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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That potential evapotranspiration is evapotranspiration occurring under adequate soilmoisture supply at all times for given temperature and humidity conditions [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for glaciers (Keyword) returned 45 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 45
Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada, 1997, Ford Dc,
Outcrops of sulfate arid mixed sulfate-carbonate rocks are common everywhere in Canada outside of the Shield province. Interstratal salt deposits are abundant in the interior lowlands. Types of karst that occur are determined chiefly by relations between (i) formation thickness and purity, (ii) regional topography and hydraulic gradient (iii) effects of receding Wisconsinan and earlier glaciers, and (iv) extent of modern permafrost. Exposures of bare karst on thick, pure sulfate formations are comparatively rare. Two principal landform types found on them are: (1) high-density polygonal karst (micro-sinkhole densities of thousands per km(2)); where hydraulic gradients are high and tills are thin; (2) hills and ridges of blocks uplifted and fractured by hydration (anhydrite) tectonics at paleo-icefront positions where hydraulic gradients are low. Deeply till-mantled karst dominated by collapse and suffosion sinkholes in the mantling detritus is well developed in southwestern Newfoundland and in central and northern Nova Scotia. Covered karst is abundant on sulfates conformably overlain by carbonate br elastic strata; collapse sinkholes ale the principal landform. Very large breccia pipes (up to 25 x 15 km) ale associated with deep subrosion of salt during glacier recessions. Syngenetic breccia karst is a fourth, distinct category created in some formations of thin, interbedded dolostones and sulfates. Where these are exposed td high hydraulic gradients, deep calcite-cemented breccias were formed in a first generation, upon which sinkhole and pinnacle karsts and dissolution drape topographies were able to develop rapidly in late-glacial and post-glacial conditions

Rapport entre karst et glaciers durant les glaciations dans les valles pralpines du sud des Alpes, 1998, Bini Alfredo, Tognini Paola, Zuccoli Luisa
At least 13 glaciations occurred during the last 2.6Ma in the Southern pre_alpine valleys. The glaciers scouring alpine and pre-alpine valleys had all the same feature, being valley temperated glaciers. Their tracks and feeding areas were always the same, just like the petrological contents of their deposits. Contrary to previous assumptions until a few years ago, the origin of these valleys and of the lakes occupying the floor of some of them (Orta, Maggiore, Como, Iseo, Garda Lakes) is due to fluvial erosion related to Messinian marine regression. The valley slopes modelling is Messinian in age, too, while most caves are older. As a general rule, glaciers worked on valley slopes just as a re_modelling agent, while their effects were greater on valley floors. The karstic evolution began as soon as the area was lifted above sea level (upper Oligocene - lower Miocene), in a palaeogeographical environment quite different from the present one, although the main valley floors were already working as a base level. During Messinian age, the excavation of deep canyons along pre-existing valleys caused a dramatic lowering of the base level, followed by a complete re-arrangement of the karstic networks, which got deeper and deeper. The Pliocene marine transgression caused a new re-arrangement, the karst network getting mostly drowned under sea level. During these periods, the climate was hot-wet tropical, characterised by a great amount of water circulating during the wet season. At the same time tectonic upliftings were at work, causing breaking up of the karst networks and a continuous rearrangement of the underground drainage system. In any case, karstic networks were already well developed long before the beginning of Plio-Quaternary glaciations. During glaciations, karst systems in pre-alpine valleys could have been submitted to different drainage conditions, being: a) isolated, without any glacial water flowing; b) flooded, connected to the glacier water-filled zone; c) active, scoured by a stream sinking at glacier sides or in a sub glacial position. The stream could flow to the flooded zone (b), or scour all the unflooded system long down to the resurgence zone, the latter being generally located in a sub glacier position. The glacier/karst system is a very dynamic one: it could get active, flooded or isolated depending on endo- and sub-glacial drainage variations. Furthermore, glaciers show different influences on karstic networks, thus working with a different effect during their advance, fluctuations, covering and recession phases. Many authors believe, or believed, the development of most surface and underground karst in the Alps is due to glaciations, with the last one held to be mostly responsible for this. Whatever the role of glaciers on karstic systems, in pre-alpine valleys caves, we do not have evidence either of development of new caves or of remarkable changes in their features during glaciations. It is of course possible some pits or galleries could have developed during Plio-Quaternary glaciations, but as a general rule glaciers do not seem to have affected karstic systems in the Southern pre-alpine valleys with any remarkable speleogenetic effects: the glaciers effects on them is generally restricted to the transport of great amounts of debris and sediments into caves. The spotting of boulders and pebbles trapped between roof stalactites shows that several phases of in- and out-filling of galleries occurred with no remarkable changing in pre-dating features, including cave decorations. The presence of suspended karst systems does not prove a glacial origin of the valleys, since most of them pre-date any Plio-Quaternary glaciation, as shown by calcite cave deposits older than 1,5Ma. The sediments driven into caves might have caused a partial or total occlusion of most galleries, with a remarkable re-arrangement of the underground drainage system. In caves submitted to periglacial conditions all glaciations long, we can find deposits coming from weathered surface sediments, sharp-edged gelifraction debris and, more rarely, alluvial deposits whose origin is not related to the circulation of the glacial meltwater. In caves lower than or close to the glaciers limit we generally find large amounts of glacier-related deposits, often partly or totally occluding cave galleries. These sediments may be directly related to glaciers, i.e. carried into caves by glacial meltwaters, resulting from surface glacial deposit erosion. They generally show 3 dominant facies: A) lacustrine deposits; B) alluvial deposits and C) debris flow deposits facies. The only way of testing the soundness of the forementioned hypothesis is to study the main characters and spreading of cave sediments, since they are the only real data on connection of glaciers to endokarst networks.

