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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That volumetric moisture content is the concentration of water in soil by volume [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for upper cretaceous (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 38 of 38
Formes et formations superficielles de la partie ouest du Causse de Sauveterre (Grands Causses, Aveyron et Lozre), 2007, Bruxelles Laurent , Simoncoinon Rgine, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul
MORPHOLOGY AND SUPERFICIAL FORMATIONS OF THE WESTERN PART OF THE CAUSSE DE SAUVETERRE (GRANDS CAUSSES, AVEYRON AND LOZ?RE, FRANCE). In 2002, the Natural Regional Park of Grands Causses has coordinated a hydrogeological study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre, the northernmost of the Grands Causses. A multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geochemistry and hydrology) was used to delineate the catchment area of the main springs and to estimate the vulnerability of karstic aquifers. The Grands Causses are situated in the southern part of the French Massif Central. The landscape is characterised by huge limestone plateaus cut by deep canyons. The morphologic study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre (Causse de Massegros and Causse de S?v?rac), combined with analysis of superficial formations, allows us to identify the main steps of landscape evolution. The discovery of bauxite and of many outcrops of Upper Cretaceous sandstone confirm that the Coniacian ingression invaded some paleo-landscapes developed within a long period of continental evolution which was initiated at the end of the Jurassic. During the Tertiary, many residual formations form covers of the limestone plateaus. We can distinguish alterites developed from different formations of the stratigraphic series (clay with cherts from Bajocian, dolomitic sand from Bathonian and Callovian, sandy clays from Cretaceous deposits) from some allochtonous deposits which can be found in some parts of the Causse de Massegros. These formations are found in association with morphological features (shelves, polj?s, fluvio-karstic valleys, sinkholes) and are more or less responsible of their development. Furthermore, some volcanic rocks cut through or even reused some of them. With the deepening of canyons and the base level drop, horizontal morphologies are preserved only where superficial formations are abundant and thick enough to maintain crypto-corrosion. Elsewhere, karst unplugging removes most of the superficial formations, and the karstic evolution tends to show a vertical development of morphologies and caves. Some springs, which benefit from a favourable lithologic, structural and hydrologic context, are more competitive and expand their catchment area at the expense of the other springs. Many superficial features express this dynamism on the plateau and allow us to determine the most sensible areas for water pollution and the most fragile ones for human activities.

Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene forbulge unconformity associated with foreland basin evolution (Kras, Matarsko Podolje and Istria; SW Slovenia and NW Croatia), 2007, Otonič, Ar B.

A regional unconformity separates the Cretaceous passive margin shallow-marine carbonate sequence of Adriatic Carbonate Platform from the Upper Cretaceous and/or Paleogene shallow-marine sequences of synorogenic carbonate platform in southwestern Slovenia and Istria (a part of southwestern Slovenia and northwestern Croatia). The unconformity is expressed by irregular paleokarstic surface, locally marked by bauxite deposits. Distinctive subsurface paleokarstic features occur below the surface (e.g. filled phreatic caves, spongework horizons…). The age of the limestones that immediately underlie the unconformity and the extent of the chronostratigraphic gap in southwestern Slovenia and Istria systematically increase from northeast towards southwest, while the age of the overlying limestones decreases in this direction. Similarly, the deposits of synorogenic carbonate platform, pelagic marls and flysch (i.e. underfilled trinity), deposits typical of underfilled peripheral foreland basin, are also diachronous over the area and had been advancing from northeast towards southwest from Campanian to Eocene. Systematic trends of isochrones of the carbonate rocks that immediately under- and overlie the paleokarstic surface, and consequently, of the extent of the chronostratigraphic gap can be explained mainly by the evolution and topography of peripheral foreland bulge (the forebulge). The advancing flexural foreland profile was the result of vertical loading of the foreland lithospheric plate (Adria microplate) by the evolving orogenic wedge. Because of syn- and post-orogenic tectonic processes, and time discrepancy between adjacent foreland basin deposits and tectonic (“orogenic”) phases it is difficult to define the exact tectonic phase responsible for the evolution of the foreland complex. According to position and migration of the subaerially exposed forebulge, distribution of the foreland related macrofacies and orientation of tectonic structures, especially of Dinaric nappes, and Dinaric mountain chain I suggest that the foreland basin complex in western Slovenia and Istria was formed during mesoalpine (“Dinaric”) tectonic phase due to oblique collision between Austroalpine terrane/Tisia microplate and Adria microplate when probably also a segmentation of the foreland plate (Adria microplate) occurred.


