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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That wet suit is a diving garment of foam neoprene designed to insulate the diver from the cold but which allows a thin film of water to penetrate between the suit and the body [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for dolostone (Keyword) returned 66 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 66
Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and structural geology of gypsum caves in east central New Mexico, 1997,
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Forbes J, Nance R,
Hundreds of solution caves have developed in evaporites and carbonates of the Permian San Andres Formation where it crops out between Vaughn and Roswell, New Mexico, USA. Several of the caves are over 3.2 km (2 miles) in length, and the deepest has a vertical extent of over 120 m (400 feet). These gypsum caves afford an extraordinary opportunity to examine the evaporite rocks in which they are developed. We have examined interbedded gypsum and dolostone strata exposed in the walls of 11 of these caves, and show stratigraphic sections on two geologic cross sections. Gypsum textures exposed in the caves include massive, nodular, and laminar types. While we refer to them as ''gypsum caves,'' gypsum is not the only lithology exposed. Some cave passages and rooms are developed in thick dolostone units intercalated with or overlain by gypsum beds. Correlation of beds exposed in two or more caves has allowed us to infer the local geologic structure. The sedimentary sequence penetrated by a cave exerts a profound effect on the geometry and passage cross-section of the cave. Many cave passages have gypsum walls and a dolostone or limestone floor. Although many of the cave passages flood completely during major storm events, the stairstep profile of most of the caves is indicative of speleogenesis that has occurred predominantly within the vadose zone

Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada, 1997,
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Ford Dc,
Outcrops of sulfate arid mixed sulfate-carbonate rocks are common everywhere in Canada outside of the Shield province. Interstratal salt deposits are abundant in the interior lowlands. Types of karst that occur are determined chiefly by relations between (i) formation thickness and purity, (ii) regional topography and hydraulic gradient (iii) effects of receding Wisconsinan and earlier glaciers, and (iv) extent of modern permafrost. Exposures of bare karst on thick, pure sulfate formations are comparatively rare. Two principal landform types found on them are: (1) high-density polygonal karst (micro-sinkhole densities of thousands per km(2)); where hydraulic gradients are high and tills are thin; (2) hills and ridges of blocks uplifted and fractured by hydration (anhydrite) tectonics at paleo-icefront positions where hydraulic gradients are low. Deeply till-mantled karst dominated by collapse and suffosion sinkholes in the mantling detritus is well developed in southwestern Newfoundland and in central and northern Nova Scotia. Covered karst is abundant on sulfates conformably overlain by carbonate br elastic strata; collapse sinkholes ale the principal landform. Very large breccia pipes (up to 25 x 15 km) ale associated with deep subrosion of salt during glacier recessions. Syngenetic breccia karst is a fourth, distinct category created in some formations of thin, interbedded dolostones and sulfates. Where these are exposed td high hydraulic gradients, deep calcite-cemented breccias were formed in a first generation, upon which sinkhole and pinnacle karsts and dissolution drape topographies were able to develop rapidly in late-glacial and post-glacial conditions

Hydrobasaluminite and Aluminite in Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, 1998,
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Polyak, V. J. , Provencio, P.
Hydrobasaluminite, like alunite and natroalunite, has formed as a by-product of the H2S-H2SO4 speleogenesis of Cottonwood Cave located in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. This mineral is found as the major component of white pockets in the dolostone bedrock where clay-rich seams containing kaolinite, dickite, and illite have altered during speleogenesis to hydrobasaluminite, amorphous silica, alunite, and hydrated halloysite (endellite). Gibbsite and amorphous silica are associated with the hydrobasaluminite in a small room of Cottonwood Cave. Opalline sediment on the floor of this room accumulated as the cave passage evolved. Jarosite, in trace amounts, occurs in association with the opalline sediment and most likely has the same origin as hydrobasaluminite and alunite. The hydrobasaluminite was found to be unstable at 25C and 50% RH, converting to basaluminite in a few hours. Basaluminite was not detected in the cave samples. Aluminite has precipitated as a secondary mineral in the same small room where hydrobasaluminite occurs. It comprises a white to bluish-white, pasty to powdery moonmilk coating on the cave walls. The bedrock pockets containing hydrobasaluminite provide the ingredients from which aluminite moonmilk has formed. It appears that recent cave waters have removed alumina and sulfate from the bedrock pocket minerals and have deposited aluminite and gypsum along the cave wall. Gypsum, amorphous silica and sulfate-containing alumina gels are associated with the aluminite moonmilk.