Les glaciers de marbre de Patagonie, Chili : un karst subpolaire ocanique de la zone australe, 1999, Maire Richard, Ultima_esperanza_team
The karst areas of Chilean Patagonia have remained virtually unknown until now because of their remoteness and very inhospitable climate. They are mainly located in two islands, Diego de Almagro and Madre de Dios, between latitude 52 and 50 South, with a subpolar and stormy climate "tempered" by heavy oceanic precipitations (7 m/ year). In Diego de Almagro the Permian and Carboniferous limestones and dolomites have been transformed into marbles with lamprophyre dikes through contact metamorphism. Situated in the outer part of the archipelagoes, these long and narrow outcrops (0.5-2km wide) are located between volcano-sedimentary formations of Upper Paleozoic (West) and the Mesozoic Patagonian batholit (East). The corallian paleoreefs are part of an accretionary prism of the Gondwana paleo-continent. The surficial and underground karstification is one of the most spectacular ones in the world. The Karren (lapies) caused by the heavy rains can be 1-4 meter(s) wide and several hundred meters long for the solution runnels. Moreover, we can often observe solution karrens both due to rain and wind direction: flat karren (horizontal laminar flow), cascading ripples (sloping laminar flow) and profiled solution forms. The surficial solution velocity is about 3 mm/50 years (from old painting traces near the quarry of Guarello, Madre de Dios); and the lamprophyres dikes (Diego de Almagro) put in relief through corrosion indicate a 40-60 cm surficial solution since the melting of pleistocene glaciers.

Roofless Caves, a polygenetic status of cave development with special references to cave regions in the Eastern Calcareous Alps in Salzburg and Central Alps , Austria, 1999, Mais, Karl

The phenomenon of roofless caves was reported early by Boyd Dawkins (1874). Franz Kraus found that roof collapses are the first steps in the development from a normal subterranean cave to dolines and to a gorge and to normal valley. As an example he showed Rakov Škocjan and specially "Lončarevec Cave" near Postojna. Karst in alpine regions is often dominated by glacier erosion. The ice flow of Pleistocene glaciers carved the plateau surfaces. Thus cave systems opened. In some areas there are a lot of short caves as parts of a former cave system. They characterise the "cave-ruin-niveau" (Hšhlenruinen-Niveau) on plateaus such as Steinernes Meer, Hagengebirge, Tennengebirge, in an altitude of 2000-2300m. Special reference is given to the Salzburg Calcareous Alps, including Hennenkopf and the Rotwandl region in the massif of Steinernes Meer, the region of Sandkar in the Tennengebirge and of Hochtor in the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern).


Extraordinary Features of Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, 2000, Davis, D. G.
Many unusual features are displayed in Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, U.S.A. Early speleogenic features related to a sulfuric acid origin of the cave include acid lake basins and subterranean karren fields. Speleogenetic deposits, also products of sulfuric acid origin, include gypsum glaciers and sulfur masses. Features related to convective atmospheric phenomena in the cave include corrosion residues, rimmed vents, and horizontal corrosion/deposition lines. Speleothems of nonstandard origin include rusticles, pool fingers, subaqueous helictites, common-ion-effect stalactites, chandeliers, long gypsum hair, hydromagnesite fronds, folia, and raft cones. Other unusual features discussed are silticles and splash rings.

