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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That residual clay is clay or sandy clay remaining on a rock surface after removal of calcium carbonate by solution. compare terra rossa [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for monitoring (Keyword) returned 226 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 226
Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, 1999, Crandall Ca, Katz Bg, Hirten Jj,
Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88 m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360 m(3)/s. During these high-now conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and Rn-222; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, Rn-222, HCO3)

Muddy waters: temporal variation in sediment discharging from a karst spring, 1999, Mahler B. J. , Lynch F. L. ,
Karst aquifers are capable of transporting and discharging large quantities of suspended sediment, which can have an important impact on water quality. Here we present the results of intensive monitoring of sediment discharging from a karst spring in response to two storm events, one following a wet season and the other following a dry season; we describe temporal changes in total suspended solids (TSS), mineralogy, and particle size distribution. Peak concentrations of suspended sediment coincided with changes in aqueous chemistry indicating arrival of surface water, suggesting that much of the discharging sediment had an allochthonous origin. Concentrations of suspended sediment peaked 14-16 h after rainfall, and the bulk of the sediment (approximately 1 metric ton in response to each storm) discharged within 24 h after rainfall. Filtered material included brightly colored fibers and organic matter. Suspended sediments consisted of dolomite, calcite, quartz, and clay. Proportions of each mineral constituent changed as the aquifer response to the storm progressed, indicating varying input from different sediment sources. The hydraulic response of the aquifer to precipitation was well described by changes in parameters obtained from the particle size distribution function, and corresponded to changes seen in TSS and mineralogy. Differences between storms in the quantity and mineralogy of sediment transported suggest that seasonal effects on surface sediment supply may be important. The quantity of sediment discharging and its potential to sorb and transport contaminants indicates that a mobile solid phase should be included in contaminant monitoring and contaminant transport models of karst. Temporal changes in sediment quantity and characteristics and differences between responses to the two storms, however, demonstrate that the process is not easily generalized. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999, Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

Role of cave information in environmental site characterization,, 1999, Jancin M.
For consultants concerned with developing site-specific conceptual models for flow and transport in karst, cave information can be worth accessingAt the scale of the basin, caves often display patterns that correlate with both the flow and recharge characteristics of their aquifersCharacterization of overall basin hydrology bolsters predictions and monitoring recommendations which address the siteAlthough the presence of caves beneath or near sites is rare, site-based information such as water-table maps (under both natural and pumping conditions), well water-level fluctuations, well turbidity observations, borehole-void yields during drilling, and dye-trace results, are potentially useful in defining conduit-flow boundaries to diffuse-flow blocksThe appropriate choice of dye-tracer methods should acknowledge whether most site conduits (or borehole voids, or even caves) are within the epikarst, the vadose zone, the phreatic zone, or the oscillation zoneFor inferences on site flow directions, it is useful to compare the directional frequencies of cave passages and joints, faults, and photolinears in the areaThere is evidence that where caves are well developed, there tends to be a low correlation between photolinear locations and relatively high well yieldsLNAPL migration will be retarded where main conduits are well beneath the water table, but an extensive overlying system of saturated epikarstic pores serve as trapsKarst with high seasonal or storm variations in water level will tend to repeatedly remobilize LNAPLsGiven sufficient volume, DNAPLs can penetrate vertically integrated networks of pores, fractures, or solution conduits to great depthHowever, where such pathway networks are lie above relatively tight lithologies at shallow depth, and are not sediment filled, lateral movement can greatly exceed vertical movementCharacterization of the 3-D nature of pores and pathways is an important element in understanding the migration of free product, and therefore in understanding the evolution of associated aqueous plumes

Subsidiary conduit systems: A hiatus in aquifer monitoring and modeling, 1999, Smart C. C.

A comprehensive strategy for understanding flow in carbonate aquifers, 1999, Worthington S. R. H.

Studies of carbonate aquifers usually either concentrate on sampling the channel flow (egsink-to-spring tracer testing, spring monitoring) or on sampling the non-channel flow (egborehole measurements)A comprehensive approach is advocated here, involving the integration of both sources of information, as well as measurements of the porosity and permeability of the unfractured rockRepresentative sampling can be achieved by treating carbonates as triple-porosity aquifers, with one-, two-, and three-dimensional porosity elementsThe division of carbonate aquifers into "karstic" or "non-karstic" types is unwarranted


Monitoring von Triphosa spec in Hhlen des Hagengebirges (Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, Deutschland), 1999, Menne B. , Menne S.

