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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That desorption is the reverse process of sorption [22]. see also sorption.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for mass (Keyword) returned 651 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 651
Geophysical applications of heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe flow, 1971,
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Wigley T. , Brown C. ,

Research on the nervous system of Hexaurus merkli J. Frivaldzsky (Coleoptera, Bathysciinae)., 1972,
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Kwartirnikov Michail
The central nervous system of the beetle Hexaurus merkli J. Frivaldzsky corresponds to the formulae 2+2 / 0. The relative proportion of the corpora pedunculata reaches 5.5% and that of the olfactive lobes 6.8% of the total mass of the upper-exophagus ganglion. The under-exophagus ganglion corresponds to 29.5% of the total mass of the head-ganglion. It is furthermore demonstrated both in the upper- and under-exophagus ganglion that neurosecretory cells exist. Corpora allata and corpora cardiaca are also present.

Research on the nervous system of Hexaurus merkli J. Frivaldzsky (Coleoptera, Bathysciinae)., 1972,
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Kwartirnikov Michail
The central nervous system of the beetle Hexaurus merkli J. Frivaldzsky corresponds to the formulae 2+2 / 0. The relative proportion of the corpora pedunculata reaches 5.5% and that of the olfactive lobes 6.8% of the total mass of the upper-exophagus ganglion. The under-exophagus ganglion corresponds to 29.5% of the total mass of the head-ganglion. It is furthermore demonstrated both in the upper- and under-exophagus ganglion that neurosecretory cells exist. Corpora allata and corpora cardiaca are also present.

Karst. J. N. Jennings. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971. xviii, 254 pp., illus. $8.95. Introduction to Systematic Geomorphology, vol. 7, 1972,
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White William B. ,

Das Tote Gebirge als - Entwasserungstypus der Karstmassive der nordostlichen Kalkhochalpen (Ergebnisse von Isotopen-messungen), 1972,
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Dincer O. , Payne B. R. , Yen C. K. , Zotl J.

Forced Flow Passages in Karst Massifs, 1973,
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Pasquini G.

Mass balance and spectral analysis applied to karst hydrologic networks, 1973,
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Brown M. C.


The karst of Transvaal (South Africa)., 1976,
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Kavalieris I. , Martini Jacques E. J.
The Transvaal Karst is a world important example of a Karst developed on a very old dolomite. Its unique character is due to the composition of the rock and history of development. The dissolution of the dolomite is interesting and has an important effect on the character of the caves developed. The caves preserved in this area include the longest known in South Africa and are perhaps among the largest dolomite systems known in the world. They are very old and in some cases contain important palaeontological deposits (Australopithecine fauna). The caves to various degrees are in a state of de-generation, having been exposed for a very long period above the water-table. For the greater part of the Karst area, aggressive vadose waters, and long exposure has resulted in the accumulation of a thick covering of residual material. The plateau-like geomorphology and low rainfalls has prevented physical erosion and significant removal of this debris from the land surface. The caves themselves are often characterized by collapse and in general lack of formations. Massive calcite formation in the caves is usually partly or nearly completely redissolved and are relics of past colder climatic periods with winter rains. Formations active now are small, usually delicate and often due directly to evaporation. The heavy mantle of residual debris preserved under some of the more ancient of South African landsurface relics (the African Surface) poses a serious economic problem of stability, with mans' utilization of the environment. A greater understanding of the Karst, its evolution and properties is thus of considerable practical importance.

On the meso- and microclimate of Kle?nica Valley in the vicinity of the Bear-Cave (Jaskinia Nied?wiedzia, in the ?nie?nik K?odzki massif). [in Polish], 1978,
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Kwiatkowski Jan, Stopka Ryszard, Szczepa?ska Zofia

Fracturation and Karstification of a Massif: the example of the Azerou El Kebir (Northern Algeria)., 1978,
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Coiffait P. E. , Quinif Yves
The fracturation of the sub-autochthonous massif of the Azerou el Kebir is not fundamentally different from that of the adjoining allochthonous massif; where the structures are due to an Alpine phase, known as the Atlas phase. As with all fractures, karstification only exploits certain of them, without having any linkage to their statistical importance, caves have developed following fractures which are qualitatively important, but are poorly represented quantitatively. The study of the karstification therefore, confirms his complementary to the structural analysis in order to elucidate the technical problems of fracturation in the region.