Blue Lagon, Afrique du Sud, une grotte remplissage palokarstique permien et concrtions daragonite, 1998,
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Martini J. E. J. , Moen H. F. G.
The authors de scribe a 7 km long phreatic maze they discovered and explored during the last decade of the 2Oth century in South Africa, developed in the late Archean dolostone in the Malmani Subgroup. This cave is of interest mainly for two aspects. Firstly the cave intersects paleokarst channels filled with bleached kaolinic residuals of Permian age. This paleokarst is most likely to have developed relatively shortly after the Gondwana glaciation in a cool, humid climate. Secondly the cave is remarkable by the abundance of aragonite speleothems. Particularly interesting are subaquatic aragonite formations: rafts, cones, volcanoes, sea urchins and pool floor crust. Aragonite rafts are always associated with more or less calcite, which seems to have formed first and was apparently essential in the initial formation of this speleothem. In the pool floor crust, a cyclical calcite-aragonite deposition seems to correspond to alternation of humid and dry periods, calcite representing wet years. The amplitude of this cycle is possibly in the order of a few decades. Phosphate minerals which developed on cave soil, rock and carbonate speleothems in contact with bat guano, have been identified, in particular the rare mineral collinsite

A Speleogenic Origin for Five-Column Rock, Wisconsin?, 1999,
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Day, M. , Jeff, K.
Five-Column Rock is among the most impressive of several notable fragile rock formations in southwestern Wisconsins unglaciated Driftless Area. Consisting of a basal sandstone plinth, a set of columns enclosing windows, and a tabular dolostone summit, the entire structure is over 6 m high. The Rock has not been previously studied in detail, and its origin has only generally been ascribed to weathering and eolian processes. Closer examination suggests that the feature originated as a phreatic cave developed in carbonate rocks transitional between the underlying Cambrian sandstone and the overlying Ordovician dolostones. The morphology of the feature, its stratigraphic context and its relationship to extant cave passage in the adjoining interfluvial ridge all point to a speleogenic origin, which may have broader significance for the development of similar features throughout the region.

Growth and demise of an Archean carbonate platform, Steep Rock Lake, Ontario, Canada, 1999,
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Kusky T. P. , Hudleston P. J. ,
The Steep Rock Group of northwest Ontario's Wabigoon subprovince is one of the world's thickest Archean carbonate platform successions. It was deposited unconformably over a 3001-2928 Ma gneissic terrane, and contains a remarkable group of biogenic and oolitic limestones, dolostones, micrites, and karat breccias capped by a thick paleosol developed between and over karst towers. The presence of aragonite fans, herringbone calcite, and rare gypsum molds suggests that the carbonate platform experienced at least local anaerobic and hypersaline depositional conditions. This sequence shows that a combination of chemical and biological processes was able to build a carbonate platform 500 m thick by 3 billion years ago. The carbonate platform is structurally overlain by a mixture of complexly deformed rocks of the Dismal Ashrock forming a melange with blocks of ultramafic volcaniclastic rocks, mafic volcanics, carbonate, tonalite, lenses of Fe-ore rock, and metasedimentary rocks, in a shaly, serpentinitic, and fragmental ultramafic volcaniclastic matrix. The melange shows evidence of polyphase deformation, with early high-strain fabrics formed at amphibolite facies, and later superimposed brittle fabrics related to the final emplacement of the melange over the carbonate platform. An amphibolite- through greenschist-grade shear zone marks the upper contact of the melange with overlying mafic volcanic and tuffaceous rocks of the ca. 2932 Ma Witch Bay allochthon, interpreted as a primitive island are sequence. We suggest an evolutionary model for the area that begins with rifting of an are sequence (Marmion Complex of the Wabigoon are) that initiated subsidence and sedimentation on the Steep Rock platform and its correlatives that extend for a restored strike length exceeding 1000 km. Shallow water carbonate sedimentation continued until the platform was uplifted on the flanks of a flexural bulge related to the approach of the Witch Bay allochthon, representing collision of the rifted are margin of the Wabigoon subprovince with the Witch Bay are. Melange of the Dismal Ashrock was formed as off-axis volcanic rocks were accreted to the base of the Witch Bay allochthon prior to its collision with the Steep Rock platform