Le karst haut-alpin du Kanin (Alpes Juliennes, Slovnie-Italie), 2000, Audra, Philippe
Kanin is a high-alpine karst located in the Italo-slovenian Julian Alps. Its surface was elaborated by the quaternary glaciers and includes some inherited discreet tertiary morphological features. Recent dye tracing has shown that the structural setting permits water infiltrated in Italian catchments to contribute to Slovene springs. Hydrodynamic and physico-chemical water analyses show extremely quick transfers of water during snow melt or heavy storms; these create spectacular overflows, such as the Boka spring which emerges as a 100 m high waterfall. The phreatic zone, linked to the impermeable dam of the So_a valley, does not significantly slow these transfers. Nevertheless, it contributes to the occurrence of low water levels during recession periods, giving highly mineralised water after long resident periods. The presence of very deep and developed karst systems is explained by the combination of advantageous factors: thick and jointed limestone, important height gradient, and considerable precipitation. Paleomagnetic dating in one of the largest systems (_rnelsko brezno) attributes some glacial sediments to the Lower Pleistocene period. Their configuration seems to show that this karst system is pre-quaternary.

Les archives sdimentaires quaternaires de la grotte sous les Sangles (Bas-Bugey, Jura mridional, France). Indices palo-climatiques et sismo-tectoniques, 2002, Lignier Vincent, Desmet Marc
Quaternary sedimentary archives of the Sous les Sangles Cave (Lower Bugey, Southern Jura, France); paleo-climatic and sismo-tectonic evidences - The Sous les Sangles Cave is located in southern part of Jura mountain at the front part of the northwestern alpine tectonically active massifs. This region was covered by alpine and jurassian glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum. An old gallery contains stratified fluvial and moraine injection, covered by a 3.5 meters thick deposit of finely laminated silty carbonate and clays. Sedimentological investigation reveals several periods of different water flow depending on glacial and inters glacial periods. The upper finely laminated sediments correspond to the end of the last glacial maximum according to the exokarstic equivalent of the Cerin lake and the U/Th ages obtained with speleothems. Spectral analysis (using Fourier methods and pass-band mapping techniques) on grey-level raw data have been used on the Sous les Sangles sediment. The main result shows evidence of a cyclic deposition according to the three main periodicities recognised through the 1.5-m top sequence. The laminated material is affected by plastic and brittle deformations. The entire deposit is characterised by (1) a vertical faulting without apparent dominant relative movement which can be interpreted as tension faults; (2) an associated soft and brittle deformation similar to thin skin tectonic at centimetre scale affecting the base of the deposit and testified to gravity reworking which could correspond to discrete sismotectonic activity; (3) brittle deformations associated with fluid escape patterns occurring at two specific levels along the vertical faults, emphasising the earth tremor existence according to several broken speleothems. These observations are highly supported by the geodynamic and tectonic frame of this part of Jura massif which reveal an actual uplift of several millimetre/year, especially in this part of the Cluse des Hpitaux cross valley. Numerous historical earthquakes have been documented in this area. The microtectonic study of the cave shows dominant inverse and strike-slip structures correlated to the general tectonic frame.

