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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That natural well is (jamaican.) a vertical shaft in limestone, open to the surface and having water at the bottom; similar to a cenote [10]. synonym: (italian.) pozzo carsico.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mars (Keyword) returned 46 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 46
Fauna of the land habitats of the Pivka lakes, 2005,
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Polak, S.

The paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the fauna of the land habitats around the Pivka lakes. So far 20 mammal species and 127 bird species have been identified. Of the bird species, 75 also nest here. Special attention is paid to European conservation species such as the corn crake, woodlark, nightjar and barred warbler. The nesting density of the barred warbler, skylark, red-backed shrike and corn bunting at the Pivka lakes is among the highest in the country. In the area of the Pivka lakes 8 reptile species and 9 amphibian species have been identified. The majority of these species are on the Red List of Threatened Animals. The butterflies have been relatively well researched. 106 species have been identified in the area, which amounts to 57% of all species of butterflies living in Slovenia. Many of them are threatened and vulnerable species. To the present, 210 species of beetles have been identified, live here. Many of the threatened species are connected with the marshy grasslands of the lakes, dry karst grasslands and barren rocky outcrops. There are fewer threatened animal species in the forests and brush. The remains of old oak forests are scientifically important. Due to the abandonment of land use by humans in the area of the Pivka lakes we can observe the rapid overgrowth of pasturelands, which leads to decreased biodiversity. In addition to legal protection of the Pivka lakes it is therefore also recommend active management and conservation as well as preserving and encouragement of the formerly extensive farming practices.


Palustrine Deposits on a Late Devonian Coastal Plain--Sedimentary Attributes and Implications for Concepts of Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy, 2006,
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Macneil Alex J. , Jones Brian,
Palustrine deposits in coastal environments can cover thousands of square kilometers and are stratigraphically important. Palustrine deposits that originated in supratidal marshes can be used to track shifts in the shoreline position, whereas palustrine deposits that formed in marshes above the peritidal realm are indicative of subaerial unconformities. Despite the importance of these deposits, there are few documented examples of ancient coastal palustrine deposits, and their sedimentary attributes remain poorly understood. Misinterpretation of coastal palustrine deposits as marine deposits, or calcrete, may partly explain this situation. The Upper Devonian Alexandra Formation, exposed in the Northwest Territories of Canada, is formed of two reef complexes that are separated by a Type I sequence boundary. At the landward part of the platform, this boundary is marked by a succession of coastal-plain deposits that is ~ 50 cm thick. The most distinct aspect of this succession are palustrine deposits characterized by charophytes, skeletal (Rivularia) stromatolites, and various pedogenic features including complex crack networks, root traces, and authigenic kaolinite. Karst features and calcrete, generally regarded as typical indicators of subaerial exposure, are not found. This study highlights the sedimentary attributes that can be used to identify ancient palustrine deposits in marine coastal regions, distinguish these deposits from calcrete, and demonstrates their sequence stratigraphic significance, when found in marine limestone successions. It clearly demonstrates that palustrine deposits, like those found in the Alexandra Formation, should be considered indicative of subaerial unconformities and sequence boundaries, in the same manner as karst and calcrete

Pseudokarst in the 21st century, 2007,
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Halliday W. R.
Karst is a specific type of terrain (or landscapes) with characteristic suites of well-known surface and subsurface dissolutional features. The latter result from integrated subsurface drainage. A variety of nondissolutional processes forms terrains analogous to certain types of karst; these are termed pseudokarst. Before 1906, these generally were believed to be karst somehow formed in poorly soluble rocks. They share a considerable range of features, resources and values with karst, commonly (but not invariably) including caves, and the two are linked across a wide spectrum of processes and features (e.g., between dissolutional and piping caves). Unlike karst, integrated subsurface drainage may not be present. Isolated caves define neither karst nor pseudokarst. Multiprocess terrains and landscapes are not uncommon. Based largely on conclusions of a working session of the 1997 International Congress of Speleology, eight types of pseudokarst are identified, with notably different implications for extraterrestrial habitats: rheogenic pseudokarst, glacier pseudokarst, badlands and piping pseudokarst, permafrost pseudokarst, talus pseudokarst, crevice pseudokarst, compaction pseudokarst and consequent pseudokarst. Some appear to exist on Mars. Speleologists expert in their differentiation should serve as consultants to planetary geologists.

The polygenetic caves of Cuatro Cinegas (Coahuila, Mexico): Morphology and speleogenesis, 2007,
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Piccini Leonardo, Forti Paolo, Giulivo Italo And Mecchia Marco
The Cuatro Cinegas area is renown worldwide for its thermal springs, which feed a unique ecosystem consisting of many pools, lakes and marshes. The pools also represent a very important water resource in a region characterized by scarce rainfalls. Field investigation has emphasized the role of karst in the hydrogeology of the area. Only few and restricted forms of surface karst are represented; caves are mainly relics of old speleogenetic phases of thermal and bathyphreatic water flow.

