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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sphalerite is a cave mineral - zns [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for waste (Keyword) returned 76 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 76
The hydrogeological effect of quarrying karstified limestone: options for prediction and mitigation, 1998,
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Hobbs S. L. , Gunn J. ,
The hydrogeological effect of limestone extraction from open pits (quarries) depends on the location of the site in the landscape, the vertical and horizontal extent of the excavation, the methods used to excavate the stone, and the extent of karstification. Groundwater quality is commonly affected by quarrying through increased fine sediment concentrations and accidental spillages. Removal of any soil cover allows direct access for pollutants into the aquifer, a problem which may be exacerbated by licensed or illegal tipping of waste following cessation of stone extraction. Quarrying also removes the entire subcutaneous (epikarstic) zone which is an important ground-water store, together with part or all of the unsaturated zone. Pumping of water from the excavation will change the ground-water balance and can alter the direction and amounts of conduit flow, particularly if the quarry extends beneath the water table. Prediction of such impacts is difficult, especially when the limestone is karstified, such that there will always be a degree of uncertainty associated with the impact of the workings. Hence, it is essential that for new quarries monitoring is undertaken prior to, throughout, and following mineral working, with options for mitigation if mineral working causes an unacceptable impact. When a quarry ceases to be worked, the direct impacts on groundwater quality may rapidly decrease but there are important implications for after-use of the site. Impacts on groundwater quantity are likely to be more long-term