CONDICIONANTS LITOLGICS I ESTRUCTURALS DEL CARST A LES ILLES BALEARS, 2011, Forns J. J. , Gelabert B.

The lithology and structural setting of the rocks which form the island of Mallorca are magnificent bases on which karstic phenomena develop. Almost every geological period is continually represented here, from the Carboniferous to the Pleistocene (only part of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleogene being absent). The approximate thickness of the stratigraphic sequence is 3,000 m in which carbonate deposits (not only limestones but also dolomites) constitute the most important lithologies. The main structure consists of thrust sheets imbricated in a NW transport direction. Such deformation took place during the alpine orogeny. Furthermore, the existence of impervious materials from the Keuper at the base of the thrust sheets, added to the imbricate thrusts system structure, cause permeable zones to remain isolated by areas of impervious material. The development during the post-orogenic phase (Late Miocene) of a carbonate reef deposition, forms a large tabular slab where the phenomena related to coastal karst have its maximum expression. Menorca, can be divided into two very distinct parts. The northern half or Tramuntana, well structured, but dominated by the presence of siliceous material from the Devonian with a couple of large slabs of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites, quite different from Migjorn, in the south, where the Late Miocene calcarenites and calcisiltites clearly dominate. Eivissa can be assimilated to the same structure of the Tramuntana mountains of Mallorca, which are almost exclusively dominated by carbonate materials, particularly the dolomites, but the limestones from the middle Triassic and the marls (Cretaceous and lower Miocene) are very abundant. Formentera is dominated at both ends of the island by sea cliffs cut on Miocene reefal limestones joined by an isthmus where Pleistocene aeolian calcarenites outcrops.


Aquifers in Coastal Plains of the Arabian Plate , 2012, Wagner, Wolfgang

The western, southern and eastern margins of the Arabian Plate are delimited by sea coasts. Along considerable stretches of the coasts, productive aquifers are found, which are composed in particular of Unconsolidated fluvial, littoral or marine sediments of prevailingly Quaternary age Carbonate rocks of various ages (Paleozoic to Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary)


OBSERVATIONS OF PLIOCENE KARSTS FOSSILIZED BY QUATERNARY EOLIAN SILTS IN THE MATMATA MOUNTAINS (SOUTH-EAST TUNISIA), 2012, Sghari, Abdeljalil

The submeridional Dahar chain in southeastern Tunisia is over 200 km long. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Jeffara plain with some tens of kilometers in width. This landscape continues to the South into Libya, but to the North, the chain ends with the Matmata mountains which form a plateau slightly inclined to the west and some 10 km wide. The eastern scarp shows a mainly calcareous geological stratigraphy from Upper Permian to the Senonian. The Dahar-Matmata structure belongs to the Sahara platform and shows a hiatus during the whole Tertiary, since it was emerged since Upper Cretaceous. The Tunisian Atlas nearby shows a completely different paleogeographic evolution, with a complete Tertiary series and a later Plio-Quaternary structuration. These two paleogeographic domains of Southern Tunisia, the Sahara Atlas and the NE border of the Sahara platform, were influenced by the Messinian crisis (5.9 Ma to 5.3 Ma). This was expressed by the collapse of the Mediterranean Sea level, profoundly modifying the fluvial dynamics with an inversion of the erosional system, from normal erosion to regressive erosion. It results a deepening of canyons in the downstream part and a deepening of the watercourses in the upstream part. The geological structures in the Messinian have been deeply affected by these large eustatic changes, with an incision of cluses in the Atlas and the deposition of a thick clayeysandy series that we could recently link to deltaic systems and Gilbert deltas. The re-establishment of seaways between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and the subsequent infill in the Lower Pliocene (Zanclean transgression), with an important inpact in Southern Tunisia, had multiple consequences in that region. The newly adjusted sealevel, together with a more humid climate that was confirmed by faunal and floral extension oof tropical plants in Northern Africa, stimulated an important karstification of the limestone areas. In the Dahar chain, caves, dolines, karstic depressions or karstic dry valleys emerged, the most spectacular ones being found in the Matmata Mountains. The karstic depressions are the forms that represent best this Pliocene karstification that surely was interrupted in an early stage, because localized endokarstic forms had not enough time to develop. So the karstification seems to have been active in Matmata from 5.4 to 4.0 million years, i.e. two times as long than the duration of the Messinian crisis. The interruption of karstification is due to an increase in temperature and dryness, which even gets more intense during the Pliocene, pulverizing the soils. Already at the beginning of the desertification, a calcareous crust forms by rapid cristallization of dirt. It is immediately transported from the karstic zones to the Jeffara plain. This transfer fo dissolved calcite was the origin of the resistant calcitic crust well known in the Jeffara plain. We now identified the same crust in a karstic depression in the Matmata Mountains, opening the way to new geomorphologic and tectonic interpretations, and a review of the eolian silts formerly attributed to the Upper Pleistocene. Later, during Upper Pliocene-Gelasian, we observe a general tectonic uplift of the Dahar chain and the Matmata Mountains as well as the subsidence of the Jeffara plain at the Medenine fault (NW-SE), prolonging the large Gafsa fault towards the East. The karstic paleoforms were thus uplifted more than 500 m, but nevertheless remain open on the Jeffara plain, as seen by large depressions. As a consequence, the karstic depressions of Matmata played the role of traps for eolian silts blown from the Jeffara plain during the extreme desertification in the Upper Pliocene-Gelasian. The morphological reconstruction since the Messinian shows a succession of important events during the Pliocene that profoundly influenced the Quaternary. All indications permit to reject the hypothesis that the Matmata silts came from the West (Eastern Erg).