The polygenetic caves of Cuatro Cinegas (Coahuila, Mexico): morphology and speleogenesis., 2007,
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Piccini Leonardo, Forti Paolo, Giulivo Italo, Mecchia Marco
The Cuatro Cinegas area is renown worldwide for its thermal springs, which feed a unique ecosystem consisting of many pools, lakes and marshes. The pools also represent a very important water resource in a region characterized by scarce rainfalls. Field investigation has emphasized the role of karst in the hydrogeology of the area. Only few and restricted forms of surface karst are represented; caves are mainly relics of old speleogenetic phases of thermal and bathyphreatic water flow.

The polygenetic caves of Cuatro Ciénegas (Coahuila, Mexico): Morphology and speleogenesis., 2007,
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Piccini L. , Forti P. , Giulivo I. , Mecchia M.

The Cuatro Ciénegas area is renown worldwide for its thermal springs, which feed a unique ecosystem consisting of many pools, lakes and marshes. The pools also represent a very important water resource in a region characterized by scarce rainfalls. Field investigation has emphasized the role of karst in the hydrogeology of the area. Only few and restricted forms of surface karst are represented; caves are mainly relics of old speleogenetic phases of thermal and bathyphreatic water flow.


KARST LANDFORMS IN A MARTIAN EVAPORITIC DOME, 2009,
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Baioni Davide, Zupan Hajna Nadja, Wezel Forese Carlo
The Tithonium Chasma is the northern trench of the western troughs of Valles Marineris (Mars). In the eastern part of the canyon system a mountain displaying a dome shape morphology is located. According to OMEGA mineralogical data (OMEGA data orbit 531_3) and further studies the dome appears to consist of magnesium sulphate (kieserite), an evaporitic mineral also found on the Earth. Previous works highlighted the presence of karst-like landforms and morphologies that strongly resemble the evaporitic karst morphologies found on the Earth. Through the analysis of the new MRO HiRISE images we have investigated the Martian landform and the possible processes involved in their formation and shaping in great detail. !e analysis carried out show that the landforms observed clearly indicate the presence of solutional processes that also acted in a selective way, highlighting that the Martian dome can be formed of different materials (minerals, grain-size, ect.) with different solutional properties. !e results of our observation also suggest that on the dome liquid water must have existed in the past for enough time so that the solution features we investigated could be formed.

Location, Location, Location! Lava Caves on Mars for Habitat, Resources, and the Search for Life, 2010,
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Boston, Penelope J.

Over the course of humanity's history as a species, the use of caves, rock shelters, and other natural geological features has played an important role in our survival and cultural development. We suggest that the use of such natural features in future human exploration of Mars and Earth's moon could be a timely and practical solution to a number of potential dilemmas presented by the extreme and challenging nature of the environments on these bodies. Lava tubes, other caves, cavities, and canyon overhangs that are being identified on other planets are sites of intense scientific interest for geology, atmospheric climate records, and potentially biology. They may offer easier subsurface access for direct exploration and drilling, and could provide extractable minerals, gases, and ices. In the past few years, examples of such structures on Mars, the Moon, and potentially other bodies have increasingly come to light. Thus, the real estate is out there waiting for us to modify it for our exploration missions. The present Martian surface environment is extremely cold, dry, chemically active, and high in both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and episodic waves of high energy particles from solar proton events (SPE) necessitate the provision of robust radiation protection for habitats, workspaces, vehicles, and personal space suits. The mass penalty of providing this is a major driver in our consideration of the use of natural rock mass for radiation protection for habitats and workspaces, arguably the most massive components of an integrated human exploration equipment suite. Planetary protection considerations emerging from recent studies advocate a localization and zoning of degrees of human impact, much like that being implemented in the Antarctic as Special Regions. Containment of the primary human habitation and work activities within the confines of a subsurface habitat are highly consistent with these new approaches to Planetary Protection forward contamination. To begin to think about caves in the extraterrestrial exploration context, we have developed the notion of a complete, functioning subsurface habitat system. A suite of relatively low technology modifications to caves to improve habitability and safety are suggested. This system can integrate a spectrum of missions from both robotic precursors to human expeditionary missions and ultimately colonization.


Eishhlen auf dem Mars, 2010,
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Franke, H. W.

Karst landforms in an interior layered deposit within the Coprates Chasma, Mars , 2011,
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Baioni Davide, Hajna Nadja Zupan, Wezzel Forese Carlo

The Coprates Chasma forms part of the backbone of the Valles Marineris canyon system. In the westernmost part of the chasma in an embayment on the northern wall a mound of layered material rises from the chasma floor and displays a characteristic dome-shaped morphology. The mineralogical characteristics of the dome and its surroundings have been de­termined by analysis of the CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data (image HRL00003752). The unit shows the clear signatures of kieserite, an evaporite mineral also found on Earth. Through analysis of the M.RO. HiRISE (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imag­ing Science Experiment images) we have investigated the dome landforms and the possible processes involved in their forma­tion and shaping in great detail. The analysis shows that the landforms observed clearly indicate the presence of solutional processes that made those karst landforms. The results of our observation also suggest that liquid water must have existed on the dome in the past for long enough for the solution features to be formed, and that the karst landforms investigated exhib­it an older erosional age or shorter than the same landforms studied in a similar kieserite dome located within Tithonium Chasma, another graben of the Valles Marineris system.


