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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water logging is water accumulation on top of soil where the water table and ground surface coincide [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for oligocene (Keyword) returned 59 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 59
The genesis of the Tennengebirge karst and caves (Salzburg, Austria), 2002, Audra, Ph. , Quinif, Y. , Rochette, P.
Research has been carried out in the Tennengebirge Massif (Salzburg, Austria) with specific attention to karst morphology, cave systems, and sediments. This study reveals the genesis of the karst and the underground systems of the Tennengebirge, since the Oligocene. Large horizontal systems, which date back to the Miocene, were studied through the example of the caves Hornhhle and Eisriesenwelt, which respectively represent Ruinenhhlen (cave ruins) and Riesenhhlen (giant caves). The Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhhle System is typical of a mostly vertical, large, high-relief, alpine cave. The main characteristic of this network is major development in the vadose zone. Shaft morphology is in stairs beneath a faulted roof. At greater depth, they connect to a perched epiphreatic zone, which is typical of a dammed karst. The main underground sediments are of paleoclimatic and hydrodynamic significance, corresponding to hot, stable, or unstable environments (flowstones, reworked weathered rocks) and cold environments (carbonate varves, glacial pebbles). A preliminary study of the Tennengebirge sediments reveals significant information about its evolution throughout Pliocene-Quaternary time. Hhlen- und Karstgenese im Tennengebirge (Salzburg, sterreich) Es handelt sich um Erforschungen des unterirdischen Hhlensystems im Tennengebirge mit Hilfe der Erforschung der Karstsedimente. Durch die Beobachtung der Morphologie und der Ausfllungen kann die Geschichte der verschiedenen Hhlenorganisationen nachgezeichnet werden. Wir haben die groen horizontalen Hhlensysteme des Miozns anhand der Hornhhle und der Eisriesenwelt studiert, die wiederum ein Beispiel fr Ruinen- und Riesenhhlen sind. Das Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhhle System ist ein Beispiel fr die groen vertikalen Alpenschchten, das an seiner ausgeprgten Entwicklung der vadosen Zone erkenntlichist. Die Schchte haben die Morphologie von Treppen unter einem Kluftdach. Sie sind tief unten mit einer gestuften phreatischen Zone verbunden, die einen abgedmmter Karst enthllen. Die wichtigsten unterirdischen Sedimente haben eine Bedeutung auf dem Gebiet der Paloklimatologie und der hydrodynamik. Sie entsprechen entweder warmen und bestndigen oder kalten Umgebungen oder einer Umbegung in der das natrliche Gleichgewicht unterbrochen wurde (Sinterformation, vernderte Sedimente aus Alteriten, Karbonatwarven, glazial Schotter). Die Erforschung der Sedimenten in der Bergerhhle bringt wichtige Informationen ber die Entwicklung der Hhlensysteme im Plio-Quartr. Durch die gesamte Erforschung kann die Entstehung der Hhlen- und Karstgenese im Tennengebirge seit dem Oligozn nachgezeichnet werden.

Les karsts de Nouvelle-Zlande, 2002, Salomon, Jeannol
Karsts of New-Zealand - New-Zealand presents numerous karsts developed as well in ancient rocks (Palaeozoic) as in recent ones (Oligocene). The stretching in latitude of the land, the high vegetal biodiversity and the strong rainfalls explain the importance of the karst development and the variety of the morphologies. Endokarsts are well developed, but many are still to explore. The polygonal karst of the King Country (North Island) in one hand, and the karsts of the Marble Mountains (South Island) in another one, are the most interesting. The possibilities of crossing of numerous datings (dendrochronology, speleothems, volcanism, etc.) and the location of these karsts in the south hemisphere provide to these last exceptional paleo-environmental recording systems.

