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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transverse permeability is see permeability, transverse.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cuba (Keyword) returned 57 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 57
The Monkey Caves of Cuba, 1992,
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Salgado E. J. , Calvache D. G. , Macphee R. D. E. , Gould Gina C.

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Eichem Ac, Dodds Wk, Tate Cm, Edler C,
Dry Chinquapin oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and American elm (Ulmus americana) leaves were placed in four microcosms fed by groundwater springs to monitor changes in dry mass, ash-free dry mass, and microbial activity over a 35-day period. Oxygen microelectrodes were used to measure microbial activity and to estimate millimeter-scale heterogeneity in that activity. Oak leaves lost mass more slowly than elm leaves. Generally, there was a decrease in total dry weight over the first 14 days, after which total dry weight began to increase. However, there were consistent decreases in ash-free dry mass over the entire incubation period, suggesting that the material remaining after initial leaf decomposition trapped inorganic particles. Microbial activity was higher on elm leaves than on oak leaves, with peak activity occurring at 6 and 27 days, respectively. The level of oxygen saturation on the bottom surface of an elm leaf ranged between 0 and 75% within a 30-mm2 area. This spatial heterogeneity in O2 saturation disappeared when the water velocity increased from 0 to 6 cm s-1. Our results suggest that as leaves enter the groundwater, they decompose and provide substrate for microorganisms. The rate of decomposition depends on leaf type, small-scale variations in microbial activity, water velocity, and the length of submersion time. During the initial stages of decomposition, anoxic microzones are formed that could potentially be important to the biogeochemistry of the otherwise oxic aquifer

Prhistoire et karst littoral : la grotte Cosquer et les calanques mar_seillaises (Bouches-du-Rhne, France), 1996,
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Collinagirard, J.
The Cosquer Cave is a French palaeolithic painted and engraved cave (27000/ 18500 BP) which is located under the sea, in the urgonian limestones of Cap Morgiou ("Massif des Calanques"; Marseille). The en trance was submerged at the end of the last glacial stage and is presently 37 m under sea level. A synthesis about the Cosquer cave environmental studies is presented here. Structural studies show that cave planimetry is determined by Cap Morgiou fracturations (mainly NW/SE and N/S vertical faults). Through archaeological studies, a concretion breaking period can be dated between 27000 and 18000 BP. Geomorphological study of the continental shelf at the foot of the Cosquer cave area shows fossils shorelines at -36 m, -50/55 m, -90 m, -100 m depth. Radiocarbon datings from shells collected in 100m sediments yielded a date of 13 250 BP. Direct scuba diving observations and submarine clive profiles sketching show several eustatic stand-still levels between -36 m and the sea surface indicating a probable tectonic stability during the last 10000 years.

Digital shaded relief image of a carbonate platform (northern Great Bahama Bank); scenery seen and unseen, 1996,
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Boss Sk,
A mosaic image of the northern Great Bahama Bank was created from separate gray-scale Landsat images using photo-editing and image analysis software that is commercially available for desktop computers. Measurements of pixel gray levels (relative scale from 0 to 255 referred to as digital number, DN) on the mosaic image were compared to bank-top bathymetry (determined from a network of single-channel, high-resolution seismic profiles), bottom type (coarse sand, sandy mud, barren rock, or reef determined from seismic profiles and diver observations), and vegetative cover (presence and/or absence and relative density of the marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum determined from diver observations). Results of these analyses indicate that bank-top bathymetry is a primary control on observed pixel DN, bottom type is a secondary control on pixel DN, and vegetative cover is a tertiary influence on pixel DN. Consequently, processing of the gray-scale Landsat mosaic with a directional gradient edge-detection filter generated a physiographic shaded relief image resembling bank-top bathymetric patterns related to submerged physiographic features across the platform. The visibility of submerged karst landforms, Pleistocene eolianite ridges, islands, and possible paleo-drainage patterns created during sea-level lowstands is significantly enhanced on processed images relative to the original mosaic. Bank-margin ooid shoals, platform interior sand bodies, reef edifices, and bidirectional sand waves are features resulting from Holocene carbonate deposition that are also more clearly visible on the new physiographic images. Combined with observational data (single-channel, high-resolution seismic profiles, bottom observations by SCUBA divers, sediment and rock cores) across the northern Great Bahama Bank, these physiographic images facilitate comprehension of areal relations among antecedent platform topography, physical processes, and ensuing depositional patterns during sea-level rise

