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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transmission capacity is the property of a porous medium to conduct fluid [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for asia (Keyword) returned 115 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 115
Inventory, forekarsting and karstcare., 1995,
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Kiernan K.

Scientific research in karst: environmental impacts., 1995,
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Kiernan K.

Why a symposium on Living with Limestone?, 1995,
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Kiernan K.

Modeling of soil cover genesis and evolution, 1996,
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Goryachkin S. V. ,
In order to develop agenetic approach to soil cover studies, the algorithm of qualitative modeling of soil cover genesis and evolution is suggested. During a modeling process of this kind, a system of models is created, including sequentially: (1) a spatial model-soil cover structure, presented on a detailed map; (2) an ecological-genetic model-factor-ecological matrix, demonstrating the relations between the soil and the factors of soil formation; (3) a process-genetic model, reflecting processes and mechanisms that form soil cover, in the same way as the concept of elementary soil-forming processes describes the origin of soil profiles; (4) a spatial-genetic model-a soil map with differentiated demonstration of soil boundaries connected to soil genesis and stability; (5) evolutionary and/or prognostic models of the soil cover, describing its change in time. The algorithm was applied to soil cover of the karst denudation plain of the European North

Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: Archaic or modern?, 1996,
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Churchill Se, Pearson Om, Grine Fe, Trinkaus E, Holliday Tw,
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) asociated hominids from Klasies River Mouth (KRM) have taken on a key role in debate about the origins of modern humans, with their craniofacial remains seen as either representing the earliest well-dated modern humans in southern Africa or orthognathic late archaic humans. Diagnostic postcranial remains from Klasies are few, but one specimen-a proximal right ulna from the lower SAS member-is useful For assessing the morphological affinities of these hominids. Canonical variates analysis using 14 proximal ulnar dimensions and comparative data from European, west Asian and African archaic humans, and Levantine Mousterian, European Upper Paleolithic, African Epipaleolithic and diverse recent modern human samples (many of recent African descent) were employed to assess the morphological affinities of this specimen. Results suggest an archaic total morphological pattern for the Klasies ulna. Analysis of diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry reveals an ulnar shaft with relatively thick cortical bone, but the specimen cannot be readily distinguished from Neandertals or early anatomically modem humans on the basis of shaft cross-sectional properties. If the isolated ulna from Klasies is indicative of the general postcranial morphology of these hominids, then the MSA-associated humans from KRM may not be as modern as has been claimed from the craniofacial material. It ii: possible also that the skeletal material from KRM reflects mosaic evolution-retention of archaic postcranial characteristics. perhaps indicating retention of archaic habitual behavior patterns, in hominids that were becoming craniofacially modern. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea, 1996,
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Robinson A. G. , Rudat J. H. , Banks C. J. , Wiles R. L. F. ,
The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the Western Pontides of Turkey) began to rift and move away to the south-east. The Eastern Black Sea probably formed by separation of the Mid-Black Sea High from the Shatsky Ridge during the Palaeocene to Eocene. Subsequent to rifting, the basins were the sites of mainly deep water deposition; only during the Late Miocene was there a major sea-level fall, leading to the development of a relatively shallow lake. Most of the margins of the Black Sea have been extensively modified by Late Eocene to recent compression associated with closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and carbon isotope analysis of petroleum and rock extracts suggest that most petroleum occurrences around the Black Sea can be explained by generation from an oil-prone source rock of most probably Late Eocene age (although a wider age range is possible in the basin centres). Burial history modelling and source kitchen mapping indicate that this unit is currently generating both oil and gas in the post-rift basin. A Palaeozoic source rock may have generated gas condensate in the Gulf of Odessa. In Bulgarian waters, the main plays are associated with the development of an Eocene foreland basin (Kamchia Trough) and in extensional structures related to Western Black Sea rifting. The latter continue into the Romanian shelf where there is also potential in rollover anticlines due to gravity sliding of Neogene sediments. In the Gulf of Odessa gas condensate has been discovered in several compressional anticlines and there is potential in older extensional structures. Small gas and oil discoveries around the Sea of Azov point to further potential offshore around the Central Azov High. In offshore Russia and Georgia there are large culminations on the Shatsky Ridge, but these are mainly in deep water and may have poor reservoirs. There are small compressional structures off the northern Turkish coast related to the Pontide deformation; these may include Eocene turbidite reservoirs. The extensional fault blocks of the Andrusov Ridge (Mid-Black Sea High) are seen as having the best potential for large hydrocarbon volumes, but in 2200 m of water

Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam, 1996,
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Ciochon R, Long Vt, Larick R, Gonzalez L, Grun R, Devos J, Yonge C, Taylor L, Yoshida H, Reagan M,
Tham Khuyen Cave (Lang Son Province, northern Vietnam) is one of the more significant sites to yield fossil vertebrates In east Asia, During the mid-1960s, excavation in a suite of deposits produced important hominoid dental remains of middle Pleistocene age, We undertake more rigorous analyses of these sediments to understand the fluvial dynamics of Pleistocene cave infilling as they determine how skeletal elements accumulate within Tham Khuyen and other east Asian sites, Uranium/thorium series analysis of speleothems brackets the Pleistocene chronology for breaching, infilling, and exhuming the regional paleokarst, Clast analysis indicates sedimentary constituents, Including hominoid teeth and cranial fragments, accumulated from very short distances and under low fluvial energy, Electron spin resonance analysis of vertebrate tooth enamel and sediments shows that the main fossil-bearing suite (S1-S3) was deposited about 475 thousand years ago, Among the hominoid teeth excavated from S1-S3, some represent Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki, Criteria are defined to differentiate these teeth from more numerous Pongo pygmaeus elements, The dated cooccurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki at Tham Khuyen helps to establish the long co-existence of these two species throughout east Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene

Morphology of the border cave hominid ulna and humerus, 1996,
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Pearson O. M. , Grine F. E. ,
Hominid bones from Border Cave (BC) have been the subject of controversy with regard to the question of modern human origins. New dating assays suggest that while some of the BC remains are of comparatively recent age (i.e. < 20 kyr), several postcranial fragments derive from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) layers. Among the latter, a proximal ulna in comparable to one from the MSA at Klasies River Mouth, in that both have an archaic pattern of morphology in the relative height of the coronoid and olecranon processes. This configuration appears to characterize Neandertals, and is displayed also by more ancient African ulnae. The BC humeral diaphysis has moderately thick cortical bone, but us otherwise unremarkable. The proximal ulnar morphology might suggest that the MSA inhabitants of South Africa engaged in activities similar to those of Neandertals and other postcranially archaic hominids. If the modern-looking BC-1 cranium in contemporaneous with the BC postcranial bones, this would bear testament to the mosaic nature of human evolution. Alternatively, if BC-1 proves to be of recent derivation, and the postcrania are as old as the base of the BC MSA sequence has been claimed to be (c. 195 kyr), they might have been associated with more archaic crania (perhaps similar to Florisbad). Final resolution of these questions awaits determination of the absolute ages of the BC-1 cranium and the BC postcranial bones

La traversee du Gebroulaz en Vanoise. Morphologie d'une cavite gypseuse de haute montagne, 1996,
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Audra Ph. , Hoblea F.

Evolution and dynamics of soil-geomorphic systems in karst landscapes of the European north, 1997,
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Goryachkin S. V. , Shavrina E. V. ,
Six types of soil-geomorphic systems within sulfate-karst landscapes in the north of European Russia have been investigated. The distinctions in structure and composition of these systems are conditioned by the tectonic fault pattern and jointing of the karstland. The soil data obtained allow us to gain an insight into the essence of geomorphic processes and to evaluate the dynamics of land surface in karst landscapes. Conceptual models of the origin and dynamics of soil-geomorphic systems of karst landscapes and the model of their evolution within the zone of dense jointing of gypsum rocks under the impact of denudation processes are suggested. The assessment of geomorphic functions of the soils in karst area attests to their importance as the controls of potential erosion. Only soil-biotic processes (Litter accumulation) are undoubtedly protective, while other processes may either hinder or strongly intensify the erosion. After the Quaternary sediments are removed and the erosion starts to penetrate into the hard gypsum layer, a strong positive feedback between soil-forming and karst-forming processes appears. Thus, the final stages of the evolution of soil-geomorphic systems in karst landscapes are characterized by great dynamism

Platform-top and ramp deposits of the Tonasa Carbonate Platform, Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1997,
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Wilson M. E. J. , Bosence D. W. J. ,
This study presents a detailed facies analysis of shallow-water platform and ramp deposits of an extensive Tertiary carbonate platform. Temporal and spatial variations have been used to construct a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the platform and to evaluate controls on carbonate sedimentation The late Eocene to mid-Miocene shallow-water and outer ramp/basinal deposits of the Tonasa Carbonate Platform, from the Pangkajene and Jeneponto areas of South Sulawesi respectively, formed initially as a transgressive sequence in a probable backarc setting. The platform was dominated by foraminifera and had a ramp-type southern margin. Facies belts on the platform trend east-west and their position remained remarkably stable through time indicating aggradation of the platform-top. In comparison outer ramp deposits prograded southwards at intervals into basinal marls. Tectonics, in the form of subsidence, was the dominant control on accommodation space on the Tonasa Carbonate Platform. The location of barriers' and the resultant deflection of cross-platform currents, together with the nature of carbonate producing organisms also affected sedimentation, whilst eustatic or autocyclic effects are difficult to differentiate from the affects of tectonic tilting. Moderate- to high-energy platform top or redeposited carbonate facies may form effective hydrocarbon reservoirs in otherwise tight foraminifera dominated carbonates, which occur widely in SE Asia, and have not been affected by extensive porosity occlusion