Quantification of Macroscopic Subaerial Exposure Features in Carbonate Rocks, 2002, Budd Da, Gaswirth Sb, Oliver Wl,
The macroscopic features that characterize subaerial exposure surfaces in carbonates are well known, but their significance has not been quantitatively evaluated. This study presents such an analysis in the lower Oligocene Suwannee Limestone of west-central Florida. Eleven cores were point counted on a foot-by-foot basis for the abundance of caliche, rhizoliths, karst breccia, open vugs, infiltrated sediment, fractures, and pedogenic alteration. These features occur at and below intraformational exposure surfaces, which represent hiatuses estimated at 104 to 105 years, and an uppermost sequence-bounding unconformity representing 0.5 Myr, as revealed by Sr-isotope data. Statistical analyses of the point-count data reveal only a few significant relationships. (1) The hierarchy of exposure surfaces, and by inference duration of exposure, is differentiated only at a marginally significant level by sediment-filled vugs preferentially associated with the sequence boundary. Duration of exposure did not have a significant impact on the relative abundance of all other features. (2) Proximity (< 5 ft; 1.5 m) to any exposure surface is indicated only by rhizoliths, caliche, and pedogenic alteration, whereas karst breccia is preferentially found distal (> 5 ft) to both types of surfaces. Fractures, open vugs, and infiltrated sediment show no proximal or distal preference for either type of surface. (3) Depositional texture has no statistically significant affect on the presence or abundance of the exposure features, with the exception that rhizoliths and open vugs are preferentially more abundant in packstones relative to grainstones. This is interpreted to be the result of a soil-moisture effect. Factor analysis defines four factors that explain 46% to 52% of the total variance in the abundance data relative to the sequence boundary and the intraformational surfaces, respectively. The loading of each exposure feature on each factor is the same with respect to both types of surfaces, which is further evidence that the abundance of exposure features is independent of duration of exposure. Factor 1 is interpreted to be the amplitude of base-level changes and controls the abundance of karst breccia. Factor 2 is interpreted to be abundance of vegetation and relates to the abundance of rhizoliths and fractures. Factor 3 is interpreted to be a combination of soil-zone PCO2 and the availability of water and affects the abundance of pedogenic overprinting, caliche, and open vugs. Factor 4 is stratigraphic proximity to the sequence boundary, which controls the presence of sediment-filled voids. The amount of uncorrelated unique variance associated with infiltrated sediments, pedogenic overprinting, caliche, and open vugs is large (> 60%), meaning that feature abundance is also influenced by other unidentified site-specific factors. These results demonstrate that quantifying the abundance of macroscopic subaerial exposure features in limestones has the potential to yield more insight into the significance of those features than a mere qualitative assessment. This is particularly true when assessing the potential role of the many variables that can affect the development of these features

