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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That fungling; fungling karst is (chinese.) isolated limestone hill in alluvial plain, probably similar to mogote [10]. see also fencong; fenglin; mogote; tower karst.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for monsoon (Keyword) returned 51 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 51
A 6000-year high-resolution climatic record from a stalagmite in Xiangshui Cave, Guilin, China, 2004, Zhang Meiliang, Yuan Daoxian, Lin Yushi, Qin Jiaming, Bin Li, Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence,
Middle-to late-Holocene palaeoclimate change has been reconstructed at high resolution by the analysis of the carbon and oxygen isotopes from a thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U/Th dated stalagmite from Xiangshui Cave, near Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. The carbon and oxygen isotopic records from the stalagmite suggest that changes in the Asian monsoon since the middle Holocene (6000 BP) can be divided into two periods: (1) an interval from 6000 to 3800 BP when a strong East Asian summer monsoon gradually weakened and climate was relatively warm and humid; (2) a cool period from 3800 to 373 BP when the East Asian summer monsoon was relatively weak and the winter monsoon was probably relatively strong. This cooler interval was interspersed with a number of short warm periods. A This interpretation is largely based upon the general increase in 6180 values of the stalagmite between 6000 and 3800 BP and shifts in 6180 about a relatively heavy mean value between 3800 and 373 BP. The 6000 to 3800 BP trend is probably associated with decrease in precipitation and temperature subsequent to the mid-Holocene climatic optimum

The Sahara - East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Jerusalem speleothem, 2004, Frumkin, A. , And Stein, M.
This paper explores the potential of Sr and U isotope systems in speleothems as tracers of eolian dust transport and hydrological conditions. The study focuses on a speleothem from Jerusalem spanning the past 220 kyr. This speleothem provides a precisely dated record of dust flux from the Sahara to the East Mediterranean. Enhanced dust flux and Terra Rossa soil development is reflected by elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the speleothem (0.7082-6), while lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (~0.7078) indicate higher contribution of the local bedrock due to low dust flux and low soil accumulation. The strontium isotope system in the speleothem is a robust monitor of the Sahara monsoon-modulated climate, since dust uptake is related to development or reduction in vegetation cover of Sahara soil. The [234U/238U] activity ratios in the speleothem range between 1.12 and 1.0. The high activity values may indicate selective removal of 234U from the soil while the low values converge to the bedrock. The migration of 234U to the cave reflects mainly the regional hydrological conditions that are modulated by the North Atlantic-Mediterranean climate system. Thus, the speleothem provides a combined record of the Monsoon - North Atlantic climatic systems. Long-term stability in glacial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70831 over the past 220 kyr) suggests an overall similarity in eolian dust-sources, and uniformity in the synoptic conditions that dominate the dust storm tracks during glacial periods.