Oxidation of organic matter in a karstic hydrologic unit supplied through stream sinks (Loiret, France), 1998,
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Alberic P, Lepiller M,
The aim of this paper is to appraise the ability of the oxidation of riverine organic matter in the control of limestone dissolution, in a karst network. Biogeochemical processes during infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer have already been described for an average flow velocity of 4-5 m d(-1) (Jacobs, L. A., von Gunten, H. R., Keil, R, and Kuslys, M. (1988) Geochemical changes along a river-groundwater infiltration flow path: Glattfelden, Switzerland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 2693-2706; Von Gunten, H. R., Karametaxas, G., Krahenbuhl, U., Kuslys, M., Giovanoli R., Hoehn E. and Keil R. (1991) Seasonal biogeochemical cycles in riverborne groundwater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3597-3609; Bourg, A. C. M. and Bertin, C. (1993) Quantitative appraisal of biogeochemical chemical processes during the infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 661-666). Karstic drainage networks, such as in the River Loire-Val d'Orleans hydrologic system (Fig. 1), make possible flow velocities up to 200 m h(-1 a) and provide convenient access to different water samples several tens of km apart, at both extremities of the hydrologic unit (Chery, J.-L. (1983) Etude hydrochimique d'un aquifere karstique alimente par perte de cours d'eau (la Loire): Le systeme des calcaires de Beauce sous le val d'Orleans. These, Universite d'Orleans; Livrozet, E. (1984) Influence des apports de la Loire sur la qualite bacteriologique et chimique de l'aquifere karstique du val d'Orleans. These, Universite d'Orleans). Recharge of the karstic aquifer occurs principally from influent waters from stream sinks, either through coarse alluvial deposits or directly from outcrops of the regional limestone bedrock (Calcaires de Beauce). Recharge by seepage waters From the local catchment basin is small (Zunino, C., Bonnet, M. and Lelong, F. (1980) Le Val d'Orleans: un exemple d'aquifere a alimentation laterale. C. R. somm. Soc. Geol. Fr. 5, 195-199; Gonzalez R. (1992) Etude de l'organisation et evaluation des echanges entre la Loire moyenne et l'aquifere des calcaires de Beauce. These, Universite d'Orleans) and negligible in summer. This karstic hydrologic: system is the largest in France in terms of flow (tens to hundreds of m(3)/s) and provides the main water resource of the city of Orleans. Chemical compositions of influent waters (River Loire) and effluent waters (spring of the river Loiret) were compared, in particular during floods in summer 1992 and 1993 (Figs 2-4). Variation of chloride in the River Loire during the stream rise can be used as an environmental tracer of the underground flow (Fig. 2). Short transit times of about 3 days are detectable (Fig, 2) which are consistent with earlier estimations obtained with chemical tracers (Ref. in Chery, J.-L. (1983) These, Universite d'Orleans). Depending on the hydrological regime of the river, organic carbon discharge ranges between 3-7 and 2-13 mg/l for dissolved and particulate matter respectively (Fig. 3). Eutrophic characteristics and high algal biomasses are found in the River Loire during low water (Lair, N. and Sargos, D. (1993) A 10 year study at four sites of the middle course of the River Loire. I - Patterns of change in hydrological, physical and chemical variables in relation to algal biomass. Hudroecol. Appl. 5, 1-27) together with more organic carbon rich suspended particulate matter than during floods (30-40 C-org % dry weight versus 5-10%). Amounts of total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen (Fig. 3) dramatically decrease during the underground transport, whereas conversely, dissolved calcium, alkalinity and inorganic carbon increase (Fig. 4). Anoxia of outflows map start in April. Dissolution of calcium carbonates along the influent path outweighs closed system calcite equilibrium of inflow river waters (Table 3). The impact of organic matter oxidation on calcite dissolution may be traced by variations of alkalinity and total carbonates in water. Following, Jacobs, L. A., von Gunten, H. R., Keil, R. and Kuslys, M. (1988) Geochemical changes along a river-groundwater infiltration flow path: Glattfelden, Switzerland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 2693-2706), results are shown graphically (Fig. 5). Extent of reactions is controlled by the consumption of dissolved O-2 and nitrate for organic matter oxidation and by the release of Ca2 for calcite dissolution (Table 2). The karstic network is considered to behave like a biological reactor not exchanging with the atmosphere, with steady inhabitant microbial communities (Mariotti A., Landreau A, and Simon B. (1988) N-15 isotope biogeochemisrry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: Application to the chalk aquifer of northern France. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 1869-1878; Gounot, A.-M. (1991) Ecologie microbienne des eaux ei des sediments souterrains. Hydrogeologie, 239-248). Thus, energy requirements only are considered, not carbon assimilation. Moreover, there is no necessity to invoke any delay for nitrification enhancement, as observed elsewhere, after waste water discharge into the river (Chesterikoff, A., Garban, B., Billen, G. and Poulin, M. (1992) Inorganic nitrogen dynamics in the River Seine downstream from Paris (France). Biogeochem. 17, 147-164). Main microbial processes are assumed to be aerobic respiration, nitrification and denitrification. Reactions with iron and manganese, real but not quantitatively important, were neglected. Sulphate reduction and methane formation, certainly not active, were not considered. Denitrification, which is suggested by low nitrate and ammonium concentrations and anoxia in the outflow, is known to be rapid enough to be achieved in a short time (Dupain, S. (1992) Denitrification biologique heterotrophe appliquee au traitement des eaux d'alimentation: Conditions de fonclionnement et mise au point d'un procede. These, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon). Reaction are somewhat arbitrary but conform to general acceptance (Morel, M. M. and Hering, J. G. (1993) Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley, New York). Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Mulder A., van de Graaf, A. A., Robertson, L: A. and Kuenen, J. G. (1995) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation discovered in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 16, 177-184). although possible, was not considered. In fact, C/N ratio of the reactive organic matter has only mild repercussions on the results; i.e. in the same range as the analytical errors for alkalinity and total carbonates. The objective was simply to roughly confront characteristics of outflowing waters and the calculation. Respective roles of aerobes and denitrifiers, for instance, are not certain. Several periods during low water or floods were selected with various ranges for calcium dissolution or nitrate and oxygen concentrations. The result is that in most cases simulation and data are in reasonable accordance (Fig. 5). Amounts of organic matter in River Loire are generally sufficient to sustain the process (Table 3. Particulate organic matter is probably the most reactive. The balance of oxidation of organic matter indicates that about 65 mu g C-org/l.h are oxidized during the transport without much variation with the river regime or organic discharge. It is concluded that limestone dissolution is directly dependent on organic matter oxidation, but variation occurs (7-29 mg CuCO3/l) with the level of bases that can be neutralized in the River Loire water. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Relation entre ecoulements et fractures ouvertes dans un systeme aquifere compartimente par des failles et mise en evidence d'une double porosite de fractures, 1999,
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Bruel T, Petit Jp, Massonnat G, Guerin R, Nolf Jl,
Hydrodynamic characterisation of real fracture systems is necessary to improve modelling of fracture reservoirs as well as nuclear waste disposal sites. This characterisation is usually considered globally and theoretically but very few studies have aimed to identify the real physical environment of flow (matrix, faults, joints etc.) before establishing hydrodynamical models. We present a case study in a fractured reservoir aiming to give an example of how and why fluids actually flow within a given fracture at the various scales of fracturation of a fracture network. This study demonstrates that the determination of type and orientation of fractures actually supporting flow is necessary for accurate interpretation of the pumping tests within a fractured reservoir. It also shows that there is no simple relationship between the fault offset and the importance of flow, probably due to the influence of in situ stress. It is shown that the combination of various methods can be used to determine the fracture-flow relationship and behaviour at subseismic scale in subsurface conditions