Candidate Cave Entrances on Mars, 2012,
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Cushing, G. E.

 

This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey’s Thermal Emission Imaging System visiblewavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies


Morphology and geology of an interior layered deposit in the western Tithonium Chasma, Mars, 2013,
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Baioni, Davide

This paper describes a morphologic and morphometric survey of a 3.1 km-high, domeshaped upland in western Tithonium Chasma (TC) which coincides with areas containing abundant surface signatures of the sulphate mineral kiersite, as identified by the OMEGA image spectrometer. The morphologic features of the dome were investigated through an integrated analysis of the available Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera, and Context Camera data, while the morphometric characteristics of the structure were measured using a topographic map (25-m contour interval) built from high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data.
The dome displays surface features that were apparently formed by liquid water probably released from melting ice. These features include karst landforms as well as erosive and depositional landforms. The surface of the dome has few impact craters, which suggests a relatively young age for the dome. Layers in the dome appear laterally continuous and are visibly dipping toward the slopes in some places.
The mineralogical and structural characteristics of the dome suggest that it was emplaced as a diapir, similar to the dome structure located in the eastern part of TC, and to many salt diapirs on Earth.


Morphology and geology of an interior layered deposit in the western Tithonium Chasma, Mars, 2013,
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Baioni, Davide

This paper describes a morphologic and morphometric survey of a 3.1 km-high, domeshaped upland in western Tithonium Chasma (TC) which coincides with areas containing abundant surface signatures of the sulphate mineral kiersite, as identified by the OMEGA image spectrometer. The morphologic features of the dome were investigated through an integrated analysis of the available Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera, and Context Camera data, while the morphometric characteristics of the structure were measured using a topographic map (25-m contour interval) built from high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data.

The dome displays surface features that were apparently formed by liquid water probably released from melting ice. These features include karst landforms as well as erosive and depositional landforms. The surface of the dome has few impact craters, which suggests a relatively young age for the dome. Layers in the dome appear laterally continuous and are visibly dipping toward the slopes in some places.

The mineralogical and structural characteristics of the dome suggest that it was emplaced as a diapir, similar to the dome structure located in the eastern part of TC, and to many salt diapirs on Earth.


Karst Memores Aboye and Beneath the See: Marseilles and Its Continental Shelf During the Cosquer Cave Occupation, 2013,
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Collinagirard, Jacques

In the south of France, the Cosquer Cave with its famous prehistoric paintings is located in  a karstic area located between Marseilles and Cassis. This emerged and submerged karst is  typical ofkarstic coasts submerged after the Late-Glacial Maximum. Ail the forms observed  in the hinterland can be observed directly by scuba divers and indirectly on bathymetrie  charts: lapiaz, karstic archs, sinkholes, uvala and polje. The emerged and submerged landscapes  are mainly the heritage of specifie lithological conditions (Urgonian limestones) and  tectonic conditions (vertical faulting network leading to coastal eollapse in theMediterranean  Sea). üther elements of this submerged Iandscape are given by the traces of the last sea  level rise (palaeo-shorelines and erosion platforms and notehes). AIl the area between  Marseilles and La Ciotat is now established as the Calanques National Park, inc1uding the  Cosquer Cave with its upper Palaeolithic rock art paintings, which adds an international  archaeological interest to this exceptional natural area


Karst Memories Above and Beneath the See: Marseilles and Continental Shelf During the Cosquer Cave Occupation, 2014,
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Collinagirard, Jacques

In the south of France, the Cosquer Cave with its famous prehistoric paintings is located in a karstic area located between Marseilles and Cassis. This emerged and submerged karst is typical of karstic coasts submerged after the Late-Glacial Maximum. Ail the forms observed in the hinterland can be observed directly by scuba divers and indirectly on bathymetrie charts: lapiaz, karstic archs, sinkholes, uvala and polje. The emerged and submerged landscapes are mainly the heritage of specifie lithological conditions (Urgonian limestones) and tectonic conditions (vertical faulting network leading to coastal eollapse in theMediterranean Sea). üther elements of this submerged Iandscape are given by the traces of the last sea level rise (palaeo-shorelines and erosion platforms and notehes). AIl the area between Marseilles and La Ciotat is now established as the Calanques National Park, inc1uding the Cosquer Cave with its upper Palaeolithic rock art paintings, which adds an international archaeological interest to this exceptional natural area.


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