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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That effluent stream is see gaining stream.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for representation (Keyword) returned 40 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 40
Composite transfer functions for karst aquifers, 2003, Icjukic V. , Jukic D. ,
Linear transfer functions have been extensively used in hydrological studies. Generally, we support this conclusion: rainfall-runoff models based on the convolution between rainfall rates and a nonparametric transfer function (NTF) are not successful at simulating karst spring discharges during long recession periods. The tails of identified transfer functions have irregular shapes and they are not accurate physical representation of the transport through a karst system. Irregularities are the result of unavoidable errors in input and output time series and simplifications made by considering the system as linear and time invariant. This paper deals with a new form of the transfer functions for karst aquifers, the so-called composite transfer function (CTF). The CTF simulates discharges by two transfer functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow hydrograph component modeling. NTF is responsible for the quick flow component. The slow flow component is modeled by a parametric transfer function that is an instantaneous unit hydrograph mathematically formulated and defined from a conceptual model. By using the CTF, the irregular shape of the tail of the identified transfer function can be avoided, and the simulation of long recession periods as well as the simulation of a complete hydrograph becomes more successful. The NTF, the Nash model, the Zoch model and other similar conceptual models can be considered separately as simplified forms of the CTF. The rainfall-runoff model based on the convolution between rainfall rates and the CTF was tested on the Jadro Spring in Croatia. The results of the application are compared with the results obtained by applying NTFs independently. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Simulation of the development of karst aquifers using a coupled continuum pipe flow model - art. no. 1057, 2003, Liedl R. , Sauter M. , Huckinghaus D. , Clemens T. , Teutsch G. ,
[1] This paper is intended to provide insight into the controlling mechanisms of karst genesis based on an advanced modeling approach covering the characteristic hydraulics in karst systems, the dissolution kinetics, and the associated temporal decrease in flow resistance. Karst water hydraulics is strongly governed by the interaction between a highly conductive low storage conduit network and a low-conductive high-storage rock matrix under variable boundary conditions. Only if this coupling of flow mechanisms is considered can an appropriate representation of other relevant processes be achieved, e.g., carbonate dissolution, transport of dissolved solids, and limited groundwater recharge. Here a parameter study performed with the numerical model Carbonate Aquifer Void Evolution (CAVE) is presented, which allows the simulation of the genesis of karst aquifers during geologic time periods. CAVE integrates several important features relevant for different scenarios of karst evolution: (1) the complex hydraulic interplay between flow in the karst conduits and in the small fissures of the rock matrix, (2) laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions, (3) time-dependent and nonuniform recharge to both flow systems, (4) the widening of the conduits accounting for appropriate physicochemical relationships governing calcite dissolution kinetics. This is achieved by predefining an initial network of karst conduits ('protoconduits'') which are allowed to grow according to the amount of aggressive water available due to hydraulic boundary conditions. The increase in conduit transmissivity is associated with an increase in conduit diameters while the conductivity of the fissured system is assumed to be constant in time. The importance of various parameters controlling karst genesis is demonstrated in a parameter study covering the recharge distribution, the upgradient boundary conditions for the conduit system, and the hydraulic coupling between the conduit network and the rock matrix. In particular, it is shown that conduit diameters increase in downgradient or upgradient direction depending on the spatial distribution (local versus uniform) of the recharge component which directly enters the conduit system

A frequency domain approach to groundwater recharge estimation in karst, 2004, Jukic D. , Icjukic V. ,
This paper presents an alternative method for determining the values of parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The phreatic zone of a karst aquifer is considered as the linear and time-invariant filter that transforms the input signal of groundwater recharge rates into the output signal of spring discharges. Similarities between transfer functions of total rainfall rates and transfer functions of groundwater recharge rates are the basis for developing the parametric periodogram depending on parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The values of parameters are estimated by minimizing the differences between the parametric periodogram and a periodogram of spring discharges. The approximate Whittle log likelihood function is the criterion for determining the optimal values of the parameters. By using this frequency domain approach, groundwater-balance calculations are avoided so the method can be applied on unexplored karst aquifers when groundwater-balance cannot be achieved without extensive geologic and hydrogeologic investigations. The results of the applications on two springs located in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

High-accuracy graphic representation of underground karst features and formations during cave mapping, 2004, Szunyogh Gá, Bor

We attempt to develop a new method of cave mapping, which would be superior in terms of the amount and quality of the documented information, relative to the "standard" methods of cave survey. The method envisages that everything that can be seen in the cave which is being surveyed, e.g., corrosional features, cave formations, water bodies, fallen rock blocks, fractures in cave walls, artificial (engineering) structures, etc., must be represented on the map. The method employs the traditional system of map symbols; the accuracy of the produced map, however, approaches the accuracy of the engineering survey maps. The maps accurately render positions, shapes and dimensions of cave features: for example all stalagmites with diameters greater than ca. 10 cm, and all rock blocks with linear sizes exceeding 0.5 m are shown on the maps individually. In the report we will elaborate on the most important aspects of this mapping method, including stages of survey and mapping, system of drawing, map symbols.