Palaeokarst systems in the Neoproterozoic of eastern North Greenland in relation to extensional tectonics on the Laurentian margin, 1999,
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Smith M. P. , Soper N. J. , Higgins A. K. , Rasmussen J. A. , Craig L. E. ,
Palaeokarst, in the form of large, uncollapsed cave systems, is described from the Proterozoic of Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The endokarst, of entirely meteoric origin, is developed in dolostones of the Fyns So Formation (Hagen Fjord Group, Riphean). At one locality, Hjornegletscher, shallow, sub-horizontal phreatic conduits are present below an unconformity surface and are infilled by the overlying Ediacaran Kap Holbaek Formation. In Saefaxi Elv, the unconformity is overlain by the Wandel Valley Formation, an Early Ordovician carbonate sequence that is widely transgressive over northeastern Greenland. Vertical vadose fissures extend down towards the phreas, but the cave systems are again filled by Kap Holbaek Formation sediments. At Hjornegletscher, channels up to 40 m wide incise the phreatic system, pointing to relative base-lever lowering before, or during, deposition of the Kap Holbaek Formation. Recognition of a depositional hiatus between the Fyns So and Kap Holbaek formations, in what was previously thought to be a continuous Vendian Hagen Fjord sequence, has implications for regional correlation and tectonics. The unconformity could represent most of Vendian time, accounting for the absence, in this area, of glaciogenic sedimentary rocks in the Hagen Fjord Group. This permits correlation of the Fyns So Formation with other end-Riphean transgressive carbonate sequences developed in East Greenland, Svalbard and perhaps Scotland, that represent the culmination of a major pre-Iapetan rift-sag cycle. Secondly, recognition of the scale of the sub-Wandel Valley unconformity points to regional uplift and tilting of northeastern Greenland in mid-Cambrian to earliest Ordovician time. This must represent a phase of renewed extension of the Iapetus passive margin that is unique to this corner of Laurentia, not terrane collision as previously suggested

Bedrock Features of Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalup Mountains, New Mexico, 2000,
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Duchene, H. R.
Lechuguilla is a hypogenic cave dissolved in limestones and dolostones of the Capitan Reef Complex by sulfuric acid derived from oil and gas accumulations in the Delaware Basin of southeast New Mexico and west Texas. Most of the cave developed within the Seven Rivers and Capitan Formations, but a few high level passages penetrate the lower Yates Formation. The Queen and possibly Goat Seep formations are exposed only in the northernmost part of the cave below -215 m. Depositional and speleogenetic breccias are common in Lechuguilla. The cave also has many spectacular fossils that are indicators of depositional environments. Primary porosity in the Capitan and Seven Rivers Formations was a reservoir for water containing hydrogen sulfide, and a pathway for oxygenated meteoric water prior to and during sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Many passages at depths >250 m in Lechuguilla are in steeply dipping breccias that have a west-southwest orientation parallel to the strike of the shelf margin. The correlation between passage orientation and depositional strike suggests that stratigraphy controls these passages.

Clays in Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, 2000,
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Polyak, V. J. , Gven, N.
The origins of clay minerals in the caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico are categorized as (1) detrital, (2) inherited from the weathering of dolostone and siltstone, and (3) authigenic. Clay minerals found in these caves include hydrated halloysite, kaolinite, dickite, illite, montmorillonite, illite-smectite mixed-layers, palygorskite, and trioctahedral smectite. The detrital clay minerals are montmorillonite, illite, dickite and kaolinite. The clay minerals inherited from the bedrock by condensation-induced weathering (in wall residues) are illite and dickite. Cave-authigenic clay minerals include hydrated halloysite (endellilte), trioctahedral smectite, montmorillonite, and probably palygorskite. Hydrated halloysite formed by the alteration of illite, montmorillonite, illite-smectite mixed-layers, kaolinite, or dickite during sulfuric acid-related speleogenesis. Trioctahedral smectite precipitated with Mg-carbonate minerals in dolomite crusts and huntite moonmilk. Montmorillonite formed in saturated ledge deposits of redistributed wall residues. Less clear is the origin of palygorskite in laminated silt and clay deposits in Carlsbad Cavern.

AUTHIGENESIS OF TRIOCTAHEDRAL SMECTITE IN MAGNESIUM-RICH CARBONATE SPELEOTHEMS IN CARLSBAD CAVERN AND OTHER CAVES OF THE GUADALUPE MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO, 2000,
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Polyak Victor James, Guven Necip,
Trioctahedral smectite is a constituent of Mg-rich carbonate crusts and moonmilks (pasty deposits) in caves of the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of individual crystallites and their aggregates along with the X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the smectite is probably stevensite. Saponite is likely present in some samples also. The smectite is intimately associated with dolomite crusts and huntite moonmilks in Carlsbad Cavern, Lechuguilla Cave, and other dolostone caves. Clay particles appear as fibers and films, with aggregates comprising decimicron-sized filamentous masses that envelop crystals of dolomite, huntite, and magnesite. The occurrence of smectite is related to the genesis of the Mg-rich carbonate minerals. In water films, progressive evaporation and carbon dioxide loss results in the sequential precipitation of Mg-rich calcite, aragonite, dolomite, huntite, and magnesite. This sequence of carbonate precipitation removes Ca and greatly increases the Mg/Ca ratio in the solutions. Silica is commonly available probably because of high pH conditions, and consequently, smectite forms in the Mg-rich alkaline environment. Along with the Mg-rich carbonate minerals, opal, quartz, and uranyl vanadates may precipitate with the smectite