Development, management and economy of show caves, 2000, Burri Ezio, Cigna Arrigo A.
The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

Working with knowledge at the science/policy interface: a unique example from developing the Tongass Land Management Plan, 2000, Shawiii Charles G. , Everest Fred H. , Swanston Douglas N. ,
An innovative, knowledge-based partnership between research scientists and resource managers in the U.S. Forest Service provided the foundation upon which the Forest Plan was developed that will guide management on the Tongass National Forest for the next 10-15 years. Criteria developed by the scientists to evaluate if management decisions were consistent with the available information base were applied to major components of the emerging final management strategy for the Forest. While the scientists remained value neutral on the contents of the Forest Plan and the management directions provided in it, their evaluation indicated that the decisions it contained for riparian and fish sustainability, wildlife viability, karst and cave protection, slope stability, timber resources, social/economic effects, and monitoring achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. The Forest Plan, revised to conform with existing scientific knowledge, represents a management strategy designed to sustain the diversity and productivity of the ecosystem while producing goods and services commensurate with the agency’s multiple-use mandate. Execution of this research/management partnership highlighted the role of scientific knowledge in forestry decision-making and provided a new mechanism to input such information into the decision making process. The partnership continues as the scientists are addressing high priority information needs generated by the planning effort in order to have additional information available for plan implementation and revision through adaptive management over the next 3-5 years

The influence of tectonic structures on karst flow patterns in karstified limestones and aquitards in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland, 2000, Herold T. , Jordan P. , Zwahlen F. ,
The development of karst systems is often assumed to be related to tectonic structures, i. e. joints and faults. However, detailed studies report many of these structures to be indifferent ui even obstacles to karst development. The aim of our study is to present a systematic which helps to explain or even predict whether a specific fault or joint, or a class of such structures are permeable (and therefore likely to be widened to karat conduits) or impermeable. Therefore three extended multi-tracer experiments followed by three months of monitoring were performed at some 95 springs and streams in the Eastern Jura fold-and-thrust belt. In addition, detailed mapping of tectonic and hydrogeological structures, including sinkholes and some 600 springs, has been carried out. The study area is characterised by two large anticlines, which have been affected by pre-fold normal faulting and synorogenic folding and thrusting as well as oblique reactivation of pre-existing faults. Hydrogeologically, two karst aquifers can be distinguished, the lower Mid Jurassic Hauptrogenstein (Dogger Limestone) and the upper Late Jurassic Malm Limestone. Both karst aquifers are confined and separated From each other hy impermeable layers. This study has shown that karst development and groundwater circulation is strongly controlled by tectonic structures resulting in specific meso- to macro-scale anisotropies. Fast long distance transport along fold axes in crest and limb at cas of anticlines is found to be related to extension joints resulting from synorogenic folds. Concentrated lateral drainage of water now from anticline limbs is exclusively related to pre-orogenic normal faults, which have been transtensively reactivated during folding. The same structures are also responsible for the significant groundwater exchange between the lower (inner) and upper (outer) aquifer. This water now, through otherwise impermeable layers, which is reported at several places and in both directions, is suspected to take place in porous calcite fault gouges or fault breccias. Transpressively reactivated normal faults and synorogenic reverse faults, on the other band. are found to have no influence on karst development and groundwater circulation. It is proposed that the systematic found in the Weissenstein area, i.e. that karst conduit development is mainly controlled by extensive or transtensive (reactivated) joints and faults, may also be applied to other tectonically influenced karat regions. Transpressive structures have no significant influence on karst system development and may even act as obstacles

The slope movements within the Mondores graben (Drome, France); the interaction between geology, hydrology and typology, 2000, Bogaard Ta, Antoine P, Desvarreux P, Giraud A, Van Asch Twj,
The Mondores graben in the south-eastern French Alps is an uncommon structural feature, which originates in a complex polyphasic tectonic evolution. In contrast with its immediate surroundings, with hardly any huge landslides, the Mondores graben is characterised by various types of landslides. A huge sagging caused part of the limestone cliff to subside some 50 m within 50 years. Two recent mud flows that occurred were considered a potential threat to some inhabited places downstream. The hydrologic aspects of the Boulc-Mondores landslide resemble the geology: infiltration (and karst input?) in the rock-sliding zone and exfiltration in the marls resulting in slumps and mud flows. The mass movement interactions could be explained by a structural geology analysis with geodetic monitoring using different techniques. It is also shown that hydrochemistry as well as geophysical surveys are of importance in unravelling the hydrologic systems and the geological subsurface structures. The present paper aims at explaining the geological control of the different slides in view of estimating their potential danger. Understanding the geological structure and its evolution therefore is a necessary prerequisite. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Transmissivity estimates from well hydrographs in karst and fractured aquifers, 2000, Powers J. G. , Shevenell L. ,
Hydrograph recessions from rainfall events have been previously analyzed for discharge at springs and streams; however, relatively little quantitative research has been conducted with regard to hydrograph analysis of recessions from monitoring wells screened in karst aquifers, In previous work, a quantitative hydrograph analysis technique has been proposed from which matrix transmissivity (i.e., transmissivity of intergranular porosity) and specific yields of matrix, fracture, and conduit components of the aquifer may be determined from well hydrographs, The technique has yielded realistic results at three sites tested by the authors (Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Crane, Indiana; and Fort Campbell, Kentucky). Observed field data, as well as theoretical considerations, show that karst wed hydrographs are valid indicators of hydraulic properties of the associated karst aquifers, Results show matrix transmissivity (T) values to be in good agreement with values calculated using more traditional parameter estimation techniques, such as aquifer pumping tests and slug tests in matrix dominated wells. While the hydrograph analysis technique shows premise for obtaining reliable estimates of karst aquifer T with a simple, relatively inexpensive and passive method, the utility of the technique is limited in its application depending on site-specific hydrologic conditions, which include shadow submerged conduit systems located in areas with sufficient rainfall for water levels to respond to precipitation events

