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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That underground divide is subsurface watershed between two catchment areas in karst; often with incongruent with the surface topography of the area [20]. synonyms: (french.) ligne de partage des eaux souterraines, limit souterrainne; (german.) unterirdische waberscheide; (greek.) ypoghios ythroketis; (italian.) spartiacque sotterraneo; (russian.) vodorazdel podzemnyh vod; (spanish.) divisoria subterranea; (turkish.) yeraltisu bolumu; (yugoslavian.) podzemna razvodnica, podzemna vododelnica. see also subsurface divide.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for contamination (Keyword) returned 150 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 150
Groundwater protection zone delineation at a large karst spring in western Ireland, 2000, Deakin J,
Pouladower Spring is a large karst spring in County Clare, Ireland which is being considered for use as a public supply. Groundwater protection zones have been delineated as a water quality management strategy for the spring. The Irish national groundwater protection scheme methodology is adapted to take account of the hydrological and hydrogeological complexities of the karst regime. The catchment area for the spring is large (approximately 380 km2) and comprises the zones of contribution for two major outlets of water, the spring and the River Fergus. The actual zone of contribution to the spring varies with different water level conditions and the risk to the source from any point within the catchment, at any given time, is less than that for a conventional groundwater source. The catchment area is highly vulnerable, but dilution and sedimentation occurring in the lakes up gradient of the source, the high throughput, and the contribution from fissures outside the main flow conduits have helped maintain good water quality at the spring. The source is considered to be a combination of both groundwater and surface water as they are intricately inter-linked throughout the catchment. An Inner Protection Area is delineated which does not provide the 100-days travel time to the source required by the national scheme, as this would be impractically large and over-protective. Rather, it delineates the area of highest hydrogeological risk to the source and should allow the local authority sufficient time to act in the event of an accidental spill. A certain degree of microbial contamination is inevitable in a karst regime and treatment is essential, as it would be for a surface water source. The remainder of the catchment is classed as an Outer Protection Area. These protection areas are then combined with the vulnerability in a GIS to give groundwater protection zones which will be used by the planners, in conjunction with groundwater protection responses, to control potentially contaminating activities

Groundwater protection in a Celtic region: the Irish example, 2000, Misstear Bruce D. , Daly Donal,
One of the key environmental objectives of the proposed EU Water Framework Directive is that Member States must prevent the deterioration of groundwater quality. A national groundwater protection scheme for Ireland has been published recently. This scheme shows certain broad similarities to the groundwater protection policy for England and Wales, incorporating the concepts of groundwater vulnerability, source protection zones and responses to potentially polluting activities. However, the Irish scheme is different in several important respects, reflecting the different hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns in Ireland. Some of these hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns are common to the other Celtic regions. A major feature of the Irish scheme is the importance given to subsoil permeability in defining groundwater vulnerability. At present, the subsoil permeability is classified in qualitative terms as high, moderate or low. For the protection scheme to be defensible, it is essential to adopt a systematic and consistent approach for assigning subsoil units to these permeability categories. In mapping groundwater vulnerability, it is also useful to take account of secondary indicators such as groundwater recharge potential, natural and artificial drainage density and vegetation characteristics. Another important issue in Ireland is the protection of groundwater in karst areas, since these areas are especially vulnerable to contamination

Groundwater in the Celtic regions, 2000, Robins N. S. , Misstear B. D. R. ,
The Celtic regions of Britain and Ireland have a complex and diverse geology which supports a range of regionally and locally important bedrock aquifers and unconsolidated Quaternary aquifers. In bedrock, aquifer units are often small and groundwater flow paths short and largely reliant on fracture flow. Groundwater has fulfilled an important social role throughout history, and is now enjoying renewed interest. Groundwater quality is generally favourable and suitable for drinking with minimal treatment. However, many wells are vulnerable to microbiological and chemical pollutants from point sources such as farmyards and septic tank systems, and nitrate concentrations from diffuse agricultural sources are causing concern in certain areas. Contamination by rising minewaters in abandoned coalfields and in the vicinity of abandoned metal mines is also a problem in some of the Celtic lands

Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA, 2000, Adamski Jc,
Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict how and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

17 beta-estradiol as an indicator of animal waste contamination in mantled karst aquifers, 2000, Peterson E. W. , Davis R. K. , Orndorff H. A. ,
The poultry and cattle industries comprise a large segment of the agricultural economy in the mantled karst area of northwest Arkansas. The associated risks of nutrient and bacterial contamination to karst aquifers by poultry litter have been well documented. However, only recently have the risks associated with hormones, specifically 17 beta-estradiol (E-2), been addressed. During a winter recharge event, five springs in northwest Arkansas were sampled and the waters were analyzed for E-2, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli. Analyses of the waters from five springs representing three different water-bearing formations revealed that E2 is present in the waters. Concentrations of E-2 ranged from 6 to 66 ng/L. The observed E-2 concentration trends imitated the changes in stage over the recharge event. The EI concentration trends were similar to the concentration trends of both fetal coliform and E. coli at all five springs, indicating that the three components move in the mantled karst system similarly

Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst, 2000, Mahler B. J. , Personne J. C. , Lods G. F. , Drogue C. ,
Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 mi in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 mi. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at Various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The high bacterial concentrations found in both wells, despite the difference in hydraulic conductivity, demonstrates the difficulty of predicting vulnerability of individual wells to bacterial contamination in karst. The extreme temporal variability in bacterial concentrations underscores the importance of event-based monitoring of the bacterial quality of public water supplies in karst. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Uncalculated impacts of unsustainable aquifer yield including evidence of subsurface interbasin flow, 2000, Bacchus St,
Unsustainable withdrawals from regional aquifers have resulted in adverse impacts considerable distances from the point locations of supply wells. In one area of the southeastern (SE) Coastal Plain, conservative estimates for repair/replacement of some residential wells damaged or destroyed by unsustainable yield from the Floridan aquifer system exceeded $4 million. However, a comprehensive assessment of damage/economic loss to private property and public resources due to unsustainable yield from that regional karat aquifer has not been made. Uncalculated direct costs to home-owners from damage attributed to those withdrawals are associated with destruction of homes from increased sinkhole formation, devalued waterfront property, and removal of diseased and dead trees. Examples of other uncalculated economic burdens resulting from unsustainable aquifer yield in the SE Coastal Plain include: (1) irreversible damage to the aquifer matrix and concomitant increased potential for groundwater contamination, (2) large-scale wildfires with subsequent degradation of air quality, debilitation of transportation corridors, and destruction of timber, wildlife habitat and property, and (3) destruction of 'protected' natural areas. This paper provides a general background of the regional Floridan aquifer system's karst characteristics, examples of known impacts resulting from ground water mining in the SE Coastal Plain, and examples of additional damage that may be related to unsustainable yield from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Costs of these impacts have not been calculated and are not reflected in the price users pay for ground water. Evidence suggests that the classic watershed management approach must be revised in areas with mined regional karst aquifers to include impacts of induced recharge from the surficial aquifer, and subsurface interbasin flow. Likewise, associated impacts to surface water and interrelated systems must be calculated The true cost of groundwater mining to this and future generations should be determined using a multidisciplinary approach

Characteristics of distribution and transport of petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water in Zibo Area, Shandong Province, China, 2000, Zhu X. Y. , Liu J. L. , Zhu J. J. , Chen Y. D. ,
Fracture-karst water is an important water resource for the water supply in North China. Petroleum contamination is one of the most problematic types of the groundwater pollution. The characteristics of distribution and transport of the petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water are different from those in porous water. The flow velocity of fracture-karst water is much faster than the velocity of porous water on an average. Therefore, contaminant transport in fracture-karst water is an absolute advection-dominated problem. The plume of the petroleum contamination may extend to several kilometers from pollution sources. It was not caused by the oil pool floating on the water table but by the oil components dissolved and scattered in groundwater. The distribution of the petroleum contaminants over space are concentrated in the strong conductive zone on the plane. On the vertical section the highest concentration of the oil contaminants appeared in the strata where the contamination sources were located. The concentrations of the oil contaminants in wells changed greatly over time. Therefore, the curves of concentration versus time fluctuated greatly. The reasons are as follows. (a) Fracture-karst water has a very great velocity. (b) Local flow fields which were caused by pumping and stoppage in some wells changed frequently. (c) In fracture-karat aquifer the transport channels are complicated. (d) Residual oil in vadose zone was leached after rainfall, it is of great practical value for the control and remediation of petroleum contamination in fracture-karst aquifer to understand those characteristics

