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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That localized circulation is circulation in karst aquifers in which the water moves in certain preferred zones and does not occupy all or most of the openings below this level [10]. synonyms: (french.) circulation preferentielle; (german.) ortlich begrenzte karstwaber- zirkulation; (italian.) circolazione carsica parziale; (spanish.) circulacion localizada; (turkish.) yersel dolasim; (yugoslavian.) lokalizirana (lokalna) cirkulacija. compare diffuse circulation.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst terrain (Keyword) returned 133 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 133
The hydrogeology of the northeastern part of Mt Xishan has historically been interpreted in terms of a simple unconfined aquifer model. The groundwater required is characterized by (1) karst terrain, (2) multilayered unconfined groundwater flow developed in block mountains involving rapid hanging discharges and (3) deep confined groundwater with a carbon 14 age of 1000-2800 years and low tritium content. The flows are partly towards the southern part of Mt Xishan, partly east towards the porous aquifers of the Nitun Basin and partly discharging through the Lancun Spring system. The spatial structure of karst aquifers in block mountains is elucidated by an understanding of stratigraphic, structural, lithological, climatic and karst geomorphological evolution. The actual complex hydrogeological conditions in the Mt Xishan area considered are demonstrated by a comprehensive model proposed by the author. Such a model may also be applied in other karstic block mountains

Environmental change and human impact on karst in arid and semi-arid Australia, 1993, Gillieson D.

Effects of tourist development on caves and karst, 1993, Huppert G. , Burri E. , Forti P. , Cigna A.

Hydrology and denudation rates of halite karst, 1994, Frumkin A,
Salt karst terrains exist mainly in arid climates where rock salt outcrops may escape complete destruction by dissolution. Such is the case with Mount Sedom, on the SW shore of the Dead Sea, one of the most arid parts of Israel. Many small catchments developed over the relatively insoluble cap rock which overlies the highly soluble rock salt. The catchments were surveyed and classified. Some 57% of the surface area is drained by an underground karst system. Water samples from various points in the system were analysed, and water development was inferred. Waters in cave conduits do not reach saturation during flood flow, unless the water is ponded for at least several hours. Based on the available evidence, regional karst denudation is tentatively estimated to be about 0.5-0.75 mm year-1, occurring mainly within the rock salt

Regional mapping of karst terrains in order to avoid potential environmental problems, 1995, Johnson K. S. , Quinlan J. F.

The signature of karst terrain is a suite of characteristic landforms: caves, closed depressions, deranged surface drainage, and sculptured bedrock surfaces. Identification of karst, in reality, is accomplished by an ill-defined mix of morphological, sedimentological, and bedrock-geology evidence. The purely morphological signature depends on an examination of population statistics and the scaling laws for the various landforms. Caves are fragments of active and paleo conduit drainage systems. The distribution of cave lengths is a power function with a fractional (fractal) exponent. The number of closed depressions of given depth or diameter falls off exponentially with increasing size. Blind valley areas relate to stream length and stream order by power laws. Some features of bedrock sculpturing occur at fu;ed scale. Pinnacle karren, however, appear to be scale invariant over seven orders of magnitude of scale range

The twilight zone of a cave, an environment transitional between the well-illuminated environment outside the cave and the dark environment of the cave interior, is one of the most unusual microenvironments of the karst terrain. Walls in the twilight zone of caves on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac are coated with a biofilm that incorporates a diverse assemblage of epilithic microbes and copious mucus. Most microbes are different from those found elsewhere in the karst terrains of the Cayman Islands, probably because they have adapted to life in the poorly illuminated twilight zone. None of the microbes employ an endolithic life mode, and less than 10% of them show evidence of calcification. The biofilm does, however, provide a medium in which a broad spectrum of destructive and constructive processes operate. Etching, the dominant destructive process, produces residual dolomite, residual calcite, blocky calcite, and spiky calcite. Constructive processes include precipitation of calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, and sylvite. Although filamentous microbes are common, examples of detrital grains trapped and bound to the substrate are rare. Destructive processes are more common than constructive ones

Cavities in the dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac commonly contain spar calcite cements and/or a variety of exogenetic (derived from sources external to the bedrock) and endogenetic (derived from sources in the bedrock) internal sediments. Micrite is a common component in many of these internal sediments. The exogenetic micrite, which is typically laminated and commonly contains fragments of marine biota, originated from the nearby shallow lagoons. The endogenetic micrite formed as a residue from the breakdown of spar calcite crystals by etching, as constructive and destructive envelopes developed around spar calcite crystals, by calcification of microbes, by breakdown of calcified filamentous microbes, and by precipitation from pore waters. Once produced, the endogenetic micrite may be transported from its place of origin by water flowing through the cavities. Endogenetic micrite can become mixed with the exogenetic micrite. Subsequently, it is impossible to recognize the origin of individual particles because the particles in endogenetic micrite are morphologically like the particles in exogenetic micrite. Formation of endogenetic micrite is controlled by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. In the Cayman Formation, for example, most endogenetic micrite is produced by etching of meteoric calcite crystals that formed as a cement in the cavities or by microbial calcification. As a result, the distribution of the endogenetic micrite is ultimately controlled by the distribution of the calcite cement and/or the microbes-factors controlled by numerous other extrinsic variables. Irrespective of the factors involved in its formation, it is apparent that endogenetic micrite can be produced by a variety of processes that are operating in the confines of cavities in karst terrains