Agricultural land use impacts on bacterial water quality in a karst groundwater aquifer, 1999,
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Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. The purpose of this study was to compare fecal bacteria densities in karst groundwater impacted by two primary agricultural land uses in central Appalachia. Fecal bacteria densities were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Neither area had best management practices in place for controlling animal wastes. Median fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities were highest in cave streams draining the dairy. Median fecal coliform densities in the daily-impacted stream were greater than 4,000 CFU/100 ml and the median fecal coliform densities in the pasture-impacted streams were less than TO CFU/100 ml. Median fecal streptococcus densities in the same streams were greater than 2,000 CFU/100 ml and 32 CFU/100 ml, respectively. A second dairy, with best management practices for control of animal and milkhouse waste, did not appear to be contributing significant amounts of fecal bacteria to the karst aquifer. It was concluded that agriculture was affecting bacterial densities in the karat aquifer. New management practices specifically designed to protect karst groundwater resources may be one way to protect the groundwater resource

Combustion Oil pollution of Pazinska Jama - a major Ecological incident in the Karst., 1999,
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Kuhta M.
The pollution of Pazincica river occurred in August 1997 as a consequence of uncontrolled leakage of vast quantities of oil from a ruptured pipe that connects the oil reservoir and the oil combustion facility of the factory KTI "Pazinka". The oil together with waste waters from the factory first discharged into the watercourse Saltarija and then flowed into the downstream part of Pazincica River. The spilled combustion oil was a threat to the groundwater of the wider region of Istria so extensive and intensive measures were undertaken for its removal. Within these prevention measures two speleological investigations of the Pazincica ponor (Pazinska jama- Foiba di Pisino) were undertaken. It was determined that due to favourable hydrological conditions (the discharge of Pazincica river was 50 l/s) and the fast reaction time of the intervention, only small quantities of oil managed to enter the ponor. On the other hand approximately 168 m3 of combustion oil was detached from the surface watercourse. Unfortunately the speleological examination of the ponor determined a high degree of underground pollution caused by discharge of waste waters from the city of Pazin and its industries into the Pazincica River. Also traces of past unregistered combustion oil pollution were found within the cavern.

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999,
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Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

LOW-TEMPERATURE ACID WEATHERING IN NEWHAVEN, SUSSEX, UNITED KINGDOM, AND ITS APPLICATION TO THEORETICAL MODELING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE-DISPOSAL SITES, 2000,
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De Putter T, Bernard A, Perruchot A, Nicaise D, Dupuis C,
Tertiary weathered sediments located immediately to the west of the harbor at Newhaven, Sussex, UK, were investigated by examination of major and trace elements by scanning electron microscope (SEM), microprobe, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), and the mineralogy was studied by optical petrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), selective leaching, and thermodynamic modeling. Studied outcrops experienced acid leaching by sulfuric acid percolating downward through Tertiary sediments overlying Cretaceous chalk. The progressive neutralization of the percolating acid fluids resulted in 'sequentially' layered neoformation of minerals: jarosite, iron oxides, aluminous minerals (sulfates, oxyhydroxides), gypsum, and Fe-Mn oxides. Substantial agreement was found between field observations and mineral assemblages obtained by modeling with the program CHILLER. These results suggest that the initial assumptions on the weathering process and mechanisms are correct. The relevance and implications of this study in the modeling of future denudation and weathering processes of radioactive waste-disposal sites (both deeply buried sites for high-level waste and surface sites for low-level waste) are discussed. Neoformed phases, such as jarosite, aluminous minerals, and silico-aluminous gels may play a significant role in the efficient trapping of mobilized pollutant radionuclides