Dachstein-Altflche, Augenstein-Formation und Hhlenentwicklung - die Geschichte der letzten 35 Millionen Jahre in den zentralen Nrdlichen Kalkalpen, 2002, Frisch W. , Kuhlemann J. , Dunkl I. , Szekely B. , Vennemann T. , Rettenbacher A.
The landscape of the central Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) is largely determined by the celebrate elevated karst plateaus, which represent relics of the Dachstein paleosurface and can be followed as far as the eastern margin of the NCA. The Dachstein paleosurface formed in late Eocene to early Oligocene times as a karstic hilly landscape. It was modified by later erosional processes to a limited extent only and is preserved as such in the karst plateaus. In the Oligocene, the paleosurface subsided and was sealed by the Augenstein Formation, a terrestrial sequence of conglomerates and sandstones, which are only preserved in small remnants on the plateaus. The poorly and contradictingly defined terms Rax landscape" and Augenstein landscape" are not used any more. From the overall geological situation, the age of the Augenstein Formation can be inferred as Lower Oligocene to early Lower Miocene. Fission track dating on zircon support the Lower Oligocene age of the basal Augenstein sediments (only these are preserved). Their source area was situated in the south and mainly occupied by weakly metamorphosed Paleozoic sequences (Graywacke Zone and its equivalents) and the latest Carboniferous to Lower Triassic siliciclastic base of the NCA. To the west, the Augenstein Formation interfingered with the Tertiary sediments of the Lower Inn Valley. Thermal modeling of fission track data from apatite, which is contained in pebbles as an accessory phase, suggest that the Augenstein Formation attained thicknesses of locally 1.3 km, possibly even more than 2 km. Augenstein sedimentation probably ended in Early Miocene times with the onset of lateral tectonic extrusion in the Eastern Alps, which caused lowering of the relief in the source area and created a new, fault-bounded river network. In the following period, the Augenstein sediments were eroded and redeposited in the foreland molasse basin. From Pannonian times (ca. 10 Ma) on, the central and eastern NCA, and therefore also the Dachstein paleosurface, experienced uplift in pulses. The paleosurface remained preserved in those areas, where thick limestone sequences enabled subsurface erosion in cave systems and considerably reduced surface erosion. Augenstein sediments became washed into the widespread cave systems of the plateau-topped limestone massifs. The arrangement of the caves in three horizons shows that uplift of the NCA occurred in pulses separated from periods of tectonic quiescence. In our model of the evolution of the NCA since the late Eocene, the highest cave system, the surface-near ruin cave system, was probably formed during formation of the Dachstein paleosurface. The largest system, the giant cave system, formed in Upper Miocene times, i.e., in the early stage of the final uplift period of the NCA. The youngest and lowest system, the source cave system, formed in Pliocene to Quaternary times. We aimed to date material from the giant cave system by radiometric methods. U/Pb dating on speleothems from the Mammut cave (Dachstein) and the Eisriesenwelt (Tennengebirge) gave no formation age because of the low U contents; however, the isotope ratios allow to infer that the speleothems formed in pre-Pleistocene time. Quartz pebbles from the Augenstein Formation, washed into the caves before the formation of the speleothems, were analyzer for cosmogenic beryllium and aluminum isotopes in order to date the time of redeposition. The isotope contents, however, did no yield a sufficiently strong signal. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were determined on the Eisriesenwelt speleothem in order to receive information on climatic changes during speleothem growth. A 260 mm long core from the outer zone of the speleothem shower limited variation for the temperatures of the seeping rainwater, which caused the speleothems to form. This indicates moderate climate and thus, again, pre-Pleistocene formation of the speleothems. All these results are in accord with the supposed Upper Miocene formation age of the giant cave system. Displacement of a speleothem along a shear plane and normal faults visible on the plateaus by the offset of the actual surface testify young, partly Quaternary tectonics, which affected the NCA.

The genesis of the Tennengebirge karst and caves (Salzburg, Austria), 2003, Audra Ph, Quinif Y. , Rochette P.

Research has been carried out in the Tennengebirge Massif (Salzburg, Austria) with specific attention to karst morphology, cave systems, and sediments. This study reveals the genesis of the karst and the underground systems of the Tennengebirge, since the Oligocene. Large horizontal systems, which date back to the Miocene, were studied through the example of the caves Hornhohle and Eisriesenwelt, which respectively represent Ruinenhohlen (“cave ruins”) and Riesenhohlen (“giant caves”). The Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhohle System is typical of a mostly vertical large high-relief, alpine cave. The main characteristic of this network is major development in the vadose zone. The shafts' morphology is in “stairs beneath a faulted roof.” At greater depth, they connect to a perched epiphreatic zone, which is typical of a dammed karst. The main underground sediments are of paleoclimatic and hydrodynamic significance, corresponding to hot, stable, or unstable environments (flowstones, reworked weathered rocks) and cold environments (carbonate varves, glacial pebbles). A preliminary study of the Tennengebirge sediments reveals significant information about its evolution throughout Pliocene-Quaternary time.