The Cave-inhabiting Beetles of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera): Diversity, Distribution and Ecology, 1998,
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Peck, S. B. , Ruizbali, A. E. , Gonzalez, G. F. G.
The known cave-inhabiting beetle fauna of Cuba is summarized. Fifty-three species have been found in 70 low elevation caves in 11 provinces. Distribution of species by family is: Carabidae, 10; Dytiscidae, 4; Gyrinidae, 2; Hydrophilidae, 2; Histeridae, 5; Leiodidae, 2; Ptiliidae, 3; Staphylinidae, 1; Scarabaeidae, 4; Elateridae, 2; Lampyridae, 1; Nitidulidae, 1; Cerylonidae, 1; Tenebrionidae, 12; and Curculionidae, 3. Twenty-four of the species are judged to be accidental cave inhabitants. The remaining 29 species can be placed in the following ecological-evolutionary categories: trogloxenes, 3 species; first-level troglophiles, 21 species; second-level troglophiles (=unmodified neotroglobites), 5 species. No true troglobites are known (i.e., none of the species is morphologically specialized for cave life). About 59% of the non-accidental inhabitants are endemic to Cuba. The taxonomic composition is similar to that in caves in other West Indian Islands, and impoverished when compared to Neotropical continental caves. The abundance of food (bat guano) seems a prime factor preventing selection for cave-specialization in lowland West Indian and continental Neotropical cave beetles.

An Electromagnetic Geophysical Survey of the Freshwater Lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, 1998,
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Richards, R. T. , Troester, Jo. W. , Mart?nez, M. I.
An electromagnetic reconnaissance of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico was conducted with both terrain conductivity (TC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surface geophysical techniques. These geophysical surveys were limited to the southern and western parts of the island because of problems with access and cultural metallic objects such as reinforced concrete roadways on the eastern part of the island. The geophysical data were supplemented with the location of a freshwater spring found by scuba divers at a depth of about 20 m below sea level along the northern coast of the island. The geophysical data suggest that the freshwater lens has a maximum thickness of 20 m in the southern half of the island. The freshwater lens is not thickest at the center of the island but nearer the southwestern edge in Quaternary deposits and the eastern edge of the island in the Tertiary carbonates. This finding indicates that the ground-water flow paths on Isla de Mona are not radially symmetrical from the center of the island to the ocean. The asymmetry of the freshwater lens indicates that the differences in hydraulic conductivity are a major factor in determining the shape of the freshwater lens. The porosity of the aquifer, as determined by the geophysical data is about 33%

Agricultural use and water quality at karstic Cuban western plain, 1999,
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Castillo Juan Reynerio Fagundo, Hernandez Patricia Gonzlez
In the paper some results of studies on the karstic aquifers of the western plain of Cuba are presented and discussed. The intensive exploitation of these aquifers for agriculture use and drinking water supply induces an increase of marine water intrusion, water salinisation and a progressive increase of chemical corrosion with a greater dissolution of carbonates. During the period of study (1983-1998) a trend in the deterioration of water quality was observed by means of a chronological series of hydrochloride content.

Scuba observations of standstill levels in Elba Island (ltaly) and in Marie-Galante (West Indies). A worldwide sequence?, 1999,
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Collinagirard J,
Scuba observations (0 to -60 m) in Provence and Corsica and new data from Elba Island (Italy) indicate the bathymetric location of eustatic erosion levels in the Mediterranean Sea. A general sketch is given (standstill levels at-ii m, -17 m, -25 m, -35 m, -45 m, -50 m/55 m, -100 m). Isotopic data suggest contemporaneity of -100 m and -55 m levels with the two slow-down phases of Holocene transgression documented in Barbados and Tahiti coring (MWP-1A and 1B). Transgression acceleration after 14 000 BP explains the conservation of these littoral morphologies. Tectonics or isostasic movements (never more than 5 m) are prooved by differences observed in different areas of the world