Ecological incidents in Northern Adriatic Karst (Croatia), 2000, Geres D, Rubinic J, Ozanic N,
In spite of growing efforts to preserve the quality of groundwater resources, accidental pollution is becoming increasingly frequent, resulting in long-lasting impact on the groundwater status. The consequences of ecological accidents are particularly expressed in karst regions, which are caused by the geological properties of the area where the groundwater aquifers are situated, as well as by hydrological circumstances which also influence the dynamic mechanisms of water flow and transportation of pollution in the karst environment. The paper stresses the hydrological component of karst aquifer function and the related role of hydrology in assessment of the hazards caused by accidental pollution and, once the accident has happened, in monitoring the situation and forecasting the possible impact on water resources. The analysis of ecological accidents in the karst has been made, based on the actual examples of accidents involving fuel substances recorded in the Northern Adriatic karst area in Croatia in the period from 1990 to 1998. The basic characteristics of the mechanism of water movement in the karst are presented from the hydrological standpoint, as well as the related risk of rapid transportation of pollutants into the parts of the aquifers used for water supply. The paper also contains proposals for possible approaches to protection of particularly valuable water resources in the karat from accidental pollution occurring in road transport

Water and Land-Use Problems in Areas of Conduit Aquifers, 2000, Aley T.
Water and land-use problems occur in areas of conduit aquifers because of the intimate interactions which exist between the surface and the subsurface. Water is the agent which most directly links the surface and subsurface. Karst areas have unique natural resource problems which have major economic consequences. Soils are often of poor agricultural quality. Surface water supplies are limited. Groundwater supplies are often limited, expensive to exploit, and highly subject to contamination because of ineffective natural cleansing processes. The quality of water in a karst spring or well is largely determined by land-use conditions in the recharge area which contributes the water to that well or spring. The range of land-use activities which can adversely impact groundwater quality in karst aquifers is extensive. Municipal and on-site sewage systems, petroleum storage and distribution facilities, and highways and pipelines have all created wide-spread problems. Sinkhole collapses have occurred beneath sewage lagoons, highways, and other features. Recommended resource protection strategies for karst areas are identified. Preventing problems is crucial. Recharge area delineation provides fundamental and essential data, and should be accompanied by hazard area mapping. Land use in karst areas must be tailored to site conditions.

PCB Pollution of the Karstic Environment (Krupa River, Slovenia), 2000, Polič, S. , Leskovš, Ek H. , Horvat M.

The PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyls) pollution problems in Krupa River are related to sinking surficial streams that mix with the regional groundwater supply, thus endangering the quality of the groundwater reservoirs. The last state of contamination with PCBs and their fate and exposure in the polluted environment were studied in the period 1995 to 1998 within the Remedial Environmental Programme that began in 1984. The concentrations of PCBs in the environmental compartments (air, water, sediment, and soil) of the Krupa were determined. A simple two-compartment (air/water) fugacity mass balance model was applied to these figures, and yielded a reasonable simulation of long-term trends in concentration. The net flux of PCBs from water to air was determined (0.3 ng/m2s). Research into levels of pollution in the Krupa area showed the situation and trends regarding pollution after ten years of remedial measures, and produced a quantitative assessment of the emission of PCBs from the underground catchment area of the source of the river. Comparisons between PCB concentrations in the polluted water measured from 1986 to 1988 and the concentrations measured in 1995 to 1997 show a decreasing trend (i.e. from a mean of 380 ng/l to a mean of 100 ng/l in the Krupa's water). The emission flux of PCBs from water to air for the entire River Krupa (2.6 km long) was estimated at 200 to500 g/year, i.e. approximately one-tenth of the figure at the time the remedial measure was initiated.