La stratigraphie oligo-miocene et la surface d'erosion messinienne en mer Noire, stratigraphie sismique haute resolution: The Oligo-Miocene stratigraphy and the Messinian erosional surface in Black Se, 2003, Gillet H, Lericolais G, Rehault Jp, Dinu C,
ResumeLa stratigraphie des marges occidentales de la mer Noire est revisee a partir des donnees de sismique multitrace haute resolution des recentes missions franco-roumaines Blason 1 et 2. Les profils, cales par des forages petroliers et DSDP, revelent la presence de plusieurs discontinuites majeures, interpretees comme des surfaces d'erosion tertiaires. D'une part, la discontinuite sismique la plus marquee souligne la base des series miocenes et correspond a une surface dite composite qui integre plusieurs phases erosives successives de l'Oligocene au Pontien. D'autre part, une surface d'erosion messinienne est clairement mise en evidence en mer Noire. Nos resultats confortent l'hypothese de Hsu [Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 29 (1979) 75-93], qui propose une chute majeure du niveau de la mer Noire au Messinien, parallelement a la crise messinienne en Mediterranee. Pour citer cet article : H.[no-break space]Gillet et[no-break space]al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).AbstractThe stratigraphy of the Black Sea western margin is revisited through seismic data acquired during two French-Romanian surveys. These data are calibrated by industrial and DSDP drillings; they display several major discontinuities regarded as Tertiary erosional surfaces. The major seismic discontinuity underlines the base of Miocene formations and corresponds to a composite surface including at least three erosional phases ranging from Oligocene to Pontian times. Moreover, a Messinian erosional surface is clearly identified. This is in agreement with the Hsu's proposition [Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 29 (1979) 75-93] suggesting a Messinian sea-level drop of Black Sea related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis described in the Mediterranean Sea. To cite this article: H.[no-break space]Gillet et[no-break space]al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003)

Matrix permeability of the confined Floridan Aquifer, Florida, USA, 2004, Budd Da, Vacher Hl,
The Upper Floridan Aquifer of peninsular Florida retains most of its depositional porosity and, as a result, is a multi-porosity aquifer: double porosity (fractured porous aquifer) downdip where the aquifer is confined, and triple porosity (karstic, fractured porous aquifer) in the updip, unconfined region. Matrix permeability in the confined region varies in the range <10(-14.41)-10(-11.1) m(2), as determined by 12,000 minipermeameter measurements on 1,210 m of slabbed core. Limestones divide into 13 textural classes and dolomites into two. Depositional facies (textural class) strongly correlates with matrix permeability. As a result, the facies architecture of the Eocene and Oligocene carbonates that compose the confined portion of the aquifer controls the lateral and vertical distribution of its matrix transmissivity. The most-permeable facies are grainstones (median k, 10(-12.4) m(2)) and sucrosic dolomites (median k, 10(-12.0) m(2)). Together, they are responsible for &SIM;73% of the matrix transmissivity of the logged cores, although they constitute only &SIM;24% of the thickness. Examination of the flow equations of fractured porous aquifers suggests that the permeability of these two facies is large enough that matrix permeability cannot be discounted in modeling the hydraulics of the double-porosity system. This conclusion likely applies to most, if not all, Cenozoic double-porosity carbonate aquifers, as average matrix and fracture permeabilities in the Floridan Aquifer are similar to other Cenozoic carbonates from around the world

Geology and models of salt extrusion at Qum Kuh, central Iran, 2004, Talbot C. J. , Aftabi P. ,
Profiles through the summit of a small nearly axisymmetric extrusion of Oligocene and Miocene salt, and simple analogue models of it, simulate the profiles of piles of ductile nappes extruded from convergent orogens. The salt extrudes from a reactive diapir along a major strike-slip fault at about 82 mm a(-1) and rises 315 m above the central plateau of Iran. The salt has the distinctive smooth profile of a viscous fountain in which an asymmetric apron of allochthonous salt gravity-spreads over its surroundings from a summit dome. Curtain folds developed in the source layer extrude from the diapir and are refolded by major recumbent folds with circumferential axes that simulate nappes. Minor flow folds with circumferential axes refold major folds in the top 10-50 m of surficial salt. Master joints > 100 m long indicate brittle failure of dilated salt by regional stress fields. Tuned to the dimensions of Qum Kuh, analytical and analogue models of viscous extrusions constrain the dynamic salt budget and a time of extrusion of at least 42000 years. New analogue models suggest that the number, amplitude and spacing of major recumbent folds within the extruded salt (and ductile nappe piles) record the number, amount and relative timing of fluctuations in the driving forces