17 beta-estradiol as an indicator of animal waste contamination in mantled karst aquifers, 2000,
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Peterson E. W. , Davis R. K. , Orndorff H. A. ,
The poultry and cattle industries comprise a large segment of the agricultural economy in the mantled karst area of northwest Arkansas. The associated risks of nutrient and bacterial contamination to karst aquifers by poultry litter have been well documented. However, only recently have the risks associated with hormones, specifically 17 beta-estradiol (E-2), been addressed. During a winter recharge event, five springs in northwest Arkansas were sampled and the waters were analyzed for E-2, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli. Analyses of the waters from five springs representing three different water-bearing formations revealed that E2 is present in the waters. Concentrations of E-2 ranged from 6 to 66 ng/L. The observed E-2 concentration trends imitated the changes in stage over the recharge event. The EI concentration trends were similar to the concentration trends of both fetal coliform and E. coli at all five springs, indicating that the three components move in the mantled karst system similarly

Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst, 2000,
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Mahler B. J. , Personne J. C. , Lods G. F. , Drogue C. ,
Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 mi in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 mi. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at Various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The high bacterial concentrations found in both wells, despite the difference in hydraulic conductivity, demonstrates the difficulty of predicting vulnerability of individual wells to bacterial contamination in karst. The extreme temporal variability in bacterial concentrations underscores the importance of event-based monitoring of the bacterial quality of public water supplies in karst. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

The Salt That Wasn't There: Mudflat Facies Equivalents to Halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, Southeastern New Mexico, 2000,
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Powers Dennis W. , Holt Robert M. ,
Four halite beds of the Permian Rustler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over short lateral distances to correlative clastic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. We interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccias are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Rustler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional) halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin. It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion

The karstification of the Permian strata east of Leeds, 2000,
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Murphy P. J. ,
The outcrop of Permian strata to the east of Leeds exhibits a variety of karstic and palaeokarstic features. The area is crossed by an extensive network of dry valley systems and lacks surface water. Two different karst types are recognized: dolomite and dolomitic limestone karst, and gypsum karst. Dolomite and dolomitic limestone karst is characterized by small isolated dolines whereas gypsum karst is characterized by large-scale dolines, many occurring in groups. An appreciation of the karstic nature of parts of the Permian outcrop is becoming increasingly important because of pressure from development and waste disposal

Geophysical surveys over karst recharge features, Illinois, USA, 2001,
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Carpenter Pj, Ahmed S,
Karst aquifers supply a significant fraction of the world's drinking water. These types of aquifers are also highly susceptible to pollution from the surface with recharge usually occurring through fractures and solution openings at the bedrock surface. Thickness of the protective soil cover, macropores and openings within the soil cover, and the nature of the weathered bedrock surface all influence infiltration. Recharge openings at the bedrock surface, however, are often covered by unconsolidated sediments, resulting in the inadvertent placement of landfills, unregulated dump sites, tailing piles, waste lagoons and septic systems over recharge zones. In these settings surface geophysical surveys, calibrated by a few soil cores, could be employed to identify these recharge openings, and qualitatively assess the protection afforded by the soil cover. In a test of this hypothesis, geophysical measurements accurately predicted the thickness of unconsolidated deposits overlying karstic dolomite at a site about 100 km south of Chicago, Illinois. Zones of elevated electrical conductivity and high ground-penetrating radar (GPR) attenuation within the sediments coincided with subcropping solutionally-enlarged hydraulically active bedrock fractures. These fractures extend to over 12-m depth, as shown by 2-D inverted resistivity sections and soil coring. Anomalous electromagnetic (EM) conductivity and GPR response may be due to higher soil moisture above these enlarged fractures. An epikarstal conduit at 2.5-m depth was directly identified through a GPR survey. These results suggest that surface geophysical surveys are a viable tool for assessing the susceptibility of shallow karst aquifers to contamination

Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators, 2001,
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Panno S. V. , Hackley K. C. , Hwang H. H. , Kelly W. R. ,
The sources of nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO3- concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1 Relative to background levels, the NO3- concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO3- to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and delta (15) N and delta O-18 of the NO3- ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO3- in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO3- and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO3- and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for delta N-15 and delta O-18 of the NO3- ranged from 3.2%o to 19.1%o and from 7.2%o to 18.7%o respectively. The trend of delta N-15 and delta O-18 data for NO3- also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Failure of an industrial wastewater lagoon in a karst terrain and remedial action, 2001,
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Memon B. A. , Azmeh M. M. ,
Failure of a wastewater lagoon, caused by development of a sinkhole underneath the lagoon at a site in the Lehigh River Valley near Allentown, Pennsylvania, allowed waste water to enter into the underlying karstified carbonate aquifer, a source of public water supply in the area. Identification of the contamination and development of an appropriate site-specific remediation plan required understanding of site geology, stratigraphy, hydrogeologic setting and aquifer characteristics. Information on site geology and hydrogeology, including aquifer geometry and matrix, occurrence and flow of groundwater were collected and evaluated. Core holes were drilled, geophysically logged, and correlated to define stratigraphy and structural controls to the movement of groundwater and pollutants. Monitoring wells were installed. Water level data collected on a continuous basis were used to determine the direction and gradient and also correlated with climatic changes to define amplitude of fluctuations of groundwater. Correlation of lithologic logs and interpretation of geophysical logs identified five water-producing zones separated by semi-confined layers within the carbonate aquifer. Water samples were collected from different water producing zones and analyzed to delineate vertical and horizontal extent of contamination. Pentaerythritol (PE), which was directly linked with the failure of lagoon, was identified as a pollutant in groundwater. PE was found to be present in the lower water-producing zones. Based on a geologic and hydrogeologic model of the site and understanding of flow regime and presence of PE in the lower water producing zones, a remedial plan (a pump-and-treat system) was developed and implemented to remediate the aquifer. This remedial action has reduced the PE level in groundwater and also created a pressure trough as a barrier to off-site migration

The Spring Cave Gojak., 2001,
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Kuhta M. , Jalzic B. , Novosel A.
The speleological diving investigation of the cave Gojak spring were performed during five investigation periods which lasted in total ten days. With the total investigated length of 2166 m the cave Gojak spring is one of the most important speleological phenomena in Croatia and the longest caves investigated behind a submerged siphon. The general strike of the cave is in the south-western direction towards Ogulin and the system ?ulin ponor-Medvednica. The width of up to 20 m of the Main channel (Glavni channel) of the cave makes it a unique example of a subsurface water flow in karst that is 756 m long. The channel terminates with a siphon lake 25 m deep. The large dimensions of the submerged part of the channel indicate a possibility of successful diving through this obstacle and would allow further investigations of the cave. The most distant point reached from the entrance along the main channel in a straight line is 575 m, and the elevation difference of water levels is approximately 10.5 m. In a morphological sense the cave Gojak spring is a branched speleological object. This is confirmed by the fact that 1410 m of underground channels or 65% of the total cave length was investigated in satellite channels. Since there are possibilities of further investigation of some satellite channels this ratio will grow. During the speleological investigations it was determined that in this part of the underground karst system there are no significant accumulations of waste and other material which would prevent groundwater flow, especially for the currents from the ?ulin ponor. In the cave only individual samples of rapping were found. The samples of rapping are old since they are not in use today. It can be concluded that this finding indicates to an existence of a obstruction in the underground between the ?ulin ponor and the spring which acts as a filter for the new generation of disposed waste but they are located upstream from the investigated part of the cave channels. It is presumed that the results of this investigation, and the possibility of further advance along the main and satellite channels, as well as geological and hydrogeological features of this cave induce further investigations which will allow better understanding of the unique karst underground in the wider region of Ogulin.

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