Stable isotope study of cave percolation waters in subtropical Brazil: Implications for paleoclimate inferences from speleothems, 2005, Cruz Fw, Karmann I, Viana O, Burns Sj, Ferrari Ja, Vuille M, Sial An, Moreira Mz,
We analyze the interannual monthly variability of oxygen isotope ratios in data from IAEA stations along the Atlantic coast of South America between 23 degrees and 34 degrees S to evaluate the influence of parameters such as temperature, rainfall amount and moisture source contribution on meteoric water recharging two karst systems in subtropical Brazil. In addition, a 2 year monitoring program performed on soil and cave drip and rimstone pool waters from sampling sites with contrasting discharge values and located at 100 and 300 m below the surface in the Santana Cave System (24 degrees 31' S; 48 degrees 43' W), is used to test the influence of hydrologic and geologic features on the temporal variations of seepage water delta(18)O. Interannual monthly variations in delta(18)O of rainfall reflect primarily regional changes in moisture source contribution related to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation from a more monsoonal regime in summer (negative values of delta(18)O) to a more extratropical regime in winter (positive values of delta(18)O). Variations in groundwater delta(18)O indicate that the climatic signal of recent rainfall events is rapidly transmitted through the relatively deep karst aquifer to the cave drip waters, regardless of location of collection in the cave. In addition, the data also suggest that water replenishment in the system is triggered by the increase in hydraulic head during periods when recharge exceeds the storage capacity of the soil and epikarst reservoirs. Significant perturbations in the groundwater composition, characterized by more positive values of delta(18)O, are probably connected to an increased Atlantic moisture contribution associated with extratropical precipitation. This implies that the delta(18)O of speleothems from caves in this region may be a suitable proxy for studying tropical-extratropical interactions over South America, a feature that is intrinsically related to the global atmospheric circulation. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Significance and dynamics of drip water responding to rainfall in four caves of Guizhou, China, 2005, Zhou Y. C. , Wang S. J. , Xie X. N. , Luo W. J. , Li T. Y. ,
In rainy season, NaCl is adopted to trace sources of cave drip water, time scales of drip water responding to precipitation, and processes of water dynamics in four caves of Pearl watershed in Guizhou, China (Liang-feng cave in Libo, Qixing cave in Duyun, Jiangjun cave in Anshun and Xiniu cave in Zhenning). Because of the variety of karst cave surroundings, interconnections of water transporting ways, water dynamics processes etc., time scales of drip-water in four caves responding to rainfall is 0-40 d. According to the characteristics of water transport in cave roof, pathways of water movement, types of water head etc., drip water of four caves can be divided into five hydrodynamics types. The differences of time scales, and ways of water-soil and water-rock interaction during water transporting in cave roof make it difficult to correctly measure speleothem record and trace material sources. In addition, there exist great differences in water dynamic conditions among the four caves. So the interpretation of the paleoenvironment records of speleothem must be supported by the understanding of hydrodynamics conditions of different drip sites. Based on the data got from drip sites in four caves, drip conductivity accords with precipitation, which indicates that element contents in speleothem formed by drip water record the change of karst paleoenvironment. But results of multi-points study are needed to guarantee the correctness of interpretation

A high-resolution, absolute-dated Holocene and deglacial Asian monsoon record from Dongge Cave, China, 2005, Dykoski C. A. , Edwards R. L. , Cheng H. Et Al.

Late Quaternary intensified monsoon phases control landscape evolution in the northwest Himalaya, 2005, Bookhagen B, Thiede Rc, Strecker Mr,
The intensity of the Asian summer-monsoon circulation varies over decadal to millennial time scales and is reflected in changes in surface processes, terrestrial environments, and marine sediment records. However, the mechanisms of long-lived (2-5 k.y.) intensified monsoon phases, the related changes in precipitation distribution, and their effect on landscape evolution and sedimentation rates are not yet well understood. The arid high-elevation sectors of the orogen correspond to a climatically sensitive zone that currently receives rain only during abnormal (i.e., strengthened) monsoon seasons. Analogous to present-day rainfall anomalies, enhanced precipitation during an intensified monsoon phase is expected to have penetrated far into these geomorphic threshold regions where hillslopes are close to the angle of failure. We associate landslide triggering during intensified monsoon phases with enhanced precipitation, discharge, and sediment flux leading to an increase in pore-water pressure, lateral scouring of rivers, and oversteepening of hillslopes, eventually resulting in failure of slopes and exceptionally large mass movements. Here we use lacustrine deposits related to spatially and temporally clustered large landslides (>0.5 km3) in the Sutlej Valley region of the northwest Himalaya to calculate sedimentation rates and to infer rainfall patterns during late Pleistocene (29-24 ka) and Holocene (10-4 ka) intensified monsoon phases. Compared to present-day sediment-flux measurements, a fivefold increase in sediment-transport rates recorded by sediments in landslide-dammed lakes characterized these episodes of high climatic variability. These changes thus emphasize the pronounced imprint of millennial-scale climate change on surface processes and landscape evolution