Origin of endogenetic micrite in karst terrains; a case study from the Cayman Islands, 1995, Jones Brian, Kahle Charles F. ,

Geological and hydrogeological remote sensing techniques can be applied very favorably to Dinaric karst in the Balkans, a well-known reference area for studies of karst phenomena. The elements that make karst terrain of the Dinarides suitable for remote sensing are geomorphologic characteristics, in particular the specific surface drainage and karst forms, the varying vegetation that most often reflects the existence of different geologic formations on the surface, and distinct tectonic features. Some of the world's largest springs, ponors (sinks), and dolines are controlled by fractures visible on both satellite images and aerial photographs. Lineaments represent fault zones, systems of close faults with similar strike, or large individual faults which all are young or show recently renewed activity. Their neotectonic character and major importance for karst groundwater flow are confirmed by numerous field investigations including water tracing, geophysical research, and drilling

Platform carbonates of the Upper Triassic Dachstein Limestone in Naszaly Hill have been karstified extensively over the past 200 million years. They provide an excellent example of polyphase karstic diagenesis that is probably typical of many subaerially exposed carbonate sequences. Seven karstic phases are recognized in the area, each of which include polyphase karstic events. The first karst phase was associated with the Lofer cycles. Meteoric waters caused dissolution; enlarged fractures and cavities were filled by marine and/or vadose silts and cement. The second karst phase was caused by local tectonic movements. Bedding-plane-controlled phreatic caves were formed, and filled by silts. The third karst phase lasted from the end of the Triassic to the Eocene. This was a regional, multiphase karstic event related to younger composite unconformities. Bauxitic fill is the most characteristic product of this phase. The karst terrain reached its mature or senile stage with very little porosity. Narrow veins and floating rafts of white calcite marks karst phase 4, which resulted from hydrothermal activity associated with Palaeogene magmatism. The early Rupelian phase of Alpine uplift caused large-scale rejuvenation of the former karst terrain (karst phase 5). Subsequently Naszaly Hill was buried as an area of juvenile karst with significant porosity. A second period of hydrothermal activity in the area (karst phase 6) was induced by Miocene volcanism, which resulted in wide, pale green calcite veins. Finally karst phase 7 was of tectonic origin. Following the most recent, Miocene uplift of the Naszaly Hill, the carbonates have again become the site of vadose karst development

The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karat terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in several karat springs in Southeastern West Virginia in order to determine the impact of animal agriculture on nitrate pollution of the karst ground water system. Karst basins with 79, 51, 16, and 0 percent agriculture had mean nitrate concentrations of 15.8, 12.2, 2.7, and 0.4 mg/l, respectively. A strong linear relationship between nitrate concentration and percent agricultural land was shown. Median nitrate concentration increased about 0.19 mg l(-1) per percent increase in agricultural land. Weather patterns were also found to significantly affect the median nitrate concentrations and the temporal variability of those concentrations. Lower nitrate concentrations and lower temporal variability were observed during a severe drought period. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

Environmental problems in gypsum karst terrains., 1996, Andrejchuk Vjacheslav, Klimchouk Alexander
Description of environmental problems in gypsum karst areas, especially of the effects related to human impacts that are unique to gypsum karst systems or most commonly occur herein. The paper deals with pollution (oil, radioactive substances and fertilizers), mining activity, underground water abstraction, construction of dams and reservoirs, collapse and subsidence hazards giving examples of former Soviet Union.

Nickpoint recession in karst terrains: An example from the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, 1996, Fabel D, Henricksen D, Finlayson Bl, Webb Ja,
Nickpoint recession in the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, has resulted in the formation of an underground meander cut-off system in the Murrindal River valley. Three nickpoints have been stranded in the surface channel abandoned by the subterranean piracy, and these can be correlated with river terraces and epiphreatic cave passages in the nearby Buchan River valley. The presence of palaeomagnetically reversed sediments in the youngest cave passage in the Buchan valley implies that the topographically lowest nickpoint in the Murrindal valley is more than 730 ka old, and the other nickpoints are probably several million years old. The nickpoints are occasionally active during floods, but the diversion of most surface flow underground has slowed down their retreat to the extent that they have been effectively stationary for several million years Underground nickpoint migration has been by both incision within major phreatic conduits and their abandonment for lower-level passages. The nickpoints are all present in the upstream part of the cave system, but have not migrated past the sink in the river channel, despite the long period of time available for this to happen. The sink is characterized by collapsed limestone blocks; these filter out the coarse bedload from the river channel. As a result, erosion within the cave passages is dominantly solutional and therefore slower than in the surface channel, where it is mostly mechanical. In addition, to transmit a drop in base level the cave system requires the removal of a larger volume of rock than for the surface migration of a nickpoint, because any roof collapse material in the subsurface system must be removed. These factors have slowed the migration of the base-level changes through the subsurface system, and may be a general feature in caves that have diffuse sinks as their main inputs

Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida, 1996, Lee T. M. ,
Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain

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