Dinosaurs and other tetrapods in an Early Cretaceous bauxite-filled fissure, northwestern Romania, 1997,
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Benton Mj, Cook E, Grigorescu D, Popa E, Tallodi E,
The bauxite mine at Cornet near Oradea in northwestern Romania produced thousands of bones in an excavation in 1978, mainly from ornithopod dinosaurs and rarer pterosaurs. Bird specimens reported previously from this fauna are equivocal. The fossils are disarticulated bones in good condition which occur highly concentrated in lenses within bauxite clays, which are dated as Berriasian (earliest Cretaceous). The bauxite represents detrital material washed into deep fissures and caves formed within a karst of uplifted Tithonian (latest Jurassic) marine limestones. The bones are generally uniform in size and shape, and they are abraded, evidence for considerable transport and for winnowing of the deposit. The area was one of several islands on the northern shore of Tethys, and it was inundated by the sea later in the Early Cretaceous. There is evidence for insular adaptations in the dinosaur faunas. The ornithopod dinosaurs may include several taxa, but they are smaller on average than an assemblage of typical Wealden ornithopods, perhaps because of dwarfing on the island. In addition, sauropods are absent and theropods are barely represented in the fauna. The fauna is geographically significant since it shows relationships with western Europe and with Asia

La ligne de Wallace a-t-elle t franchie par les artistes des temps prhistoriques ? Deux nouvelles grottes ornes Borno (Kalimantan), 1998,
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Chazine Jeanmichel, Fage Luchenri
Before 1992, the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) had not been the subject of archeological research. Five speleological and archeological research missions discovered numerous sites, first in the center island (Mller Range, in some isolated parts) and secondly in the huge karst region of Mangkalihat peninsula (NE of Kalimantan) where the first painted caves in Borneo were found in 1994. During the last expedition in september 98, we discovered two other painted caves: the most beautiful and richest ever found in Borneo, with numerous negative hand stencils and painted figures in a good state of preservation. These discoveries have been made in a very difficult area (pinacle and cone karst in the rainforest) by a small team - one caver and one archeologist. The systematic exploration of Borneo caves is essential to answer the question of the role played by the Island in the prehistoric migrations between Asia and Australia

An assessment of protected karst landscapes in Southeast Asia, 2000,
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Day M. , Urich P.

Geological hazards in loess terrain, with particular reference to the loess regions of China, 2001,
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Derbyshire E,
The considerable morphodynamic energy provided by the continuing tectonic evolution of Asia is expressed in high erosional potentials and very high rates of sediment production that make this continent unequalled as a terrestrial source of primary silt. Many of these environments are hazardous, threatening human occupation., health and livelihood, especially in regions of dense population such as the loess lands of north China. Dry loess can sustain nearly vertical slopes, being perennially under-saturated. However, when locally saturated, it disaggregates instantaneously. Such hydrocompaction is a key process in many slope failures, made worse by an underlying mountainous terrain of low-porosity rocks. Gully erosion of loess may yield very high sediment concentrations ( > 60% by weight). Characteristic vertical jointing in loess influences the hydrology. Enlarged joints develop into natural sub-surface piping systems, which on collapse, produce a 'loess karst' terrain. Collapsible loess up to 20 m thick is common on the western Loess Plateau. Foundation collapse and cracked walls are common, many rapid events following periods of unusually heavy monsoonal rain. Slope failure is a major engineering problem in thick loess terrain, flow-slide and spread types being common. The results are often devastating in both urban and rural areas. An associated hazard is the damming of streams by landslides. The human population increases the landslide risk in China, notably through imprudent land-use practices including careless water management. A number of environmentally related endemic diseases arise from the geochemistry of loess and its groundwaters. including fluorosis, cretinism, Kaschin-Beck Disease, Keshan Disease and goitre. The Chinese desert margins also have a major atmospheric dust problem. The effect of such dust upon human health in these extensive regions, including many large cities, has yet to be evaluated, but pneumoconiosis is thought to affect several million people in north and west China. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

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