Test of a distributed modelling approach to predict flood flows in the karst Suoimuoi catchment in Vietnam, 2005, Liu Y. B. , Batelaan O. , De Smedt F. , Huong N. T. , Tam V. T. ,
The major obstacles for modelling flood processes in karst areas are a lack of understanding and model representations of the distinctive features and processes associated with runoff generation and often a paucity of field data. In this study, a distributed flood-modelling approach, WetSpa, is modified and applied to simulate the hydrological features and processes in the karst Suoimuoi catchment in northwest Vietnam. With input of topography, land use and soil types in a GIS format, the model is calibrated based on 15 months of hourly meteorological and hydrological data, and is used to Simulate both fast surface and conduit flows, and groundwater discharges from karst and non-karst aquifers. Considerable variability in the simulation accuracy is found among storm events and within the catchment. The simulation results show that the model is able to represent reasonably well the stormflows generated by rainfall events in the study catchment

Empirical study of conduit radial cross-section determination and representation methods on cavernous limestone porosity characterization, 2006, Sasowsky I. D. , Bishop M. R.
Radial cross sections are constructed during cave mapping in order to illustrate karst groundwater conduit (cave passage) morphology. These sections can also be employed in studies of porosity distribution and paleohydrology. Cave surveyors usually estimate left, right, up, and down (LRUD) distances from a survey station to the conduit wall, and these four values are used to construct the radial cross section, and occasionally integrated along the length of the passage to determine cave volume. This study evaluates the potential errors caused by LRUD estimation, as well as the effects of differing geometric approximations of passage shape. Passage dimensions at 18 stations of diverse size and morphology in Scott Hollow Cave, West Virginia were first estimated for LRUD and then precisely surveyed using a laser rangefinder taking 16 radial measurements. Results show that, depending upon the purpose of a survey, a reasonable approximation of passage shape might be made with fewer (four or eight) measurements. In cases where only four lengths are determined, approximation of the passage as an ellipse or rectangle provides a more accurate morphology and area than if portrayed as a quadrilateral. In the former case, average area errors were on the order of 10%, as opposed to -45% in the latter. Surveyor estimates of LRUD give an average overestimate of 27%. Length errors compound, however, when areas are calculated. This results in an average cross-section area error (as quadrilateral) of 57% when using estimates instead of measurements. This may be problematic for such analyses as calculation of fluid storage volumes or paleodischarges.

Historical biogeography of subterranean beetles Platos cave or scientific evidence?, 2007, Moldovan O. T. , Rajka G.

The last two decades were particularly prolific in historical biogeography because of new information introduced from other sciences, such as paleogeography, by the development of quantitative methods and by molecular phylogeny. Subterranean beetles represent an excellent object of study for historical biogeography because they are the group with the best representation in the subterranean domain. In addition, species have reduced mobility, display different degrees of adaptations to life in caves and many specialists work on this group. Three processes have shaped the present distribution of the tribe Leptodirini (Coleoptera Cholevinae) in the world: dispersal, vicariance, and extinction. Therefore, three successive stages can be established in the space-time evolution of Leptodirini: (1) dispersal from a center of origin in the present area(s); (2) dispersal, extinction and vicariance among the present area(s); and (3) colonization and speciation in the subterranean domain. The Romanian Leptodirini, especially those from Western Carpathians is examined with respect to these processes. Their pattern of distribution in different massifs and at different altitudes is discussed, with possible explanations from a historical biogeographic point of view.


NON-SPECIALISTS PERCEPTION ABOUT ENDOKARST AND EXOKARST SCENARIOS: VISIONS FROM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, 2007, Travasos L. E. P. , Travassos E. G. , Travassos L. P. , Travassos L. C. P.