PIXE study of Cuban quaternary paleoclimate geological samples and speleothems, 2000,
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Montero M. E. , Aspiazu J. , Pajon J. , Miranda S. , Moreno E. ,
PIXE elemental analysis of sediments, speleothems, and other geological formations related to the karst of the Sierra de San Carlos is presented, The similarity of the elemental composition of the sediments studied, as well as the alluvial regime which created them, indicate their common origin at each location, The Sr/Ca concentration ratio of a stalactite indicates that the average atmospheric temperature 12,000 and 18,000 years B.P, was colder than that of 6000 years B.P, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Controls on trace element (Sr-Mg) compositions of carbonate cave waters: implications for speleothem climatic records, 2000,
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Fairchild Ij, Borsato A, Tooth Af, Frisia S, Hawkesworth Cj, Huang Ym, Mcdermott F, Spiro B,
At two caves (Clamouse, S France and Ernesto, NE Italy), cave drip and pool waters were collected and sampled at intervals over a 2-3 year period. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca concentration ratios, corrected for marine aerosols, are compared with those of bedrocks and, in some cases, aqueous leachates of soils and weathered bedrocks. Cave waters do not lie along mixing lines between calcite and dolomite of bedrock carbonate, but typically show enhanced and covarying Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca. Four factors are considered as controlling processes. (1) The much faster dissolution rate of calcite than dolomite allows for the possibility of increase of Mg/Ca if water-rock contact times are increased during drier conditions. A theoretical model is shown to be comparable to experimental leachates. (2) Prior calcite precipitation along a flow path is a powerful mechanism for generating enhanced and covarying Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. This mechanism requires the solution to lose CO, into pores or caverns. (3) Incongruent dolomite dissolution has only limited potential and is best regarded as two separate processes of dolomite dissolution and calcite precipitation. (4) selective leaching of Mg and Sr with respect to Ca is shown to be important in leachates from Ernesto where it appears to be a phenomenon of calcite dissolution. In general selective leaching can occur whenever Ca is sequestered into precipitates due to freezing or drying of soils, or if there is derivation of excess Sr and Mg from non-carbonate species. The Ernesto cave has abundant water supply which in the main chamber is derived from a reservoir with year-round constant P-CO2 of around 10(-2.4) and no evidence of calcite precipitation in the karst above the cave. Two distinct, bur overlying trends of enhanced and covarying Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca away from the locus of bedrock compositions are due to calcite precipitation within the cave and, at a variable drip site, due to enhanced selective leaching at slow drip rates. Mg-enhancement in the first chamber is due to a more dolomitic bedrock and longer residence times. The Clamouse site has a less abundant water supply and presents geochemical evidence of prior calcite precipitation. both in the cave and in overlying porous dolomite/dedolomitized limestone bedrock. Initial P-CO2 values as high as 10(-1) are inferred. Experimental incubations of Clamouse soils which generated enhanced P-CO2 and precipitated CaCO3 had compositions similar to the karst waters. Calcite precipitation is inferred to he enhanced in drier conditions. Hydrological controls on cave water chemistry imply that the trace element chemistry of speleothems may be interpretable in palaeohydrological terms. Drier conditions tends to promote not only longer mean residence times (enhancing dolomite dissolution and hence Mg/Ca), but also enhances degassing and calcite precipitation leading to increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Mn-Fe deposits in shallow cryptic marine environment: examples in northwestern Mediterranean submarine caves, 2001,
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Allouc J, Harmelin Jg,
Black coating of hard substrates by Mn and Fe oxides has long been reported from shallow, dark, submarine caves. However, these littoral metallic deposits have never been studied in detail, despite expected analogies with deep-sea polymetallic crusts. Submarine caves are characterized by darkness and low rates of exchanges with the open sea. Lack of primary production and confinement of inner water bodies result in marked oligotrophy and extremely reduced biomass, i.e. conditions close to those prevailing in deep-sea habitats. Field evidences suggested that the formation of Mn-Fe coatings was closely tied to these particular environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the detailed features of Mn-Fe coatings from dark caves with different local conditions, and to try to identify the processes responsible for their deposition. Study sites and methods Three sublittoral, single-entrance, caves were sampled by scuba diving along the coasts of Provence (France, Mediterranean Sea) (fig. 1). The first site is a large karstic cave (Tremies Cave, 16 m depth at entrance floor, 60 m long; Marseille-Cassis area) with an ascending profile which results in a buffered thermal regime and markedly oligotrophic conditions due to warm water trapping in its upper part (fig. 1 and 2). Wall fragments were sampled at 30 m (medium confinement : zone B) and 60 in (strong confinement : zone C) from the cave entrance. The second site is a large tubular cavity open in conglomerate formations (3PP Cave, 15 m depth at entrance floor, 120 m long; La Ciotat) with a descending profile which results in relative permanence of winter temperatures within the inner parts, complex water circulation and presumed greater input of sedimented particles than in the preceding cave (fig.1 and 2). Wall samples were taken at 25 m, 70 in and 100 m from entrance. The third site is a small, horizontal, cave open in quartzite formations (Bagaud Cave, 7 in depth at entrance floor, about 10 m long; WNW of Port-Cros Island, bay of Hyeres). Sampling was performed on walls of a narrow corridor between an anterior room and a smaller inner room. A sporadic outflow of continental waters is located in the inner room. The samples were preserved in 50% ethylic alcohol or studied soon after their sampling. Before carbon coating and SEM examination, or microanalyses with SEM-associated spectrometers, they were treated in a 33% Chlorox solution and thereafter washed in demineralized water and dried. Micromorphology At low-medium magnification (<20,000), the aspect of coatings varies between caves and, especially, between inner-cave locations. All the described structures are made up of Mn and Fe oxides. In Tremies Cave, coatings of walls from zone B are composed of irregular erected constructions (height : 10s to 100s μm) formed by the aggregation of roughly ovoid primary concretions of about 10 μm (fig. 3). The surface of those primary concretions displays numerous lacunose to reticulate films (pores, about 0.5 μm in diameter, are often subrounded). Remnants of these films and organomorphic corpuscles occur also within the primary concretions (fig. 4). On younger substrates (broken wall exposed since 1970), primary concretions are poorly developed and no prominent construction is visible (fig. 5). In more confined conditions (zone C), the erected constructions of ancient coatings are smaller and less numerous than in zone B but are well individualized (fig. 6). In this zone: C, besides some remnants of lacunose to reticulate films (fig. 7), there is an appearance of filaments and ovoid corpuscles (height/width : 10-30/5-15 μm), which seem to be linked to filaments by a short stalk (fig. 8). In 3 PP Cave, at 25-70 m from entrance, wall coatings present porous heaps of primary concretions (fig. 9). The surface and the inside of the latter comprise remnants of lacunose to reticulate films that evoke those observed in Tremies Cave (fig. 10 and 11). On younger substrates (hard parts of sessile invertebrates), coatings are restricted to micrometric organomorphic corpuscles with some remnants of lacunose or fibrous films (fig. 12). At 100 in from the entrance, coatings are shaped by numerous erected constructions, more or less coalescing (fig. 13). Besides remnants of lacunose films, the primary concretions contain interlacing filaments (diameter : 0.2-0.3 μm) forming cords or veils (fig. 14). In Bagaud Cave, the primary concretions are aggregated in irregular heaps (fig. 15). Lacunose films are particularly frequent and tend to form three-dimensional mamillated structures that were not observed in the other caves (fig. 16). In particular, there is an appearance of tubular structures (fig. 17) and of numerous hemispheroidal structures (diameter : 4-5 μm) with an upper orifice (fig. 18 and 19). At higher magnification (20,000), whatever the cave and inner-cave location, the aspect of oxide deposits is rather smooth or, especially, microgranular (fig. 20). Mineral composition The composition of coatings is different between caves and according to their inner-cave location. In both large caves (Tremies and 3 PP), the Mn/Fe ratio increases with the distance from the cave entrance, i.e. when exchanges with the open sea diminish (fig. 21a). This trend is particularly clear in Tremies Cave, where the confinement gradient is strongly marked. Besides, the Mn/Fe ratio also seems to increase when films are present in the analysed volume (some cubic micrometers) (fig. 21b). In Bagaud Cave, the Mn/Fe ratio reaches high values despite the small size of this cave and its low confinement level. Discussion and conclusions SEM observations suggest that in each studied cave, the Mn-Fe coatings are biosedimentary deposits. Genesis of these deposits is assumed to result mainly from the replacement of biofilms (composed of cells and slime, i.e, of extracellular polymeric substance produced by microorganisms) generated by microbial populations colonizing the cave walls. Considering the darkness of the cave-locations, microbes consist mainly in bacteria, but fungi are probably responsible for the filaments and ovoids corpuscules (evoking sporocysts) occurring in innermost parts. Observations at different scales of the morphological features of oxide deposits reveal a structured organisation which varies along the strong environmental gradients (particularly the confinement level) that occur from the entrance to the innermost parts : erected constructions made up of primary concretions become more and more defined and acquire a pseudo-columnar shape. The aspect of biofilms appears to be controlled by the same environmental parameters. In open or relatively open environments, they frequently show a three-dimensional development (with frequent skullcape-like shapes), while in more confined conditions they exhibit a planar layout. These changes reflect either the adaptation of the slime-producing bacteria to the local trophic resources (correlated to the rate of exchange with the open sea) and water movements, or spatial replacement of taxa. It is assumed that slime (mainly composed of water and exopolysaccharides) induces a local increase of the concentration in dissolved Mn and acts as an ion exchange resin that allows the retention of Mn on the functional groups of EPS. These conditions promote the nucleation of Mn oxide crystallites in the slime. Then. the anionic character of Mn oxides in seawater, and their capacity to catalyse the oxydation of Mn2 to Mn4, allow the process to go on without any other biological intervention; thus, the process of crystal growth becomes possible. In caves where Mn is only supplied by seawater (Tremies and 3 PP), the average value of the Mn/Fe ratio of coatings is negatively correlated to the local availability of nutrients. This trend is probably linked to changes in the selectivity of slimes towards the processes of retention of cations, because this ratio is clearly influenced by the occurrence of biofilms. However, independently from trophic resources, the Mn/Fe ratio can be notably increased when additional Mn is provided by the seeping or flowing of continental waters (Bagaud Cave)