Age of the Sherman-Type Zn-Pb-Ag Deposits, Mosquito Range, Colorado, 2000,
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Symons D. T. A. , Lewchuk M. T. , Taylor C. D. , Harris M. J. ,
The Sherman-type Zn-Pb-Ag dolomite deposits in central Colorado are hosted in dolostones of the Early Mississippian Leadville Formation. Paleomagnetic analysis, using progressive alternating field and thermal demagnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition methods, was performed on specimens from samples at 37 sites in the Sherman-type Continental Chief, Peerless, Ruby, Sacramento, and Sherman deposits, in their host rocks, in the 72 Ma Pando Porphyry sill(s) and in the ~40 Ma Leadville-type Black Cloud massive sulfide deposit. Paleomagnetic fold, contact, and breccia tests were performed to test for the antiquity of the magnetizations. The results are interpreted to indicate that the Leadville carbonates were regionally dolomitized at ~308 {} 6 (1{sigma}) Ma in the Early Pennsylvanian and that the Sherman-type deposits were emplaced at ~272 {} 18 (1{sigma}) Ma during the Early Permian after northeast-trending block faulting, karstification, and ~4 {} 1 km of sedimentary burial, possibly as the result of subsurface gravity-driven fluid flow related to the Ouachita-Marathon orogen. Following late Ouachita-Marathon or earliest Laramide (Late Cretaceous) folding, the remanence in the Sherman-type deposits and the Leadville dolostone rocks within the contact alteration zone of the 72 Ma Pando Porphyry sill(s) was reset to acquire a Late Cretaceous normal characteristic remanent magnetization. Thereafter the Black Cloud Leadville-type massive sulfide deposit was magnetized in the Eocene to acquire a reversed polarity characteristic remanent magnetization that was not found in the Sherman-type deposits

Geological factors affecting the chemical characteristics of the thermal waters of the carbonate karstified aquifers of Northern Vietnam, 2000,
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Drogue C, Cat Nn, Dazy J,
In northern Vietnam, exposed carbonate rock formations cover an area of more than 50,000 km(2). Their accumulated thickness from the Cambrian to the Triassic is in some places as much as 3000 m. Numerous thermal waters (springs and wells) occur in these strongly karstified carbonate massifs. This is the result of significant ancient and present orogenic activity, as the region demonstrates by its strong seismic activity. These karstic formations are water-bearing and strongly recharged by rainfall of between 1600 mm and 2600 mm per year in 90% of the area concerned. In view of the average annual air temperatures ( 17 degreesC-25 degreesC according to the region), 23 sample springs or wells were chosen with water temperatures of between 29 degreesC and 68 degreesC. Hydrochemical characteristics of these thermal waters emerging in different carbonate-rock units were examined by chemical analyses of major ions. In this large region, thermal waters are divided into four hydrochemical types: the Na-Cl type resulting from the intrusion of sea water for distances of up to several kilometres inland and depths of 1000 m, the Ca-SO4 type, probably resulting from the leaching of deposits of metallic sulphides that are widely distributed in these carbonate-rock units, and finally the Ca-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 types which are chemically similar to fresh karstic waters in limestones and dolostones. The occurrence of these thermal groundwaters as well as their chemical characteristics seem to indicate the existence of large-scale deepseated groundwater flow systems in the karstic aquifers

Porosity and permeability enhancement in unconfined carbonate aquifers as a result of solution, 2000,
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Worthington S. R. H. , Ford D. C. , Beddows P. A.
Solution processes in unconfined carbonate aquifers result in a network of channels. We examine four contrasting carbonate aquifers, in Paleozoic dolostone, Paleozoic limestone, Mesozoic chalk, and Cenozoic limestone, to characterize the enhancement of porosity and permeability by dissolution. In all four cases the channels add little to the porosity, but enhance the permeability of the fractured rock by one to three orders of magnitude. Similar porosity and permeability changes are predicted for all unconfined carbonate aquifers, in both dolostones and limestones, in both allogenic and autogenic settings, and in carbonates of all ages.

Karst geomorphology and hydrogeology of the Bear Rock Formation, a remarkable dolostone and gypsum megabreccia in the continuous permafrost zone of Northwest Territories, Canada, 2001,
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Hamilton J. , Ford D.

Characteristics of porosity and permeability enhancement in unconfined carbonate aquifers due to the development of dissolutional channel systems., 2001,
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Worthington S. R. H. , Ford D. C. , Beddows P. A.
Dissolution processes in unconfmed carbonate aquifers result in the creation of networks of channels. We examine four contrasting carbonate aquifers, in Paleozoic dolostone, Paleozoic limestone, Mesozoic chalk, and Cenozoic limestone, to characterize the enhancement of porosity and permeability produced by this dissolution. In all four cases the channels are found to add little to the porosity, but enhance the permeability of the fractured rock by one to three orders of magnitude. Similar porosity and permeability changes are predicted for all unconfmed carbonate aquifers, in both dolostones and limestones, in both allogenic and autogenic settings, and in carbonates of all ages.

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