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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sulfide minerals is minerals that are composed of one or more metals combined with sulphur. the most common is pyrite. they are believed to be produced by the metabolic action of micro-organisms, and are found in many sedimentary rocks, usually in trace amounts.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for slovakia (Keyword) returned 52 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 52
Reconstruction of the development history of karstic water networks on the southern part of the Gšmšr-Torna karst on the basis of ruined caves and landforms, 1999, Já, Nos Mó, Ga

The author demonstrates the surface development of the Gomor-Torna karst situated on the Hungarian-Slovakian border from the Tertiary until the present day. He follows the process of transition from the covered karst conditions to the open karst on the karst plateau, and its effect upon the landforms and the karstic water network. He studied the evolution of surface and sub-surface water networks, and the regularity of the movements of underground rivers based on water tracing. He reconstructed the ancient surface outflow directions of the covered karst from the scarce remains of the epigenetic valleys inherited from cover deposits onto the limestone surface, from ruined swallow hole lines in valleys, as well as from decaying water conducting tubes generated in earlier phases.

Karst lakes of the Protected Landscape Area - Biosphere Reserve Slovensky kras karst and Aggtelek National Park, 2001, Barancok P,
In the extent karst area belonging to the Protected Landscape Area - Biosphere Reserve Slovensky kras karst and Aggtelck National Park arc several lakes. They arc very significant biotopes. At present they arc extincted rapidly, their water surface is reduced, they are silted relatively quickly and they arc overgrown by wetland vegetation. In order to clarify the causes of their extinction the development of 3 takes of the area Slovensky kras karst - lakes Jastericicic jazero lake, Smradrave jazierko lake and Fardrova jama lake and 3 lakes of the area Aggtelck Karst - lakes Aggtelcki-to, voros-to and Kardos-to were evaluated. From the area Slovensky kras karst are well known 2 further lakes - Lucanske jazierko lake and Cierne jazero lake. Climatic changes and prevailingly negative impact of man have decisive influence on the development of all lakes in the mentioned area

The cave in Postojna in Slovak literature before 1918, 2001, Lalkovič, Marcel

Mentions of Postojnska Jama can be found in the then Slovak periodicals before 1918 already. The greater part of them was published in Slovakia, some of them in Budapest or in Vienna (Domová pokladnica, Slovenské noviny, Lipa, Sokol, Pešt'budínske vedomosti, Obzor, etc.). They belong to the second part of the 19th century - the period when Slovak language was codified as a standard language. At that time the most important and maybe the most visited cave of the Monarchy attracted scientific sphere and common public alike. Therefore also Slovak periodicals tried to inform their readers.

Ochtina Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): Morphology, Mineralogy of the Fill and Genesis., 2002, Bosak P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Ford D. C. , Hrecman H. , Kadlec J. , Osborne A. , Pruner P.

Ochtina Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): Morphology, mineralogy of the fill and genesis, 2002, Bosak P, Bella P, Cilek V, Ford Dc, Hercman H, Kadlec J, Osborne A, Pruner P,
Ochtina Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The metalimestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as isolated lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained. Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and bimessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka - Allerod) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the, younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave


The paper deals with the activities of the Cave Protection Department of the Slovak Caves Administration in the field of speleoclimatic monitoring in the Slovakian show caves since 1996. The monitoring is concentrated on detail survey of basic climatic parameters processes (temperature, relative air humidity, dew point, air velocity, atmospheric pressure etc.) in by now studied show caves during minimally one year. The essence of obtained knowledge is to enhance cave protection in the practice of show caves, better understand the geoecosystems; determine visitors' influence, the period of regeneration and evaluation of possible negative influences. The results of the monitoring are used for determining the carrying capacity of individual caves, limits for visitors, guiding the manageiant and other necessary measures. Presented caves were surveyed by priorities like: World Heritage site, ice caves, natural air mass communication with surface climate, potential threats - all in relation to cave utilization and operation. Technical eqqipment, as well as research methodology are described in detail in the paper.