Variability of Southwest Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bolling-Allerod, 2005, Sinha Ashish, Cannariato Kevin G. , Stott Lowell D. , Li Hong Chun, You Chen Feng, Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence, Singh Indra B. ,
We have generated a high-resolution (<20 yr) 230Th-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record from Timta Cave in the western Himalaya in India that documents Southwest Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation variations during the Bolling-Allerod interstadial from 15.2 to 11.7 ka. Compared with the glacial and Younger Dryas, ISM precipitation was enhanced during the Bolling-Allerod. ISM precipitation was apparently coupled to variations in the East Asian monsoon and North Atlantic climate on millennial and multicentennial time scales during the deglaciation. Analyses of a high growth rate interval (<2.5 yr resolution) encompassing the late Bolling-early Allerod suggest that multidecadal monsoon variability was an important aspect of ISM behavior at that time. The frequency spectrum of ISM precipitation during this time interval is similar to that of the {Delta}14C record and other ISM precipitation records during the latest Holocene. This raises the hypothesis that multidecadal climate dynamics during the late Bolling-early Allerod may have been similar to those that operated during the last several millennia, even though the boundary conditions of these two time intervals were very different

Monsoon reconstruction from radiocarbon dated tropical Indian speleothems, 2005, Yadava M. G. , Ramesh R. ,
The potential of tropical speleothems as a climate proxy has been investigated. Amplitudes of 180 and 813C variations are found to be large and are likely to be primarily controlled by past rainfall. Contribution from past temperature variations seems to be relatively small. The amount effect in rainfall has been observed and quantified by analysing rainwater samples collected during a monsoon season. A tentative chronology to these speleothems is asssigned by the 14C radiometric dating method. Assuming that the variations in the 180 of cave carbonates are solely due to the past variations in rainfall, a history of the latter has been reconstructed. A high-resolution rainfall reconstruction up to the last [~]3400 years is now available from Gupteswar cave, Orissa, subject to validation of dates by the U-Th method. It is observed that in a tropical speleothem 513C is dominantly controlled by rainfall. The study has shown that tropical Indian speleothems faithfully record the annual ([~]monsoon) rainfall in the cave site

Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, 2006, Vaks, A. , Barmatthews, M. , Ayalon, A. , Matthews, A. , Frumkin, A. , Dayan, U. , Halicz, L. , Almogilabin, A. , And Schilman, B.
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th?U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope compositionwere used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type.Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190?150 ka, 76?25 ka, 23?13 ka and interglacials at 200?190 ka, 137?123 ka and 84?77 ka. The dominant rainfall sourcewas the EasternMediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ∼300?350 mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lowerminimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe withmixed C3+C4 vegetation,Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer toMediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150?144 ka, 141?140 ka, 117?96 ka, 92?85 ka, 25?23 ka, and 13 ka?present-day. Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198 ka, 127 ka, 83 ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176 ka, 151 ka, 61 ka and 33 ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105 ka and 11 ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region. Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes byRayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast.

High-resolution absolute-dated Indian Monsoon record between 53 and 36 ka from Xiaobailong Cave, southwestern China, 2006, Cai Y, An Z, Cheng H, Edwards Rl, Kelly Mj, Liu W, Wang X, Shen Cc,
The oxygen isotopic record of stalagmite XBL-1 from southwestern China reveals millennial-scale variability of the Indian Monsoon between 53 and 36 ka, synchronous with changes in the East Asian Monsoon recorded at Hulu Cave and similar to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles recorded in Greenland ice. Our record, in general, confirms the chronology of Hulu Cave. If our correlations between Greenland and the Xiaobailong Cave record are correct, both the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Greenland Ice Core Project (ss09sea) chronologies are accurate within quoted errors. A dry interval that we correlate with Heinrich Event 5 (H5) and the Greenland stadial preceding Greenland Interstadial 12 (GIS 12) is centered ca. 48.0 ka and a shift to drier conditions, correlated to the end of GIS 12, is ca. 43.5 ka. Overall, the variability of the Indian Monsoon, from XBL-1 data, on millennial scales is similar to and correlated with high-latitude ice core rec ords from the Northern Hemisphere. However, some Indian Monsoon characteristics more closely resemble, but are anticorrelated with, features in the Antarctic record, suggesting some link to climate of the high southern latitudes, in addition to the clear link to the climate of the high northern latitudes

