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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mechanical cover is a mechanical covering of a free water surface to prevent evaporation.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for slovakia (Keyword) returned 52 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 52
Aggtelek Caves, Hungary-Slovakia: Archaeology, 2004, Sabol M.

Ochtin Aragonite Cave (Slovakia): morphology, mineralogy and genesis, 2005, Bosk P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Ford D. C. , Hercman H. , Kadlec J. , Osborne A. , Pruner P. ,

Ochtiná Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The limestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained.
Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and birnessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. TIMS and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka – Alleröd) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave.


Chemistry of waters from selected caves in Slovakia_'a reconnaissance study, 2005, Motyka J. , Ski M. , Bella P. , Hol _bek,

GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY OF THE KARST - FISSURE HYDROGEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SOUTH -FACING SLOPES OF THE NIZKE TATRY MTS., SLOVAKIA, 2007, KovÃ, Č, OvÃ, E. , MalÃ, K P.

An “intrinsic vulnerability” (according to Zwahlen et al., 2004) to any contamination in general is considered using Malík´s extension (2005) of the Kullman´s method (2000), based on the assessment of the degree the rock disruption and karstifica­tion, affecting the shape of spring discharge recession curves. It is based on the presumption that the intensity of natural con­tamination attenuation processes depends on rock disruption/karstification. The method is applied on the Mesozoic rock en­vironment of the most important hydrogeological structure in the southern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mountains. Hydrograph analyses of groundwater depletion in the gauged or exploited springs were used for assessment of groundwater vulnerability to human and/or natural pollution. Differences in character of individual depletion hydrographs enable assessment an extent of absorption and elimination processes during the groundwa­ter penetration through the rock environment from the infiltra­tion area to the outflow in the spring or exploited source. The depletion hydrographs reflect not only the character (effect) of outflow area but reflect the effects whole infiltration and accu­mulation area. In total, 68 individual recession curves from 9 gauged springs were analysed. Obtained degrees of groundwater vulnerability are evaluated by 10 degree range of the Kullman´s vulnerability scheme, adjusted by Malík. The reached vulner­ability values are consequently applied and assigned to the lith­ological types of discharge area of gauged springs. This study also describes an existence of individual laminar and turbulent sub-regimes that occur in the karts-fissure rock environment, the type of rock disruption from open micro– to macro fissures - to karst channels and subsequent estimation of the karstifica­tion degree.


Pidoplitchkoviella terricola an interesting fungus from the Domica Cave (Slovakia), 2009, Novkov A.
The microfungus Pidoplitchkoviella terricola until now it was known only as Kirilenkos specimen isolated from Quercus robur rhizosphere in Ukraine - was found in earthworm casts in the Domica Cave, NP Slovak Karst, Slovakia. A description and microphotographs of this strain are provided in this article.

Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review, 2009, Novakova A.
A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppings and/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plant material, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravity settling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidiodendron cerealis, Mucor spp., Talaromyces flavus and species of the genus Doratomyces were isolated frequently during our study. Estimated microfungal species diversity was compared with literature records from the same substrates published in the past.

Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nzke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian, 2009, k K. , Hercman H. , Orvoov M. , Ja?kov I.
Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nzke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia), is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within a narrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontal cave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surrounding the cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nzke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, was uplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation of numerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout the Quaternary. In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonate ranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C and O stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (?13C: 0.72 to 6.34 , ?18O: 22.61 to 13.68 V-PDB) and the negative relation between ?13C and ?18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC). Published models suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably during transitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in the sequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.72.3, 104.02.9, and 180.06.3 ka) are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one cave during two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian).

Pidoplitchkoviella terricola an interesting fungus from the Domica Cave (Slovakia), 2009, Novkov, A.

The microfungus Pidoplitchkoviella terricola – until now it was known only as Kirilenko´s specimen isolated from Quercus robur rhizosphere in Ukraine - was found in earthworm casts in the Domica Cave, NP Slovak Karst, Slovakia. A description and microphotographs of this strain are provided in this article.


Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review, 2009, Novkov, A.

A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppings and/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plant material, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravity settling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidiodendron cerealis, Mucor spp., Talaromyces flavus and species of the genus Doratomyces were isolated frequently during our study. Estimated microfungal species diversity was compared with literature records from the same substrates published in the past.


Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nzke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian, 2009, k K. , Hercman H. , Orvoov M. , Jač, Kov I.

Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the NÃzke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia), is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within a narrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontal cave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surrounding the cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the NÃzke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, was uplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation of numerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout the Quaternary. In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonate ranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C and O stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB) and the negative relation between δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC). Published models suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably during transitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in the sequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and 180.0±6.3 ka) are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one cave during two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian).


HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF CARBONATE ROCKS FROM SLOVAKIAN BOREHOLE DATABASE, 2010, Malk P. & vasta J.
Using archival hard copy records on 22,922 wells and hydrogeological boreholes, maintained since 1950s on the territory of Slovak Republic, a spatial database was developed. If possible, each borehole was linked to a certain aquifer or aquifer lithological type, according to its screened interval. Wells with ambiguous position of open casing were excluded from further processing to obtain distinct relation of pumping rate to lithology. Using stored records of hydraulic tests, each pumping rate was processed to obtain uniformly calculated standard specific capacity. These values were subsequently used to reinterpret hydraulic parameters. Based on standardized specific capacity data, estimates of transmissivity (T; in m2s-1) and hydraulic conductivity (K; in ms-1) for each well were calculated and linked to corresponding aquifer type. From these, hydraulic properties of limestones (238 boreholes), dolomites (463 boreholes) and granitoid rocks (96 boreholes) are compared. As anticipated, geometrical mean of transmissivity was low for granitoids (6.5110-5 m2s-1) and one order of magnitude higher for limestones (6.1610-4 m2s-1), due to its enhancement by karstification. The highest observed value of mean transmissivity, two times higher than that found for limestones, was obtained for dolomitic aquifers (1.0410-3 m2s-1). Dolomitic aquifers also show the highest median values of hydraulic conductivity (3.2110-5 ms-1), in one order of magnitude higher than granitoids (2.1010-6 ms-1) and three times higher than limestones (9.4510-6 ms-1). In comparison with limestones, dolomites seem to be slightly more homogeneous in aquifer properties; also several lithological types there show similarities in both T and K. Some limestone lithofacies (Steinalm and Raming), seem to have lower transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity comparing to other limestones types (Dachstein, Gutenstein, Wetterstein). The data on hydraulic properties of all these hard rocks show lognormal statistical distribution and high heterogeneity.

OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN DIFFERENT RECESSION SUBREGIMES OF KARST SPRINGS IN THE BREZOVSK KARPATY MTS. (SLOVAKIA), 2010, Malk P. , Michalko J.
Karst spring hydrograph separation method based on quick iterative solution of several simple exponential and linear equations, was developed for linking small datasets of samples to various hydrologic situations. The method is based on a presumption, that a springs discharge depends on the level of aquifer saturation by groundwater, and that the same discharge reflects the same groundwater saturation (piezometric level) in the aquifer. Every spring can be described by unique sets of constant starting discharges, Q0 values, recession coefficients ? (laminar flow components in exponential equations), and ? (turbulent flow components in linear equations). Each subregime can be detected by recession curve analyses of the complete springs discharge time series. In this hydrograph separation, every measured discharge value, Qt, is then determined by a representative time, t; i.e., theoretical elapsed time t from the total maximum discharge value Qmax. The aim of the iteration process is to obtain this representative time t for each discharge. The individual flow components are calculated using the same t value. These variances in subregime discharges in a certain moment can be linked to the components analysed in the same moment, in order to obtain the end members of the theoretical mixture. This technique was developed and applied on the discharge time series of the four karstic springs in the Brezovsk Karpaty Mts. (Slovakia), built mainly by karstified Middle and Upper Triassic dolomites and limestones. Groundwater of individual springs were characterised by ?18O (SMOW) and groundwater temperature values and end members of two laminar and one turbulent subregimes were calculated. Results were based on sparsely populated datasets and manual discharge records, but represent a perspective method for future development and interpretations on limited dataset results.