Lateglacial and Holocene sea level changes in semi-enclosed seas of North Eurasia: examples from the contrasting Black and White Seas, 2004, Kaplin Pavel A. , Selivanov Andrei O. ,
A comparison of the Black and White Seas, which differ in their tectonic, glacial and climatic history but which share a strong dependence upon limited water exchange with the world ocean, represents an opportunity for the identification of major factors controlling sea level changes during the Lateglacial and Holocene and for the correlation of these changes. Existing data were critically analyzed and compared with the results of geological, geomorphological and palaeohydrological studies obtained by the present authors during the past two decades.We conclude that glacioeustatic processes played a major role in relative sea level changes on most coasts of both areas. However, along several coastlines, other factors overwhelm glacioeustasy during some time intervals. In the Black Sea, water level rose from its minimum position, -100-120 m, at 18-17 ka BP, to -20-30 m at nearly 9 ka BP. In the White Sea, the decreasing trend in relative sea level is well illustrated on the Kola Peninsula and in Karelia, subject to glacioisostatic emergence. A drastic sea level fall from to -25 m occurred with the drainage of glacial lakes in the eastern White Sea (12.5-9.5 ka BP).The Black and White Sea histories changed drastically in the early Holocene or in the beginning of the middle Holocene (9.5-7.5 ka BP) due to the intrusion of water from the Mediterranean and the Barents seas, respectively. During this period, the White Sea developed under the strong influence of the formation of 'ice shelves' and 'dead ice' blocks, retreating glaciers, as well as of glacioisostatic and related processes. The Black Sea history, however, was determined by water exchange with the Mediterranean via the shallow Dardanelles and Bosporus straits (outflow from the Black Sea 10-9.5 ka BP and inflow from 9-7.5 ka BP according to various data), and, partially, by river discharge variations caused by climatic changes on the Russian Plain. The hypothesis of a catastrophic sea level rise from -120-150 to -15-20 m nearly 7550 calendar years BP is not supported by our data. Water intrusion from the Mediterranean was fast but not catastrophic.In the Black Sea, periods of high sea levels after the intrusion of Mediterranean waters are dated from four sedimentary complexes, Vityazevian, Kalamitian, Dzhemetian and Nymphaean, from nearly 7.5, 7-6, 5.5-4.5 and 2.2-1.7 ka BP, respectively. A fluctuating pattern of sea level change was established in the White Sea after the drainage of proglacial lakes and intrusion of ocean waters at the end of the early Holocene (nearly 8.5-8.2 ka BP). Major periods of sea level rise in the White Sea are dated from the late Boreal-early Atlantic (8.5-7.5 ka BP), late Atlantic (6.5-5.2 ka BP), middle Subboreal (4.5-4 ka BP) and middle Subatlantic (1.8-1.5 ka BP). Fluctuations of relative sea level during the middle and late Holocene were possibly on the order of several meters (from 3 to -2-3 m in the Black Sea and from 5 to -2-3 m in the White Sea). Lower estimates of regressive stages are principally derived from archaeological data on ancient settlements in tectonically submerging deltaic areas and cannot be regarded as reliable.Palaeohydrological analysis does not indicate that intensive (15-25 m or greater) sea level fluctuations were present in the Black Sea or in the White Sea during the middle and late Holocene. Instead, such analysis provides independent evidence to support the argument that significant differences in water level between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean could not be maintained for an extended period of time

An overview of the current research carried out in the French Western Alps karsts, 2004, Audra, Philippe

Current research encloses karst systems geomorphologic approach, recent advances in study of karst structures which date back from the Upper Miocene. Karst genesis in Western Alps is brought up by systemic analysis, according to a geomorphologic approach. It uses the "karst immunity" that conserves old drainage structures and their associated sediments. Karst landscapes can be sorted into horizontal and vertical forms. Speleothems are clearly connected to the presence of vegetation but they also record geomorphic crisis. Clastic sediments reveal mechanical erosion. This approach concludes with karst genesis and speleogenesis reconstruction, which blend together evolution stages, environment characterization and processes. Researchers reconsider the preponderant part previously attributed to glaciers. Karst appears immediately when a gradient exists and when the aquifer is stripped of its impervious cover. Such conditions occurred from the Upper Miocene and sometimes before. Karsts of the Pleistocene age are only met in the Inner Alps where cover stripping occurred later. Vertical systems composed of shaft series are old and become more complex. Field evidence refutes Ford's classification, which assigns a deep phreatic origin. A brief account of the present state of knowledge, according to region and researcher's scientific themes, allows establishing the last decade's advances. It also shows a disparity between the North and the South Western Alps, where Vercors appears to be one of the best studied massifs in the Alps.


Flow capture and reversal in the Agen Allwedd Entrance Series, south Wales: evidence for glacial flooding and impoundment, 2007, Simms, Michael J And John B Hunt.
Detailed observations of passage morphology, scallop orientations, and cross-cutting relationships of vadose notches and roof heights within a small area of the Agen Allwedd cave system, south Wales, reveal a complex history of flow re-routing linked to several successive phreatic-vadose cycles. At least three discrete phases of phreatic development can be recognized, each succeeded by a period of vadose entrenchment. Two distinct episodes of flow diversion are evident and were initiated during separate phreatic phases. The repeated establishment of phreatic conditions at such a high level within the cave system can be attributed either to glacial impoundment of meltwater recharge and/or the creation of a localized perched phreas as a result of temporary blockages. We conclude that glacial meltwater from the Usk valley glacier entered the cave along its northern edge and was impounded as a result of valley glaciers blocking lower outlets, causing flooding of the entire cave system during glaciations. Vadose entrenchment then occurred as much of the cave was drained during ensuing interglacial(s). Drainage rerouting occurred in response to temporary, but prolonged, blockages that allowed meltwater recharge to generate high hydrostatic pressures. Newly opened or exposed fractures in the limestone were thereby exploited, creating bypass routes. This model, which is consistent with what is known of ice depths across the region during the Pleistocene, has significant implications for the evolution of the entire cave system and indeed for other caves in broadly analogous situations in south Wales and beyond.

Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada., 2007, Moseley Max
The vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, environment and habitats of caves and disused mines in Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick are provisionally catalogued and described, based on field collections made over many years. The area was glaciated and the subterranean fauna consists of non-troglobites all of which have arrived and colonised the caves during or following final recession of the Pleistocene glaciers. The statistical composition of the fauna at the higher taxonomic level is similar to that in Ontario, but is less species rich and there are some notable ecological and other differences. Porcupine dung accumulations are an important habitat in the region, constituting a cold-temperate analogue of the diverse guano habitats of southern and tropical caves. Parietal assemblages are, as in other cold temperate regions, an important component of the invertebrate fauna but here include species derived directly from dung communities: another parallel with tropical guano caves. An unanticipated finding is the number of non-indigenous species now utilising local caves. These appear to have colonised unfilled ecological niches, suggesting that post-glacial recolonisation of the subterranean habitat in Nova Scotia has been relatively delayed. Finally the general and regional significance of the subterranean fauna is briefly discussed.

Abrupt glacial valley incision at 0.8 Ma dated from cave deposits in Switzerland, 2007, Haeuselmann Philipp, Granger Darryl E. , Jeannin Pierre Yves, Lauritzen Stein Erik,
Glacial erosion dramatically alters mountain landscapes, but the pace at which glaciers carve a previously fluvial landscape remains poorly defined because long-term valley incision rates are difficult to measure. Here we reconstruct the lowering history of the Aare Valley, Switzerland, over the past 4 m.y. by dating cave sediments with cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be. Incision accelerated from [~]120 m/m.y. to [~]1200 m/m.y. at 0.8-1.0 Ma, at least 1 m.y. after the onset of local glaciation. Rapid incision may have been triggered by lowering of the equilibrium line altitude at the mid-Pleistocene climate transition

Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada., 2007, Moseley Max
The vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, environment and habitats of caves and disused mines in Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick are provisionally catalogued and described, based on field collections made over many years. The area was glaciated and the subterranean fauna consists of non-troglobites all of which have arrived and colonised the caves during or following final recession of the Pleistocene glaciers. The statistical composition of the fauna at the higher taxonomic level is similar to that in Ontario, but is less species rich and there are some notable ecological and other differences. Porcupine dung accumulations are an important habitat in the region, constituting a cold-temperate analogue of the diverse guano habitats of southern and tropical caves. Parietal assemblages are, as in other cold temperate regions, an important component of the invertebrate fauna but here include species derived directly from dung communities: another parallel with tropical guano caves. An unanticipated finding is the number of non-indigenous species now utilising local caves. These appear to have colonised unfilled ecological niches, suggesting that post-glacial recolonisation of the subterranean habitat in Nova Scotia has been relatively delayed. Finally the general and regional significance of the subterranean fauna is briefly discussed.

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,

"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Contents:
Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail: atyc@us.edu.pl


Cave and Karst evolution in the Alps and their relation to paleoclimate and paleotopography, 2007, Audra P. , Bini A. , Gabrovš, Ek F. , Hä, Uselmann P. , Hoblé, A F. , Jeannin P. Y. , Kunaver J. , Monbaron M. , Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, F. , Tognini P. , Trimmel H. , Wildberger A.

Progress in the understanding of cave genesis processes, as well as the intensive research carried out in the Alps during the last decades, permit to summarize the latest knowledge about Alpine caves. The phreatic parts of cave systems develop close to the karst water table, which depends on the spring position, which in turn is generally related to the valley bottom. Thus, caves are directly linked with the geomorphic evolution of the surface and reflect valley deepening. The sediments deposited in the caves help to reconstruct the morphologic succession and the paleoclimatic evolution. Moreover, they are the only means to date the caves and thus the landscape evolution. Caves appear as soon as there is an emersion of limestone from the sea and a water table gradient. Mesozoic and early tertiary paleokarsts within the alpine range prove of these ancient emersions. Hydrothermal karst seems to be more widespread than previously presumed. This is mostly due to the fact that usually, hydrothermal caves are later reused (and reshaped) by meteoric waters. Rock-ghost weathering is described as a new cave genesis agent. On the contrary, glaciers hinder cave genesis processes and fill caves. They mainly influence cave genesis indirectly by valley deepening and abrasion of the caprock. All present datings suggest that many alpine caves (excluding paleokarst) are of Pliocene or even Miocene age. Progress in dating methods (mainly the recent evolution with cosmogenic nuclides) should permit, in the near future, to date not only Pleistocene, but also Pliocene cave sediments absolutely.


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