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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That nitromagnesite is a cave mineral - mg(no3)2.6h2o [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for isotope (Keyword) returned 481 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 481
Stable isotope studies of water extracted from speleothems. McMaster Univ. PhD thesis, 1982,
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Yonge C. J.

Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites, 1982,
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Goede A. , Green D. C. , Harmon R. S.

Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.

Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlation with Quaternary Climate, 1983,
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Gascoyne M, Schwarcz Hp, Ford Dc,
Over 180 $^{230}$Th/$^{234}$U ages have been obtained for 87 speleothems from caves in the Craven district of northwest England. Periods of abundant speleothem growth, 0-13, 90-135 and 170 to > 350 ka, are correlated with interglacial isotope stages 1, 5 and 7-9 respectively. Periods of zero growth, 14-35 and 140-165 ka, are correlated with glacial stages 2 and 6 respectively. A prominent break in growth of one speleothem, dated at about 260 ka, may be correlated with glacial stage 8. Lower-frequency growth from 35 to 90 ka is correlated with stages 3 and 4. The results may also be related to the British Quaternary sequence within the range of $^{14}$C determinations, as follows: 0-13 ka. Flandrian plus late Devensian deglaciation; 14-35 ka, late Devensian glaciation; 35-45 ka. Upton Warren interstadial. Low but finite speleothem abundance during the period 45-90 ka correlates with the early Devensian and is in good agreement with evidence indicating the non-glacial, but tundra-like, climate over this period. The Ipswichian interglacial is broadly related to the abundant growth period 90-135 ka, but is more closely defined by the interval 115-135 ka, from results of dating speleothems enclosing remains of Ipswichian fauna in one cave. By analogy with the zero speleothem abundance during the late Devensian glaciation, the period 140-165 ka may be tentatively correlated with the Wolstonian glaciation. Lack of direct stratigraphic relationships with, or absolute ages of, middle to early Pleistocene stages prevents further correlation of speleothem age data. From the frequency of abundance of speleothem basal ages for the period 0-13 ka, it appears that speleothem growth lags ice recession by up to 4 ka

Guidebook on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology. Technical Reports Series, 1983,
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Strontium geochemical evidence for the origin of the barite deposits from Sardinia, Italy, 1984,
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Barbieri M, Masi U, Tolomeo L,
Sr content of 137 samples of barite, 81 samples of fluorite, and 65 samples of calcite from 27 post-Cambrian karst and hydrothermal deposits. Karst calcites have an average Sr content of 26 ppm, quite similar to that of the hydrothermal calcites. Hydrothermal fluorites show an average content of 56 ppm. Forty-five percent of the karst barites have an Sr content over 6,000 ppm, while as much as 83.8 percent of the hydrothermal barites contain more than 6,000 ppm Sr. The Sr isotope composition of the Cambrian stratiform barites (0.70867 or - 3) is similar to that of Cambrian seawater, suggesting that the bulk of the Sr was provided by this source. The Sr isotope ratios of the karst barite (average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.70947 or - 1) indicate that Sr was not only derived by recycling of the stratiform barite but was also provided by the noncarbonate fraction of the Cambrian wall rocks. The Sr isotope composition of the hydrothermal barites ranges from 0.70990 or - 4 to 0.71837 or - 4, suggesting that the Sr derived mainly from a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio source.--Modified journal abstract

Stable isotope study of karstic-related dolomitization; Jurassic rocks from the coastal plain, Israel, 1984,
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Buchbinder Lg, Magaritz M, Goldberg M,

Les exutoires de l'aquifre karstique de la Fontaine de Vaucluse, 1985,
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Michelot Cl. , Mudry J.
REMARKS ABOUT THE OUTLETS OF THE LIMESTONE AQUIFER OF THE FONTAINE DE VAUCLUSE (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE) - The Fontaine de Vaucluse is apparently the single outlet of the Vaucluse table-lands, a calcareous aquifer of more than 1000 square kilometres. The hydro-geochemical study (major ionic elements and isotopes) of the different water spots of the western boundaries of this area (springs and wells) enables one to identify the different families of water (coming from the Vaucluse table-lands or from the Comtat plain) that emerge out of the Fontaine de Vaucluse or out of other places covered with the tertiary and quaternary deposits.

Oxygen isotopes and sea level, 1986,
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Chappell J. , Shackleton N. J.

A Stable Isotopic Investigation of Waters and Speleothems in Wind Cave, South Dakota: An Application of Isotope Paleothermometry, 1987,
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Millen Timothy M, Dickey Jr. D. Neil

238U---234U---230Th---232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years, 1987,
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Lawrence Edwards R. , Chen J. H. , Wasserburg G. J. ,
We have developed techniques to measure the 230Th abundance in corals by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This, coupled with our previous development of mass spectrometric techniques for 234U and 232Th measurement, has allowed us to reduce significantly the analytical errors in 238U---234U---230Th dating and greatly reduce the sample size. We show that 6 x 108 atoms of 230Th can be measured to 30[per mille sign] (2[sigma]) and 2 x 1010 atoms of 230Th to 2[per mille sign]. The time over which useful age data on corals can be obtained ranges from a few years to ~ 500 ky. The uncertainty in age, based on analytical errors, is 5 y (2[sigma]) for a 180 year old coral (3 g), 44 y at 8294 years and 1.1 ky at 123.1 ky (250 mg of coral). We also report 232Th concentrations in corals (0.083-1.57 pmol/g) that are more than two orders of magnitude lower than previous values. Ages with high analytical precision were determined for several corals that grew during high sea level stands ~ 120 ky ago. These ages lie specifically within or slightly postdate the Milankovitch insolation high at 128 ky and support the idea that the dominant cause of Pleistocene climate change is Milankovitch forcing