 


OBSERVATIONS OF PLIOCENE KARSTS FOSSILIZED BY QUATERNARY EOLIAN SILTS IN THE MATMATA MOUNTAINS (SOUTH-EAST TUNISIA), 2012, Sghari, Abdeljalil

The submeridional Dahar chain in southeastern Tunisia is over 200 km long. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Jeffara plain with some tens of kilometers in width. This landscape continues to the South into Libya, but to the North, the chain ends with the Matmata mountains which form a plateau slightly inclined to the west and some 10 km wide. The eastern scarp shows a mainly calcareous geological stratigraphy from Upper Permian to the Senonian. The Dahar-Matmata structure belongs to the Sahara platform and shows a hiatus during the whole Tertiary, since it was emerged since Upper Cretaceous. The Tunisian Atlas nearby shows a completely different paleogeographic evolution, with a complete Tertiary series and a later Plio-Quaternary structuration. These two paleogeographic domains of Southern Tunisia, the Sahara Atlas and the NE border of the Sahara platform, were influenced by the Messinian crisis (5.9 Ma to 5.3 Ma). This was expressed by the collapse of the Mediterranean Sea level, profoundly modifying the fluvial dynamics with an inversion of the erosional system, from normal erosion to regressive erosion. It results a deepening of canyons in the downstream part and a deepening of the watercourses in the upstream part. The geological structures in the Messinian have been deeply affected by these large eustatic changes, with an incision of cluses in the Atlas and the deposition of a thick clayeysandy series that we could recently link to deltaic systems and Gilbert deltas. The re-establishment of seaways between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and the subsequent infill in the Lower Pliocene (Zanclean transgression), with an important inpact in Southern Tunisia, had multiple consequences in that region. The newly adjusted sealevel, together with a more humid climate that was confirmed by faunal and floral extension oof tropical plants in Northern Africa, stimulated an important karstification of the limestone areas. In the Dahar chain, caves, dolines, karstic depressions or karstic dry valleys emerged, the most spectacular ones being found in the Matmata Mountains. The karstic depressions are the forms that represent best this Pliocene karstification that surely was interrupted in an early stage, because localized endokarstic forms had not enough time to develop. So the karstification seems to have been active in Matmata from 5.4 to 4.0 million years, i.e. two times as long than the duration of the Messinian crisis. The interruption of karstification is due to an increase in temperature and dryness, which even gets more intense during the Pliocene, pulverizing the soils. Already at the beginning of the desertification, a calcareous crust forms by rapid cristallization of dirt. It is immediately transported from the karstic zones to the Jeffara plain. This transfer fo dissolved calcite was the origin of the resistant calcitic crust well known in the Jeffara plain. We now identified the same crust in a karstic depression in the Matmata Mountains, opening the way to new geomorphologic and tectonic interpretations, and a review of the eolian silts formerly attributed to the Upper Pleistocene. Later, during Upper Pliocene-Gelasian, we observe a general tectonic uplift of the Dahar chain and the Matmata Mountains as well as the subsidence of the Jeffara plain at the Medenine fault (NW-SE), prolonging the large Gafsa fault towards the East. The karstic paleoforms were thus uplifted more than 500 m, but nevertheless remain open on the Jeffara plain, as seen by large depressions. As a consequence, the karstic depressions of Matmata played the role of traps for eolian silts blown from the Jeffara plain during the extreme desertification in the Upper Pliocene-Gelasian. The morphological reconstruction since the Messinian shows a succession of important events during the Pliocene that profoundly influenced the Quaternary. All indications permit to reject the hypothesis that the Matmata silts came from the West (Eastern Erg).