Interpretation of groundwater level monitoring results in karst aquifers: examples from the Dinaric karst, 2000, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The paper presents an attempt to determine the characteristics of karst aquifers using information on groundwater lever (GWL) in natural holes and boreholes with different data quantity and time resolution of GWL measurements. In this paper the particulars of karst aquifers were analysed for four examples from the Dinaric karst. In all four study areas, aquifers are formed in bare, deep and well-developed Dinaric karst consisting of Cretaceous limestones. The first example represents a wide area of Imotsko polje in the karst. The aquifer was analysed on the basis of infrequent water level monitoring in natural karst water features (jamas, lakes, wells) and discharges of springs and rivers. The karst aquifer in this example is complex, non-homogenous and variable in space and time, which is frequent in the Dinaric karst. Regardless of the aforementioned it was possible to determine its elementary characteristics. The second example represents 10 wells used for the water supply for the city of Pula. The GWL and salinity were measured once a week in the period between 1981 and 1996. Even though these measurements were relatively infrequent in space and time, they served as bases for assessment of average and maximum aquifer conditions as well as boundaries of saltwater intrusion. In the third example only a portion of aquifer of the karst spring Blaz, which is in the contact with the Adriatic Seas, has been analyzed. It is a spring with an intrusion of salt water. For purposes of study of saltwater intrusion, 26 piezometers were drilled in its vicinity in which GWL, salinity and temperature were measured once a day during 168 days, a period comprising one complete cycle of seawater intrusion and retreat. These measurements proved the existence of dispersed discharge from the aquifer into the sea and its non-homogeneity in space. In the fourth example GWL was measured continuously in 10 deep (up to 300 m) piezometers in the hinterland of the Ombla Spring catchment. The measurement period lasted 2 years (January 1988 to December 1989). The analyses are made with hourly data. The results made it possible to determine numerous characteristics of the karst aquifer and a significant non-homogeneity of groundwater distribution in karst aquifers, depending more on the underground karst phenomena than the surface karst forms

Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst, 2000, Mahler B. J. , Personne J. C. , Lods G. F. , Drogue C. ,
Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 mi in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 mi. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at Various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The high bacterial concentrations found in both wells, despite the difference in hydraulic conductivity, demonstrates the difficulty of predicting vulnerability of individual wells to bacterial contamination in karst. The extreme temporal variability in bacterial concentrations underscores the importance of event-based monitoring of the bacterial quality of public water supplies in karst. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrologic analysis of discharge sustainability from an abandoned underground coal mine, 2000, Burbey Tj, Younos T, Anderson Et,
Discharge from flooded abandoned subsurface coal mines is considered a potential source for water supplies where other acceptable water sources are not available. The objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining sustainability of mine-water discharge using rainfall and discharge data for a case study site. The study site is located in southwest Virginia where Late Paleozoic sequences of sandstone, coal, and shale predominate. A rain gauge and a flow rate monitoring system were installed at the site and data were collected for a period of 100 days. The recording period corresponded with one of the driest periods in recent years and, therefore, provided valuable information regarding the flow sustainability during baseflow conditions. From available data on underground mining patterns, geology, and ground water flow regimes, it was determined that a coal mine aquifer exhibits hydraulic characteristics very similar to the extremely heterogeneous systems observed in karst aquifers, and the mine discharge is analogous to springflow. Thus, techniques commonly used in karst-water systems and springflow analysis were used to develop rainfall/mine-discharge relationships. Springflow recession analysis was performed on five rainfall recessions and the coefficient for each recession was compared and interpreted in light of known geologic information. It was found that the recession coefficients described the mine discharge adequately and the mine aquifer response to a rainfall pulse was very similar to the response from certain ts;pes of karst aquifers. A cross-correlation analysis was performed to verify the results of the recession analysis and to develop a 'black box' statistical model for discharge data. The correlation analysis proved the validity of springflow recession analysis for mine discharge. The recorded data length was not adequate to create a statistical model, however, but a procedure was proposed for a statistical model that could be used with large flow records. For the study site, the mine discharge was found to be sustainable for a prolonged period of time

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