A penultimate glacial monsoon record from Hulu Cave and two-phase glacial terminations, 2006, Cheng H, Edwards Rl, Wang Y, Kong X, Ming Y, Kelly Mj, Wang X, Gallup Cd, Liu W,
Oxygen isotope records of three stalagmites from Hulu Cave, China, extend the previous high-resolution absolute-dated Hulu Asian Monsoon record from the last to the penultimate glacial and deglacial periods. The penultimate glacial monsoon broadly follows orbitally induced insolation variations and is punctuated by at least 16 millennial-scale events. We confirm a Weak Monsoon Interval between 135.5 {} 1.0 and 129.0 {} 1.0 ka, prior to the abrupt increase in monsoon intensity at Asian Monsoon Termination II. Based on correlations with both marine ice-rafted debris and atmospheric CH4 records, we demonstrate that most of marine Termination II, the full rise in Antarctic temperature and atmospheric CO2, and much of the rise in CH4 occurred within the Weak Monsoon Interval, when the high northern latitudes were probably cold. From these relationships and similar relationships observed for Termination I, we identify a two-phase glacial termination process that was probably driven by orbital forcing in both hemispheres, affecting the atmospheric hydrological cycle, and combined with ice sheet dynamics

An environmental model of fluvial tufas in the monsoonal tropics, Barkly karst, northern Australia, 2006, Carthew Kd, Taylor Mp, Drysdale Rn,
Spring-fed streams that deposit tufa (ambient temperature freshwater calcium carbonate deposits) in the tropics of northern Australia are influenced strongly by perennially warm water temperatures, high evaporation rates, and monsoon driven high-magnitude floods. This paper presents an environmental model that will aid interpretation of fossil fluvial tufas throughout monsoonal Australia. In the Barkly karst, northern Australia, tufas form in dam, cascade and pool/waterhole geomorphic environments. Each environment is represented in the morphostratigraphical record by a specific combination of tufa geomorphic units and facies associations. A diverse array of tufa facies is present, including microphytic, larval, calcite raft, macrophytic and allochthonous types. Preservation of particular Barkly karst tufa facies is thought to reflect the strength of monsoonal floods. A strong monsoon is represented by an abundance of flood indicators such as the allochthonous phytoclastic, lithoclastic and intraclastic tufa facies. Conversely, evidence of weak monsoons or a prolonged absence of floods may include oncoids, calcite rafts and thick accumulations of fine carbonate sediments. The history of the Australian monsoon is not fully understood. However, fossil tufa deposits, which record terrestrial climate information, have been preserved throughout northern Australia and hold great potential for reconstructing the region's climate history. Fossil tufa sequences at two Barkly karst sites have been interpreted using the new model. It can be applied to other Barkly karst fossil tufas as well as those in similar environments elsewhere in the world. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