Gypsum-karst collapse in the Black Hills, South Dakota-Wyoming, USA, 2000, Epstein, Jack B.

Intrastratal dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite in four stratigraphic units of Pennsylvanian to Jurassic age in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming has resulted in many collapse features that have developed primarily in the non-soluble overlying rocks. Subsidence has affected several areas that are undergoing urban development. Subsurface intrastratal dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation has produced a regional collapse breccia, extensive disruption of bedding, many dolines, and breccia pipes and pinnacles, some of which extend upwards more than 300 m into overlying strata. Recent collapse is evidenced by steep-walled dolines more than 20 m deep, collapse in water wells and natural springs resulting in sediment disruption and contamination, and fresh circular scarps surrounding shallow depressions. Many beds of gypsum are contorted because of expansion due to its hydration from anhydrite, and many gypsum veinlets extend downward along random fractures from parent gypsum beds. Several dolines are sites of resurgent springs. As the anhydrite dissolution front in the subsurface Minnelusa moves downdip and radially away from the center of the Black Hills uplift, these resurgent springs will dry up and new ones will form as the geomorphology of the Black Hills evolves. Old dolines and breccia pipes, preserved in cross section on canyon walls, attest to the former position of the dissolution front. Mirror Lake, which is expanding northwestward in a downdip direction, is a local analog of a migrating dissolution front.

Geophysical surveys over karst recharge features, Illinois, USA, 2001, Carpenter Pj, Ahmed S,
Karst aquifers supply a significant fraction of the world's drinking water. These types of aquifers are also highly susceptible to pollution from the surface with recharge usually occurring through fractures and solution openings at the bedrock surface. Thickness of the protective soil cover, macropores and openings within the soil cover, and the nature of the weathered bedrock surface all influence infiltration. Recharge openings at the bedrock surface, however, are often covered by unconsolidated sediments, resulting in the inadvertent placement of landfills, unregulated dump sites, tailing piles, waste lagoons and septic systems over recharge zones. In these settings surface geophysical surveys, calibrated by a few soil cores, could be employed to identify these recharge openings, and qualitatively assess the protection afforded by the soil cover. In a test of this hypothesis, geophysical measurements accurately predicted the thickness of unconsolidated deposits overlying karstic dolomite at a site about 100 km south of Chicago, Illinois. Zones of elevated electrical conductivity and high ground-penetrating radar (GPR) attenuation within the sediments coincided with subcropping solutionally-enlarged hydraulically active bedrock fractures. These fractures extend to over 12-m depth, as shown by 2-D inverted resistivity sections and soil coring. Anomalous electromagnetic (EM) conductivity and GPR response may be due to higher soil moisture above these enlarged fractures. An epikarstal conduit at 2.5-m depth was directly identified through a GPR survey. These results suggest that surface geophysical surveys are a viable tool for assessing the susceptibility of shallow karst aquifers to contamination

Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA., 2001, Katz B. G. , Bohlke J. K. , Hornsby H. D.

Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA, 2001, Katz B. G. , Bohlke J. K. , Hornsby H. D. ,
Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium ((3) H), and tritium/helium-3 (H-3/He-3) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 2 years from CFC- 12, CFC- 113, H-3, and He-3. with evidence of partial CFC- 11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC- 113, CFC- 12. and H-3 data, but did not reproduce the observed He-3 concentrations or H-3/He-3 ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had H-3 concentrations not much different front modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC- 113, with evidence of partial CFC- 11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwance County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of artificial fertilizer/manure whereas in Lafayette County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a more monotonic increase in fertilizer input and relatively low overall ratio of artificial fertilizer/manure. The combined results of this study indicate that the nitrate concentrations of springs in the Suwannee River basin have responded to increased nitrogen loads from various sources in the watersheds over the last few decades, however, the responses have been subdued and delayed because the average residence time of groundwater discharging from springs are in the order of decades. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

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