The aim of this work is to recover some methodological aspects of the study about the mind representations of caves in Brazil. The basis of this research consisted of one essay, approaching the social representations of a particular group of high school students on the exokarst and the endokarst. The results showed that the meanings vary only slightly, however, the most inter­esting result was due to the fact that students, who had already visited caves in some period of their lives, still held “negative” concepts regarding this environment even before visual stimu­lations. About 640 words associated with the exokarst and the endokarst were mentioned, emphasizing: fear, dark, shadowy, skull, hidden places, fantastic and beauty, which helped iden­tifying relations between the cultural and psychological as­pects of the group, mainly general views about the obscure and mysterious aspects of this landscape and its prominence over natural beauties. Analyzed data showed that the development of new research on mind representations of caves is very impor­tant, mainly for environmental education programs promoting adequate concepts about caves and extending activities of edu­cational ecotourism in Brazilian caves.


Enhanced Characterization and Representation of Flow through Karst Aquifers S. L. Painter, A. Sun, and R. Green. BOOK REVIEW, 2009, Sauter, Martin


System nature of karst landscape, 2009, Andreychouk V. N.

Karst landscapes are highly specific. The presence of underground cavities and caves makes them three-dimensional, extends the vertical dimension, and causes their inner structure (both vertical and functional) to be more complicated as compared with “plain” non-karstic landscapes. In “ordinary” landscapes lateral material-energy interactions are of greater importance. In contrast, vertical interactions dominate in karst landscapes.

The paper considers karst landscape as a geosystem composed of two subsystems - surface and underground. Its structure (vertical and horizontal) is described, as well as functional and dynamic peculiarities, specificity of self-regulation (buffer and adaptive mechanisms). Peculiarities of self-development and the reasons of physiognomic autonomisation of karst landscapes (within the neighbouring landscapes) are discussed. Author suggests that karst landscapes can be studied more effectively by using of system methodology (system approach) and system methods (system analysis). Representation of karst landscape as complex natural system and appropriate organization of studies allow clarifying many holistic properties of karst landscapes regarding their structure, dynamics, development, evolution, mechanisms of self-regulation etc.


Arches: a Framework for Modeling Complex Terrains, 2009,

In this paper, we present a framework for representing complex terrains with such features as overhangs, arches and caves and including different materials such as sand and rocks. Our hybrid model combines a volumetric discrete data structure that stores the different materials and an implicit representation for sculpting and reconstructing the surface of the terrain. Complex scenes can be edited and sculpted interactively with high level tools. We also propose an original rock generation technique that enables us to automatically generate complex rocky sceneries with piles of rocks without any computationally demanding physically-based simulation.


Water exchange and pressure transfer between conduits and matrix and their influence on hydrodynamics of two karst aquifers with sinking streams, 2010, Baillycomte Vincent, Martin Jonathan B. , Jourde Hervé, , Screaton Elizabeth J. , Pistre Sé, Verin, Langston Abigail

Karst aquifers are heterogeneous media where conduits usually drain water from lower permeability volumes (matrix and fractures). For more than a century, various approaches have used flood recession curves, which integrate all hydrodynamic processes in a karst aquifer, to infer physical properties of the movement and storage of groundwater. These investigations typically only consider flow to the conduits and thus have lacked quantitative observations of how pressure transfer and water exchange between matrix and conduit during flooding could influence recession curves.

We present analyses of simultaneous discharge and water level time series of two distinctly different karst systems, one with low porosity and permeability matrix rocks in southern France, and one with high porosity and permeability matrix rocks in north-central Florida (USA). We apply simple mathematical models of flood recession using time series representations of recharge, storage, and discharge processes in the karst aquifer. We show that karst spring hydrographs can be interpreted according to pressure transfer between two distinct components of the aquifer, conduit and matrix porosity, which induce two distinct responses at the spring. Water exchange between conduits and matrix porosity successively control the flow regime at the spring. This exchange is governed by hydraulic head differences between conduits and matrix, head gradients within conduits, and the contrast of permeability between conduits and matrix. These observations have consequences for physical interpretations of recession curves and modeling of karst spring flows, particularly for the relative magnitudes of base flow and quick flow from karst springs. Finally, these results suggest that similar analyses of recession curves can be applied to karst aquifers with distinct physical characteristics utilizing well and spring hydrograph data, but information must be known about the hydrodynamics and physical properties of the aquifer before the results can be correctly interpreted.