Ecological assessment and geological significance of microbial communities from Cesspool Cave, Virginia, 2001,
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Engel As, Porter Ml, Kinkle Bk, Kane Tc,
Microbial mats from hydrogen sulfide-rich waters and cave-wall biofilms were investigated from Cesspool Cave, Virginia, to determine community composition and potential geomicrobiological functioning of acid-producing bacteria. Rates of microbial mat chemoautotrophic productivity were estimated using [C-14]-bicarbonate incorporations and microbial heterotrophy was determined using [C-14]-leucine incubations. Chemoautotrophic fixation was measured at 30.4 12.0 ng C mg dry wt(1) h(1), whereas heterotrophic productivity was significantly less at 0.17 0.02 ng C mg dry wt(1) h(1). The carbon to nitrogen ratios of the microbial mats averaged 13.5, indicating that the mats are not a high quality food source for higher trophic levels. Ribosomal RNA-based methods were used to examine bacterial diversity in the microbial mats, revealing the presence of at least five strains of bacteria. The identity of some of the strains could be resolved to the genus Thiothrix and the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteriodes phylum, and the identity of the remaining strains was to either the Helicobacter or Thiovulum group. Two of 10 sulfur-oxidizing, chemoautotrophic pure cultures of Thiobacillus spp. (syn. Thiomonas gen. nov.) demonstrated the ability to corrode calcium carbonate, suggesting that the colonization and metabolic activity of these bacteria may be enhancing cave enlargement

