped, allowed other species populations to expand because of decreased competitions.

Process, landforms and climate in limestone regions, 1976,
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Smith D. L. , Atkinson T. C.

Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


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