Laser Scanning Technology for the Hypogean Survey: the case of Santa Barbara Karst System (Sardinia, Italy), 2011, Canevese Erminio Paolo, Forti Paolo , Naseddu Angelo, Ottelli Luciano, Tedeschi Roberta

The morphological knowledge of the territory, both in its surface and subterranean aspects, is the main premise to all decision-making procedures as well as all planning and management activities. Knowledge takes shape into reliable precise and complete thematic cartography and databases, which are necessary for anybody dealing with underground contexts: speleologists, scientists, public administrations, managing authorities etc.
Surveys in caves are normally carried out with traditional techniques and instruments, which are essential for a first representation but not enough for a pragmatic effective topographic approach. Laser scanning technique can be an alternative to the traditional systems. Laser scanning quickly acquires the shape of cavities as “point clouds” (x, y, z coordinates and colour values) and produces a high precision database of the surveyed object. Laser scanning technology is therefore a feasible way to document caves in a precise exhaustive way, limiting risks relating to lack and/or inadequacy of data.
The present paper explains the laser scanning survey carried out in San Giovanni mine near Iglesias (Sardinia, Italy), particularly in Santa Barbara and Santa Barbara 2 caves, the data post-processing and three-dimensional modelling of “point clouds” (operations performed with a dedicated software), and
the use of the obtained digital model. Moreover, the paper describes
the advantages of laser scanning for the hypogean survey
in comparison to traditional methods and the future potentialities
of a broad application of laser scanning instruments
in caves.


The Cupcake: a preliminary report on bones found during the excavation of a shaft on Leck Fell, UK , 2011, Thorp, J. A.

Recent excavation work in a shaft known as The Cupcake on Leck Fell in northeast Lancashire, United Kingdom, has produced an interesting assemblage of ancient bones. All the animals represented are of wild species, aurochs (Bos primigenius), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus), and badger (Meles meles). The bones were found at a depth of 8m, with the aurochs uppermost. Skeletal remains of several wild boars lay beneath, with a depth hiatus, suggesting a possible earlier depositional sequence. Differences in the state of preservation of the bones are notable. Bones in the centre of the shaft, in a damp environment, were the worst preserved, whereas the best preserved wild boar skull was recovered from a dry undercut on the southeast side. The lack of domestic species points to an early Holocene skeletal assemblage. Whole body representation suggests these animals died by falling down the shaft accidentally, while browsing on scrub concealing the entranc


The significance of turbulent flow representation in single-continuum models, 2011, Reimann T. , Rehrl C. , Shoemaker W. B. , Geyer T. , Birk S.

Karst aquifers evolve where the dissolution of soluble rocks causes the enlargement of discrete pathways along fractures or bedding planes, thus creating highly conductive solution conduits. To identify general interrelations between hydrogeological conditions and the properties of the evolving conduit systems the aperture-size frequency distributions resulting from generic models of conduit evolution are analysed. For this purpose, a process-based numerical model coupling flow and rock dissolution is employed. Initial protoconduits are represented by tubes with log-normally distributed aperture sizes with a mean ?0 = 0.5 mm for the logarithm of the diameters. Apertures are spatially uncorrelated and widen up to the metre range due to dissolution by chemically aggressive waters. Several examples of conduit development are examined focussing on influences of the initial heterogeneity and the available amount of recharge. If the available recharge is sufficiently high the evolving conduits compete for flow and those with large apertures and high hydraulic gradients attract more and more water. As a consequence, the positive feedback between increasing flow and dissolution causes the breakthrough of a conduit pathway connecting the recharge and discharge sides of the modelling domain. Under these competitive flow conditions dynamically stable bimodal aperture distributions are found to evolve, i.e. a certain percentage of tubes continues to be enlarged while the remaining tubes stay small-sized. The percentage of strongly widened tubes is found to be independent of the breakthrough time and decreases with increasing heterogeneity of the initial apertures and decreasing amount of available water. If the competition for flow is suppressed because the availability of water is strongly limited breakthrough of a conduit pathway is inhibited and the conduit pathways widen very slowly. The resulting aperture distributions are found to be unimodal covering some orders of magnitudes in size. Under these suppressed flow conditions the entire range of apertures continues to be enlarged. Hence, the number of tubes reaching aperture sizes in the order of centimetres or decimetres continues to increase with time and in the long term may exceed the number of large-sized tubes evolving under competitive flow conditions. This suggests that conduit development under suppressed flow conditions may significantly enhance the permeability of the formation, e.g. in deep-seated carbonate settings.


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