Speleogenesis along sub-vertical joints: A model of plateau karst shaft development: A case study: the Doln Vrch Plateau (Slovak Republic), 2003, Baroň, I.

Speleogenesis of narrow and relatively deep karst shafts (avens) was studied in the Slovak part of the Dolný Vrch Plateau (the Slovak Karst Biosphere Reserve, SE Slovakia). Most of the 211 shafts and shaft-related depressions located on the plateau have similar characteristics and no shaft has a known accessible connection to an active horizontal cave system. Dominant tectonic fractures are sub-vertical (sloping 70 - 90°) in most of the shafts. Several microforms, e.g. scallop-like forms, wall troughs or networks of protruding veins, evidence the main speleogenetic processes.
Water film dissolution extends the fractures, usually at the base of the epikarstic zone (Klimchouk, 1995), while the scallop-like forms develop. Then corrosive and erosive action of dripping water takes place and the wall troughs develop downwards - the shaft develops progressively now. Increased carbon dioxide concentration makes the solutions more aggressive and enables the processes working on the shaft bottoms. Water film action and selective condensation corrosion are responsible for upward shaft development. Later, shafts open to the surface, interacting with the effects of surface denudation.

Tree-mould caves in Slovakia., 2003, Gaal Ludovit
Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony) occurs in some of them.

Heavy metal distribution in karst soils from Croatia and Slovakia, 2003, Miko Slobodan, Durn Goran, Adamcov__ Renata, Ovi'_ Marta, Dub_kov__ M. , Skalsk__ Rastislav, Kapelj Sanja, Ottner Franz,

Ochtina Aragonite Cave, Slovakia: morphology, mineralogy and genesis, 2003, Bosak P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Et Al.

Geological conditions - factor of origin of two different cave systems in two adjacent valleys (the Demänovská Valley and the Jánska Valley, the Low Tatras, Slovakia), 2003, Maruš, In Milan

The Demänovská Valley is the most famous karst valley in the northern slopes of the Low Tatras. There the Demänovská Cave system is developed more than 30 km long. The similar karst valley, the Jánska Valley with dozens of underground karst phenomena is situated ten kilometers to the east. The total length of these caves exceeds 30 km. The geomorphological, hydrological, and karst conditions of these two valleys are similar; nevertheless there are several outstanding differencies between two cave systems developed in them. The whole of the Demänovská Cave system is developed within the eastern slope of the Demänovská Valley. On the contrary in the Jánska Valley significant caves are situated on both sides of the valley. Besides this difference the Demänovská Cave system is penetrable through the whole of its length whereas cave system of the Jánska Valley is not penetrable although connection of the underground spaces was proved by various methods. The described state is caused by different geological conditions in these valleys. Both cave systems are developed mostly in the Middle Triassic Gutenstein Limestones. But the Demänovská Valley is situated in the area which is built by monocline of the Krížnansky nappe. In the territory of the Jánska Valley there is the Chočsky nappe which is tectonically very complicatedly framed.

Groundwater chemical composition changes in the Dubravsky Massif hydrogeological structure, induced by magnesite exploitation, 2004, Bajtos P,
Exploited magnesite bodies of the Dubravsky Massif create parts of karst-fissure aquifer confined by Carboniferous metamorphic rocks of low fissure permeability. Extensive mining progress caused considerable changes in both groundwater circulation and groundwater chemical composition of the aquifer. A model of groundwater chemical composition genesis in such complicated conditions is presented in this paper. Saturation indices (SI) for chosen minerals were computed based on speciation modelling, which indicate oversaturation of groundwater with magnesite, dolomite, calcite, and undersaturation with gypsum in all saturated zone of karst-fissure aquifer. Statistical interpretations of hydrochemical data suppose that anthropogenically unaffected groundwater, where mineralisation is slightly altered by pyrite oxidation in dolomitic environment, represents hydrogeochemical background within the aquifer. It is supposed, that azonic acid, generated by condensation of nitrogen-rich gases freeing by blast-firings in mine, accelerate magnesite and dolomite dissolution. Produced groundwater types are of higher content of NO3, Mg and TIC in comparison with background values. Estimated acceleration of karstification processes due to underground mining is about 1.5 times. In spite of detected contamination, threshold values of drinking water standard, given by the Edict of the Slovak Ministry of Health Care No. 29 / 2002 Z. z. are not markedly exceeded for tested parameters. Future possible exploitation of studied aquifer after mining termination is not excluded

Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model, 2004, Zak Karel, Urban Jan, Cilek Vaclav, Hercman Helena,
Cryogenic cave calcite (CCC), formed by segregation of solutes during water freezing, was found in three Central European caves. This calcite type forms accumulations of loose calcite grains on cave floor. The calcite grains are of highly variable crystal morphology, and of sizes ranging from less than 1 mm to over 1 cm. The most typical feature is their accumulation as loose (uncemented) crystals. U-series dating indicates the formation of CCC in the studied caves during several climatic oscillations of the Weichselian (between 61 and 36 ka BP in the Chelsiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system in Poland, between 34 and 26 ka BP in the BUML Cave in the Czech Republic, and between 26 and 21 ka BP in the Stratenska Jaskyna cave system, Slovakia). At the time of CCC formation, the studied caves were lying in a periglacial zone.Detailed C and O stable isotope study of CCC samples revealed that slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium was the dominant formational process in the studied Polish and Czech caves. Significantly higher [delta]13C values of CCC in the Stratenska Jaskyna Cave indicate either water freezing in a more opened system with continuous CO2 escape (Rayleigh fractional separation), or participation of another CO2 source. The model of slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium is supported by isolated character of the caves having limited ventilation.In contrast, modern cryogenic cave calcite powders sampled directly on the ice surface of two recently iced caves in Slovakia with high ventilation showed much higher [delta]18O and [delta]13C data, similar to cryogenic calcites obtained in experimental rapid water freezing

Fluid inclusion and stable isotopic evidence for early hydrothermal karstification in vadose caves of the Nizke Tatry Mountains (Western Carpathians), 2004, Orvosova M. , Hurai V. , Simon K. , Wiegerova V. ,
Hydrothermal paleokarst cavities with calcite crystals up to 20 cm in diameter were found in two caves of the Nizke Tarry Mountains developed in Triassic limestone and dolomite of the Guttenstein type. In both caves, older zones of tectonic and hydrothermal activity have been overprinted by vadose speleogenesis. According to fluid inclusion microthermometry data, prismatic-scalenoliedral calcite from the Silvo ova Diera Cave has precipitated at temperatures between similar to60 and 101degreesC from low salinity aqueous solutions (less than or equal to0.7 wt. % NaCl eq.). Carbon and oxygen isotope profiling revealed significant delta(13)C decrease accompanied by slight delta(18)O increase during growth of calcite crystals. The negatively correlated carbon and oxygen isotope data cannot be interpreted in terms of any geologically reasonable models based on equilibrium isotopic fractionation. Fluid inclusion water exhibits minor decrease of deltaD values from crystal core (-31 %o SMOW) to rim (-41 %(0) SMOW). Scalenohedral calcite from the NovA Stanisovska Cave has precipitated at slightly higher temperatures 63-107degreesC from aqueous solutions with salinity : less than or equal to2.7 % NaCl eq. The positively correlated trend of delta(13)C and delta(18)O values is similar to common hydrothermal carbonates. The fluid inclusion water deltaD values differ significantly between the crystal core (-50 %(0) SMOW) and rim (- 11 %o SMOW). The calcite crystals are interpreted as representing a product of an extinct hydrothermal system, which was gradually replaced by shallow circulation of meteoric water. Fossil hydrothermal fluids discharged along Alpine uplift-related NNW-SSE-trending faults in Paleogene-pre-Pliocene times. Increased deuterium concentration in the inclusion water compared to recent meteoric precipitation indicates a warmer climate during the calcite crystallization

Aggtelek and Slovak Karst, Hungary-Slovakia, 2004, Ford D.

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