High resolution characterization of the Asian Monsoon between 146,000 and 99,000[no-break space]years B.P. from Dongge Cave, China and global correlation of events surrounding Termination II, 2006, Kelly Megan J. , Edwards R. Lawrence, Cheng Hai, Yuan Daoxian, Cai Yanjun, Zhang Meiliang, Lin Yushi, An Zhisheng,
Speleothem samples from Hulu (eastern China, 32[deg]30'N, 119[deg]10'E) and Dongge (southern China, 25[deg]17'N, 108[deg]5'E) Caves provide a nearly continuous record of the Asian monsoon over the last 160[no-break space]ka [Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z.S., Wu, J.Y., Shen, C.-C., Dorale, J.A., 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348; Yuan, D., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Dykoski, C.A., Kelly, M.J., Zhang, M., Qing, J., Lin, Y., Wang, Y., Wu, J., Dorale, J.A., An, Z., Cai, Y., 2004. Timing, duration, and transitions of the last interglacial Asian Monsoon. Science 304, 575-578]. We have obtained higher resolution data in the interval between ~ 99 and 146[no-break space]ka B.P., providing a detailed account of [delta]18O variations over most of MIS 5 and the latter portion of MIS 6. Precise 230Th dating has replicated the chronology of the samples within error. The higher resolution data set confirms the timing of Asian Monsoon Termination II (the midpoint of the negative shift in [delta]18O marking the onset of the Last Interglacial Asian Monsoon), placing it at 129.0 0.9[no-break space]ka B.P. The bulk of this transition (~ 1.7[per mille sign]) took place within approximately 70[no-break space]years, with the total range of the transition being ~ 3[per mille sign]. The most abrupt portion of the shift in [delta]18O values (~ 1.1[per mille sign]) marking the end of the Last Interglacial Asian Monsoon occurred in ~ 120[no-break space]years, the midpoint of which is 120.7 1.0[no-break space]ka B.P. The Dongge Cave monsoon [delta]18O record over late MIS 6 exhibits a series of sub-orbital millennial-scale climate shifts that average 1.3[per mille sign] in magnitude and occur on average every 1.8[no-break space]ky. Abrupt shifts in [delta]18O of up to 1[per mille sign] also occurred throughout the Last Interglacial Asian Monsoon, with periods at multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Similar to the amplitude and periodicities of events found by Dykoski et al. [Dykoski, C.A., Edwards, R.L., Cheng, H., Yuan, D., Cai, Y., Zhang, M., Lin, Y., An, Z., Revenaugh, J., 2005. A high resolution, absolute-dated Holocene and deglacial Asian monsoon record from Dongge Cave, China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233, 71-86.] during the Holocene in the Dongge record, these shifts cover more than 1/2 of the amplitude of millennial-scale and multi-centennial-scale interstadial events during the Last Glacial Period [Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z.S., Wu, J.Y., Shen, C.-C., Dorale, J.A., 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348], and millennial-scale and multi-centennial-scale interstadial events during the Penultimate Glacial Period in China (this study). Abrupt decadal to millennial-scale climate events therefore appear to be a general feature of both glacial and interglacial climate. We demonstrate that monsoon intensity correlates well with atmospheric CH4 concentrations over the transition into the Bolling-Allerod, the Bolling-Allerod, and the Younger Dryas. In addition, we correlate an abrupt jump in CH4 concentration with Asian Monsoon Termination II. On the basis of this correlation, we conclude that the rise in atmospheric CO2, Antarctic warming, and the gradual portion of the rise in CH4 around Termination II occur within our 'Weak Monsoon Interval' (WMI), an extended interval of heavy [delta]18O between 135.5 1.0 and 129.0 1.0[no-break space]ka B.P., prior to Asian Monsoon Termination II and Northern Hemisphere warming. Antarctic warming over the millennia immediately preceding abrupt northern warming may result from the 'bipolar seesaw' mechanism. As such warming (albeit to a smaller extent) also preceded Asian Monsoon Termination I, the 'bipolar seesaw' mechanism may play a critical role in glacial terminations

Pangean monsoon and climatic cycles in NM-Texas State-Line outcrop, 2006, Anderson R. Y.

Microkarren in Australia - a request for information, 2007, Grimes, Ken G.
Microkarren are the smallest class of visible karren. They are finely-sculptured solutional forms, typically recognisable within a one centimetre grid. They come in a variety of patterns, of which fields of moderately to strongly sinuous microrills about 1mm wide and several decimetres long are the most conspicuous type. A descriptive terminology is suggested. Their genesis is uncertain, but appears to involve solution by thin films of water (dew, sea-spray or light rain) with surface-tension effects. In Australia their best development seems to be in the tropical monsoon (seasonally dry) and arid areas. However, these cryptic forms are poorly recorded and it is too early to make definite statements about their distribution. This note is a request for people to watch for them and report any sightings.

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