Rethinking eastern Australian caves, 2010, Osborne, R. A. L.

There are some 300 bodies of cavernous limestone in eastern Australia, extending from Precipitous Bluff in southeastern Tasmania to the Mitchell Palmer region in north Queensland. These impounded karsts, developed in Palaeozoic limestones of the Tasman Fold Belt System, contain many caves. The caves have a suite of features in common that allows them to be thought of as a major group: the Tasmanic Caves. The Tasmanic Caves include multiphase hypogene caves such as Cathedral Cave at Wellington and multiphase, multiprocess caves such as Jenolan with Carboniferous hypogene and younger paragenetic and fluvial elements. Active hypogene caves occur at Wee Jasper and possibly at five other localities. The Tasmanic Caves are one of the most complex suites of caves in folded Palaeozoic limestones in the world. Field techniques developed to study these caves are now being applied to complex caves in central Europe: in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.


KRASOVA JASKYNA PRYA V STIAVNICKYCH VRCHOCH - HYDROTERMALNA SPELEOGENEZA V KARBONATOVOM PODLOZI MIOCENNEHO STRATOVULKANU, 2011, Bella P. , Sucha V. , Gaal E. , Kodera P.

A cave of hydrothermal origin in crystalline limestone has been investigated near Sklene Teplice Spa in the Stiavnicke vrchy Mts. located in Central Slovakia. Metamorphozed Middle Triassic carbonate rocks occur as a horizon in pre-volcanic basement of Middle Miocene volcanic formations. The hydrothermal origin of studied cave is documented by spherical and irregural oval phreatic morphology sculptured by ascending thermal water, metamorphic type of the host rocks and their hydrothermal alteration, occurrence of large calcite and quartz crystals, and hydrothermal clays with three mineral smectite-kaolinite, illite and goethite associations. The primary phases of speleogenesis in the crystalline limestones was caused by hydrothermal processes linked either to the emplacement of granodiorite subvolcanic intrusions during the Late Badenian time or to epithermal system of the Late Sarmatian time in the central zone of the Stiavnica stratovolcano. The described cave presents the remarkable' example of hydrothermal limestone cave associated with Miocene volcanism and magmatic intrusions in Central Slovakia.
 


The use of a karstic cave system in a study of active tectonics: fault displacements recorded at Driny Cave, Male Karpaty Mts (Slovakia), 2011, Briestensky Milos, Stemberk Josef, Michalik Jozef, Bella Pavel, Rowberry Matt D.

This paper reports on a study of active tectonics undertaken in the intracratonic setting of central Europe in the junction zone between Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians. The study site is focused on the karstic system of Driny Cave in the Male Karpaty Mts, Slovakia. A range of geological, geomorphological, and in situ displacement data are presented. From previous geological mapping and our slickenside analyses, it is clear that the cave system has developed along significant fault structures. Further geomorphological investigations pointed towards ongoing faulting and block movements. For example, a number of slope failures can be seen on the hillsides above the cave and numerous fresh speleothem breaks can be observed within the cave. To test this hypothesis, three optical-mechanical crack gauges were installed in 2005. These gauges confirmed and quantified the ongoing movements. The NNE-SSW striking fault has recorded a strike-slip trend of 0.1 mm/year and a normal fault trend of 0.03 mm/year. The NW-SE striking fault has recorded a strike-slip trend of 0.04 mm/year. In addition, it has been possible to define their precise kinematics. Moreover, different strike-slip mechanisms along two transverse fault systems point to a horizontal stress field orientation. These results confirm the existence of active tectonic structures within central Europe. It is considered that the methodology described here can also be applied in other intracratonic settings where karstic cave systems are present. This would help define potentially seismogenic areas where unambiguous evidence for active faulting is lacking.


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