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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrometry is the science of water measurements [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for pollution (Keyword) returned 143 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 143
Effect of automobile emissions on the Jenolan Caves , 1998, James Julia M. , Antil Sarah J. , Cooper A. , Stone D. J. M.

Jenolan Caves are a major tourist attraction in NSW, Australia. One of the major features of the caves is a natural archway known as the Grand Arch, through which a road passes. Carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter were measured in an attempt to determine the associated risk to the caves. CO2 levels were above the average atmospheric concentration but below the limestone damage threshold of 2400 ppm. The SOx, NOx and VOCs concentrations were exceptionally low. Vehicle-produced particulate matter from the Grand Arch was found up to 100 m into the tourist caves but was prevented from further penetration by a barrier of moist cave air.


Influence of modern farming on karstic landscapes , 1998, Rejec Brancelj, Irena

This article is focused upon the present characteristics of farming in karstic landscapes Bela krajina, Dobrepolje and the Valley of Ribnica with Kočevje, mainly from the point of view of environment pollution. In all of them limestone with underground drainage prevails. Regarding its characteristics, we cannot define farming in the discussed karstic regions as extensive. The most important agricultural branch is cattle-breeding. All the data used for the estimation of the ecological influences of farming were collected through proper field work by making inquiries. Cultivated land was being fertilised mostly with stable manure and mineral fertilisers. The ecological awareness of farmers is actually at its starting point, and in all these delicate karstic regions it can be defined as definitely too low.


Basic phyisico-chemical Karst water properties on Notranjsko, 1998, Kogovš, Ek Janja

In 1986 and 1987 seven series of samples were taken at 36 to 47 sampling points on Babno, Loško and Cerkniško Polje and on Bloke and at Loški potok in order to find out their physico-chemical properties and their quality. Rainwater flows from the limestone and dolomite landscape around Babno, Loško and Cerkniško polje into springs feeding the sinking streams. The nitrate level at most of the springs was below 4 mg NO3-/l and chloride below 5 mg Cl-/l; the o-phosphate level varied around the value of 0.05 mg PO43-/l. The bacteriological analyses of the spring waters showed that they are not of drinking quality and only few springs were seasonally of good quality. Poorer quality was found in springs with populated catchments, such as are Pudobski Izvir, Podgorski and Mežnarjev Studenec and, obviously in all the sinking waters at swallow-holes where the nitrate and chloride level was up to 20 mg/l and phosphate up to 5 mg/l. Flowing over karst poljes this water receives pollution due to habitations and industry. As the water of these sinking streams reappears downstream in several lower-lying karst poljes this results in the transport and accumulation of pollution downstream even in springs that are captured for water supply.


Characteristics of water flow in the karst hinterland of the Temenica river, 1998, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Petrič, Metka

Results of the preliminary study of influences of the planned highway sector Trebnje - Hrastje on karst waters are summarized. The study was based on field survey and review of previous researches. Underground water flow from the stream Lukovški potok to the Zijalo spring with average velocity 0.45 cm/s and further on to the Prečna spring with velocity 4.1 cm/s was proved. This second part of flow is significantly enlarged by recharge from the karst aquifer of Suha krajina. At high and highest waters rather faster flow can be expected and at the same time also fast spreading of eventual pollution. Velocity and mode of infiltration of rain directly into the karst underground was not defined yet. Based on the results of tracing test the underground connection between the Bršljinski potok and Lukovški potok can be estimated as questionable.


Aspects hydrogologiques du Yucatan (Mexique), 1999, Thomas, Christian
The submersed karsts also know as plain karsts are highly developed in the Yucatan peninsula. Cave diving explo_rations, physical and chemical measu_rements (water discharge, chemical analysis of the water, water table altitu_de, a.s.o) allow an indirect estimation of the main hydrogeological parameters of these karsts: infiltration ratio, fresh water reserves, pollution by the salty water, tide influence, karstic erosion... Comparisons are given with other karsts: Lifou (French New-Caledonia) and Nullarbor.

Karst and agriculture in Australia, 1999, Gillieson David, Thurgate Mia
Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

Impacts of agricultural transformation on the principal karstic regions of France, 1999, Nicod Jean, Salomon Jeannoel
The recent extension of intensive agriculture on the karst plateaus has caused different types of impact: soil management, generalised and/or localised pollution. Yet paradoxically rural depopulation can also have negative impacts, which largely depend on the characteristics and the hydrological function of the different karst environments. They are often negative, particularly as far as the water quality is concerned, which is why protection measures are undertaken, either in a defined area for a catchment, or in the framework of regional parks. But this is not always the case, so it is appropriate to analyse the problem of karst pollution as a whole, and to propose to experiment new solutions to mitigate the impacts.