A reconnaissance isotope study of waters in the karst of the Western Tatra mountains, 1988,
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Rozanski K. , Dulinski M. ,
Presented are results of isotope investigations of waters collected in the karstic area of the Western Tatra Mts. Altogether 35 groundwater samples have been analysed (tritium content, [delta]D, [delta]18O). They represent groundwaters collected on the earth surface (springs, streams, exurgences) as well as waters found in caves. Parallel, systematic isotope analyses of monthly precipitation collected at the Ornak station located in the center of the investigated area were also carried out. The results of isotope investigations fully confirm earlier suggestions that the karst system of the Western Tatra Mts consists of separate independent subsystems exhibiting weak (if any) hydraulic interconnections. Tritium data allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the mean residence time of the baseflow component in the investigated system. It is equal to at least 7/8 years. Eventual further measurements of tritium content should allow a more precise determination of this parameter. [delta]D and [delta]18O analyses of the investigated waters provide a basis for assessment of the Is/I ratio i.e. the ratio of infiltration originating from summer precipitation to the total yearly infiltration. It appears that groundwaters collected in caves exhibit on the average significantly higher D and 18O content compared to groundwaters collected on the surface. Possible reasons of this effect are discussed thoroughly in the paper

Climatostratigraphic scheme of the Black Sea pleistocene and its correlation with the oxygen-isotope scale and glacial events, 1988,
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Zubakov V. A. ,
New evidence from the Asov Sea-Black Sea region shows that after the Cobb Mountain magnetic event (1.1 myr) there were 8 saline water events, with Mediterranean molluscs penetrating into the Asov Sea (five times farther than the western Manych Strait), and 7 or 10 cold freshwater events. During the freshening phase, the Caspian Sea molluscan fauna penetrated into the Black Sea; each time the Caspian mollusc assemblage was characterized by a new species of Didacna. Thus, some 18-20 bioclimatostratigraphic units can be distinguished in the Asov Sea-Black Sea section for the last 1 myr. Their numerical age is estimated by some dozen thermoluminescence dates and 12 magnetic-polarity datum planes. The Karangatian s. lato corresponds to the interval 300,000-50,000 yr, the Uzunlarian to 580,000-300,000 yr, and the Chaudian to 1,100,000-600,000 yr. The Karangatian and Tyrrhenian marine terraces correspond to marine isotope stages 5 and 7, the Uzunlarian and Milazzian to stages 11-15, and the Chaudian and Sicilian to stages 16-28. The number and ages of glacial-interglacial cycles in continental Europe are identical to the climatic cycles in the Black Sea and Mediterranean

Caesium-137 and Caesium-134 levels in soil in a tea plantation in Turkey after the chernobyl accident, 1989,
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Yesin T. , Cakir N. ,
Gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry has been used to measure the 137Cs and 134Cs levels and depth distributions in soil of a tea plantation in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Soil samples were collected in November 1987. The depth distribution was found to be exponential with [alpha] = 0.16 cm-1 and the exposure rate arising therefrom is calculated as 17.46 [mu]R/h over the ground surface

Oxygen, sulfur, and strontium isotope and fluid inclusion studies of barite deposits from the Iglesiente-Sulcis mining district, Southwestern Sardinia, Italy, 1989,
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Cortecci G, Fontes Jc, Maiorani A, Perna G, Pintus E, Turi B,

Sr isotope study of vein and cave calcites from southern Israel, 1990,
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Avigour A, Magaritz M, Issar A, Dodson Mh,
The strontium isotope compositions of secondary calcites from the Negev, southern Israel, were compared to those of the marine carbonate host rocks, which range in age from Triassic to Eocene, in order to understand fluid source and migration through fracture systems in dominantly carbonate strata. The Sr isotopes of these calcite clusters are divided into two groups: (1) calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values greater than those of the host carbonates; and (2) calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values close to the values of the host carbonate. 1. (1) These secondary calcites were found on the main tectonic lines of the Negev (faults and fold axes) and are enriched in 87Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707709-0.709151) relative to the marine carbonate country rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707251-0.70755, with one exception). These calcites are associated or crossed by thin veins filled by Fe- and Mn-oxides.2. (2) Secondary calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values close to those of the marine carbonate country rocks (0.7073-0.7077) are found in karstic caves and veins, and are located in sites which are not on the major faults and fold axes. These calcites are not crossed by Fe- and Mn-oxides.The isotopic results indicate that the solutions from which the secondary minerals of the first group precipitated were not in isotopic equilibrium with the marine host rocks. The possible source of the precipitating solutions can be either surface rain descending through the fault system or ascending groundwaters from the deep Nubian aquifer (Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age). In both cases there would be a limited interaction with the host sandstone rock which usually is depleted in Sr. The similarity of the 87Sr/86Sr values to those of the host rocks in the second group suggests that the main source of Sr in these calcite crystals was from the dissolution of the marine carbonate country rocks by rain- and flood waters

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