Coastal and submarine karstic discharges in theGokova Bay, SW Turkey, 2002,
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Bayari Cs, Kurttas T,
Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (18O and 2H) and thermal infrared data of LANDSAT 5 TM for sea surface temperature anomalies have been used to determine the extent and spatial variation of salinization in coastal and submarine karstic groundwater discharges in the Gokova Bay area, located in the SW Turkey. The bay is an active graben extending in an east-west direction. An artesian aquifer in the eastern tidal plain is the only source of fresh groundwater, whereas Tertiary and Mesozoic carbonates contacting with sea along the northern coastline provide abundant but saline water. Physical properties, major ion chemistry and stable isotope composition indicate a westward increase in the salinity of the karstic springs. The temporal variation of salinity in groundwater is either related to variations in sea level or in seasonal recharge rates, while some springs have time-invariant salinity. Submarine groundwater discharges were determined successfully from satellite images and verified by ground measurements of pH, temperature and electrical conductivity. Some of these discharges are also characterized by the existence of a halocline, as observed during Scuba diving. The westward-increasing salinity appears to be related to decreasing groundwater discharge in this direction

Prehistory and coastal karst area: Cosquer Cave and the Calanques of Marseille, 2004,
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Collinagirard, J.

The Cosquer Cave is a French Palaeolithic painted and engraved cave (27.000-18.500 BP), which is located under the sea, in the Urgonian limestones of Cap Morgiou (“Massif des Calanques”, Marseille). The entrance was submerged at the end of the Last Glacial Stage and is presently 37 m under sea level. A synthesis about the Cosquer Cave environmental studies is presented here. Structural studies show that caves planimetry is determined by Cap Morgiou jointing (mainly NW-SE and N-S vertical faults). Through archaeological studies, a speleothem breaking period can be dated between 27.000 and 18.000 BP. Geomorphologic study of the continental shelf at the foot of the Cosquer Cave area shows fossil shorelines at -36 m, -50/55 m, -90 m, -100 m depth. Radiocarbon dating from shells collected in -100m sediments yielded a date of 13.250 BP. Direct scuba diving observations and submarine cliff profiles sketching show several eustatic still stand¬ levels between -36m and the current sea surface indicating a probable tectonic stability during the last 10.000 years.

Cuba, 2004,
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Tyc A.

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