Planning for gypsum geohazards in Lithuania and England, 1999, Paukstys B. , Cooper A. H. , Arustiene J. ,
The rapid underground dissolution of gypsum, and the evolution of the gypsum karst in Lithuania and England, results in subsidence problems which can make construction difficult. The natural dissolution yields sulphate-rich groundwater of poor quality and the karst is susceptible to the rapid transmission of pollutants. In the north of Lithuania gypsum karst is developed in Devonian gypsum. Here the towns of Birai, Pasvalys and the surrounding countryside suffer subsidence and some buildings have been damaged. The majority of the potable water in these areas is derived from groundwater extracted from sandstone sequences that underlie the gypsum. In Lithuania conservation measures have been introduced to control agriculture and prevent pollution of the gypsum karst. These measures include environmentally-friendly farming, restrictions on land use and exclusion zones around subsidence hollows. In England subsidence caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum has caused severe problems in the vicinity of the town of Ripen. Numerous buildings have been damaged and new sites are difficult to develop. Here formal planning regulations have recently been introduced to help to protect against the worst effects of subsidence resulting from gypsum dissolution. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Muddy waters: temporal variation in sediment discharging from a karst spring, 1999, Mahler B. J. , Lynch F. L. ,
Karst aquifers are capable of transporting and discharging large quantities of suspended sediment, which can have an important impact on water quality. Here we present the results of intensive monitoring of sediment discharging from a karst spring in response to two storm events, one following a wet season and the other following a dry season; we describe temporal changes in total suspended solids (TSS), mineralogy, and particle size distribution. Peak concentrations of suspended sediment coincided with changes in aqueous chemistry indicating arrival of surface water, suggesting that much of the discharging sediment had an allochthonous origin. Concentrations of suspended sediment peaked 14-16 h after rainfall, and the bulk of the sediment (approximately 1 metric ton in response to each storm) discharged within 24 h after rainfall. Filtered material included brightly colored fibers and organic matter. Suspended sediments consisted of dolomite, calcite, quartz, and clay. Proportions of each mineral constituent changed as the aquifer response to the storm progressed, indicating varying input from different sediment sources. The hydraulic response of the aquifer to precipitation was well described by changes in parameters obtained from the particle size distribution function, and corresponded to changes seen in TSS and mineralogy. Differences between storms in the quantity and mineralogy of sediment transported suggest that seasonal effects on surface sediment supply may be important. The quantity of sediment discharging and its potential to sorb and transport contaminants indicates that a mobile solid phase should be included in contaminant monitoring and contaminant transport models of karst. Temporal changes in sediment quantity and characteristics and differences between responses to the two storms, however, demonstrate that the process is not easily generalized. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Agricultural land use impacts on bacterial water quality in a karst groundwater aquifer, 1999, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. The purpose of this study was to compare fecal bacteria densities in karst groundwater impacted by two primary agricultural land uses in central Appalachia. Fecal bacteria densities were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Neither area had best management practices in place for controlling animal wastes. Median fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities were highest in cave streams draining the dairy. Median fecal coliform densities in the daily-impacted stream were greater than 4,000 CFU/100 ml and the median fecal coliform densities in the pasture-impacted streams were less than TO CFU/100 ml. Median fecal streptococcus densities in the same streams were greater than 2,000 CFU/100 ml and 32 CFU/100 ml, respectively. A second dairy, with best management practices for control of animal and milkhouse waste, did not appear to be contributing significant amounts of fecal bacteria to the karst aquifer. It was concluded that agriculture was affecting bacterial densities in the karat aquifer. New management practices specifically designed to protect karst groundwater resources may be one way to protect the groundwater resource

Combustion Oil pollution of Pazinska Jama - a major Ecological incident in the Karst., 1999, Kuhta M.
The pollution of Pazincica river occurred in August 1997 as a consequence of uncontrolled leakage of vast quantities of oil from a ruptured pipe that connects the oil reservoir and the oil combustion facility of the factory KTI "Pazinka". The oil together with waste waters from the factory first discharged into the watercourse Saltarija and then flowed into the downstream part of Pazincica River. The spilled combustion oil was a threat to the groundwater of the wider region of Istria so extensive and intensive measures were undertaken for its removal. Within these prevention measures two speleological investigations of the Pazincica ponor (Pazinska jama- Foiba di Pisino) were undertaken. It was determined that due to favourable hydrological conditions (the discharge of Pazincica river was 50 l/s) and the fast reaction time of the intervention, only small quantities of oil managed to enter the ponor. On the other hand approximately 168 m3 of combustion oil was detached from the surface watercourse. Unfortunately the speleological examination of the ponor determined a high degree of underground pollution caused by discharge of waste waters from the city of Pazin and its industries into the Pazincica River. Also traces of past unregistered combustion oil pollution were found within the cavern.

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999, Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas., 1999, Kacaroglu F.

Soil erosion and water pollution in an intensive vine cultivation area: The Entre-deux-Mers example (Gironde, France), 1999, Audra P.

Nitrates in cave waters of southern part of Cracow Upland. [in Polish], 2000, Goc Piotr, Gorny Andrzej, Klojzykarczmarczyk Beata, Motyka Jacek

Results 31 to 45 of 143
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