Hypogene karst of the eastern part of the Crimean fore-mountains, 2012, Klimchouk A. B. , Amelichev G. M. , Tymokhina . . , Tokarev S. V.

Carbonate rocks of upper Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene crop out in cuesta escarpments in different sectors of the eastern part of the Inner Range of the Crimean fore-mountains. Scarps and adjacent strips of the plateaus demonstrate a set of features, characteristic and unique for the Crimean fore-mountain region, represented by various conduit and cavernous forms (karstified fractures, grottoes, niches, caves, vugs and zones of vuggy porosity), sculptured surfaces and honeycomb, boxwork and spongework surfaces of scarps, and also by couloirs and blind valleys in the near-scarp strips of structural slopes. The paper demonstrates that all these forms are relics of the morphology of sub-vertical hypogenic rift-like conduits, their meso-elements and forms of the vuggy fringe, exposed due to the scarp retreat by block toppling. Previous ideas of the formation of grottoes and niches in scarps by processes of external weathering and gravitational destruction are shown to be inadequate, and the hypogenic karst origin of these forms is firmly established. The analysis of distribution and morphology of relict hypogenic karst features has allowed reconstructing the structure and functioning of hypogenic karst systems, which had been formed by dissolution and metasomatic alteration of host rocks under confined conditions, along cross-formational tectonic fractures organized in linear corridors and clusters. Interaction of rising fracture-vein waters of the deep circulation system with intra- and interstratal waters of shallower systems played a particular role in hypogenic speleogenesis. It is shown that hypogenic karst was one of the primary factors of regional geomorphic development as it determined locations and morphology of the cuesta escarpments, as well as further landform development in the adjacent areas of the structural surfaces.


Acqua Fitusa Cave: an example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave in Central Sicily, 2012, Vattano M. , Audra Ph. , Bigot J. Y. , Waele J. D. , Madonia G. , Nobcourt J. C.

Hypogenic caves are generated by water recharging from below independently of seepage from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. These waters are often thermal and enriched in dissolved gases, the most common of which are CO2 and H2S. Hypogenic caves can be thermal caves, sulphuric acid caves, basal injection caves. They differ from epigenic caves in many ways, such as: speleogenetic mechanisms, morphological features, chemical deposits, and lack of alluvial sediments (KLIMCHOUK, 2007; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; PALMER, 2011). Several studies were conducted to evaluate the hypogenic origin of a large number of caves (AUDRA et alii, 2010; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; STAFFORD et alii, 2009). A significant contribution was given by the work of Klimchouk (2007) that systematically provided instruments and models to better understand and well define the hypogenic karst processes and landforms. Detailed studies on hypogenic caves were carried out in Italy since the 90s in different karst systems, especially in the Central and Southern Appenines. These studies mainly concerned chemical deposits related to ascending water and micro-biological action (GALDENZI & MENICHETTI, 1995; GALDENZI, 1997; PICCINI, 2000; GALDENZI & MARUOKA, 2003, FORTI & MOCCHIUTTI, 2004; GALDENZI, 2012). In this paper, we present the first results of researches conducted in Acqua Fitusa cave that was believed to be an epigenic cave until today. Acqua Fitusa cave is located in Central Sicily, along the north-eastern scarp of a N-S anticline, westward vergent, forming the Mt. La Montagnola. The cave formed in the Upper Cretaceous Rudist breccias member of the Crisanti Fm., composed of conglomerates and reworked calcarenites with rudist fragments and benthic foraminifers ( CATALANO et alii, 2011). The cave consists at least of three stories of subhorizontal conduits, displaying a total length of 700 m, and a vertical range of 25 m. It represents a clear example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave, produced mainly by H 2S degassing in the cave atmosphere. Despite the small size, Acqua Fitusa cave is very interesting for the abundance and variety of forms and deposits related to rising waters and air flow. A ~ 7 m deep inactive thermo-sulphuric discharge slot intersects the floor of some passages for several meters (Fig. 1). Different morphologies of small and large sizes, generated by condensation-corrosion processes, can be observed along the ceiling and walls: ceiling cupolas and large wall convection niches occur in the largest rooms of the cave; deep wall convection niches, in places forming notches, incise cave walls at different heights; condensation-corrosion channels similar to ceiling-half tubes carve the roof of some passages; replacements pockets due to corrosion-substitution processes are widespread; boxwork due to differential condensation-corrosion were observed in the upper parts of the conduits. Sulphuric notches with flat roof, linked to lateral corrosion of the thermal water table, carve the cave walls at different heights recording past stages of base-level lowering. 


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