The development of limestone cave systems in the dimensions of length and depth., 1978,
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Ewers R. O. , Ford Derek Clifford
Karst caves are defined as solutional cavities 5-16 mm in diameter and discussion is limited to cases where such continuously extend to a surficial input or output or both. Three opposed sets of general genetic hypotheses ("the classical hypotheses") have been presented for such caves, Arguing that the majority develop 1) in the vadose zone 2) in the phreatic zone 3) proximate and parallel to a watertable. It is contended here that vadose, phreatc and watertable caves are all of common occurrence and may be linked in one genetic theory. A four state model is proposed in which ideal phreatic and watertable caverns are end members: in a given massif of soluble rock the state (cave type) that develops is a function of the frequency of fissures penetrable by groundwater. The water-table type is the high frequency end member. Fissure frequency increases with passage of time after onset of karstification and gradational features may also develop to modify phreatic types. Vadose caves may be of "drawdown" type (following an initial phreatic path) or "invasion" type (developing a new path through rock drained by earlier caves). Extensive cave systems may comprise vadose, phreatic and/or watertable developed contemporaneously.

Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment, 1979,
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Deevey Es, Rice Ds, Rice Pm, Vaughan Hh, Brenner M, Flannery Ms,
From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time

Structure et Fonctionnement des Ecosystmes do Haut-Rhone Franais; IX: Analyse des peuplements de deux stations phratiques alimentant des bras morts., 1981,
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Gibert J. , Ginet Rene, Mathieu J. , Reygrobellet Jean Luc
Two phreatic stations providing old meanders of the French river Rhone ("Lones") with interstitial water have been studied for three years. The samples (100 liters of water) have been collected by the Bou-Rouch method at 60 cm deep in the sediment. The analyses of populations show that the biocenoses of the two stations are quite different: The one (Station 2) is rather specialized; most of the species are troglobitic (80% of the whole biomass; the only Amphipod, Niphargopsis casparyi, represents 67% of this biomass). The other (Station 8) is very diversified; the seven dominant groups are all epigean animals. Population numbers have changed during the three years of sampling. Fluctuations have been observed in station 2, but the total numbers were quite similar in 1975 and 1977. On the contrary, station 8 shows an "exponential" type of growth generated by epigean organisms, while troglobitic species remained unchanged.

Perspectives in the Study of the Zoogeography of Interstitial Crustacea: Rathynellacea (Syncarida) and Parastenocarididae (Copepoda)., 1981,
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Schminke Horst Kurt
Aspects of the zoogeography of Bathynellacea and Parastenocarididae are discussed in the light of my recent investigations. Parastenocarididae in Australia are rare and not very diverse in number of species. Four species belonging to three genera were collected on a tour through Australia in 1968. Despite relationships to species from other Gondwanian landmasses the poorness of the Australian fauna, together with the apparent ability of this family to spread over longer distances, suggest a late arrival of Parastenocarididae in Australia. Invasion is likely to have taken place from two directions. As for the Bathynellacea, the relationships presumed to exist between genera from Australia and Malaysia within the Parabathynellidae have been invalidated. As an alternative to the double-armed dispersal model of the Parabathynellidae propounded earlier, a vicariance model is discussed following Schram (1977). The zoogeography of Parastenocarididae can probably be best explained in terms of a primary dispersal history.

Essai sur l'analyse des cavits kars-tiques du massif de Marseilleveyre et des archipels de Riou et du Frioul (Marseille), 1983,
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Blanc J. J. , Monteau R.
ESSAY ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE KARSTIC CAVES OF THE MASSIF DE MARSEILLEVEYRE AND OF THE RIOU-FRIOUL ARCHIPELAGOS, MARSEILLE, FRANCE - Statistical analysis and numeric treatment about the karstic caves of the Marseilleveyre Massif and Riou-Frioul archipelagos. We deal with the relationships between the lithology of consolidated speleothems, geologic framework, jointing intensity, morphology and mechanical phenomena (decompression and neotectonic actions).

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