Sequence Biostratigraphy of Prograding Clinoforms, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: A Proxy for Variations in Oligocene to Pliocene Global Sea Level?, 2004, Moss Graham D. , Cathro Donna L. , Austin James A. Jr. ,
Sequence biostratigraphic analyses from five industry wells in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), Western Australia, are tied to seismic stratigraphic interpretations from a set of 3D and 2D seismic data. Distribution patterns of [~]286 benthic and 73 planktonic foraminiferal taxa in sidewall cores and ditch cuttings from Eocene to Pliocene intervals are documented and supplemented with observations of other fossil groups (e.g., fragments of ostracodes, bryozoans, corals, and mollusks) and lithological components such as calcite cement and quartz sand. Preservation of foraminiferal assemblages is extremely variable in latest Eocene to Pliocene stratigraphy, depending upon the location of wells and the interval investigated. Nonetheless, consistent, detectable faunal signals correlate between wells and with prominent seismic horizons and sequences. The late Oligocene to middle Miocene is characterized by deeper-water benthic assemblages dominated by infaunal taxa and a high planktonic abundance. Stratigraphic events in the middle Miocene, including turnover in benthic foraminifera, are interpreted to record a regional flooding event (equivalent to cycle Tejas B (TB) 2.3) at the beginning of the mid-Miocene climatic optimum ([~]16-14.5 Ma). Following this event, seismically defined geomorphic features include karstification on the shelf and incision on the clinoform front. All wells show a major transition to shallow-water, warm conditions on the shelf in the middle and late Miocene, with benthic assemblages dominated by larger foraminifera. This transition appears higher in more-basinward wells and appears to be a result of progradation. Geomorphic features in the late middle Miocene ([~]12 Ma) identified from 3D seismic analyses show an intensification of earlier gully formation, resulting in the development of submarine canyons. Detailed analyses of faunal patterns also provide evidence of higher-frequency sea-level fluctuations (0.5-3 Ma), not detected in the seismic stratigraphic patterns

Oligocene-Miocene age of aridity in the Atacama Desert revealed by exposure dating of erosion-sensitive landforms, 2005, Dunai Tj, Lopez Gag, Juezlarre J,
The age of onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert, Chile, which is needed to validate geological and climatological concepts, has been heretofore uncertain. Measurement of cosmogenic 21Ne in clasts from erosion-sensitive sediment surfaces in northern Chile shows that these surfaces have been barely affected by erosion since 25 Ma. Surface exposure ages of sediment clasts give replicate values at 25, 20, and 14 Ma and individual values at 37 and 9 Ma. Predominantly hyperarid conditions are required to preserve these oldest continuously exposed surfaces on Earth. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that the onset of aridity in the Atacama Desert could be the reason for, rather than the consequence of, uplift of the high Andes

Evolution of the Adriatic carbonate platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics, 2005, Vlahovic I. , Tisljar J. , Velic I. , Maticec D. ,
The Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP) is one of the largest Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Perimediterranean region. Its deposits comprise a major part of the entire carbonate succession of the Croatian Karst (External or Outer) Dinarides, which is very thick (in places more than 8000 m), and ranges in age from the Middle Permian (or even Upper Carboniferous) to the Eocene. However, only deposits ranging from the top of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) to the top of the Cretaceous can be attributed to the AdCP (defined as an isolated palaeogeographical entity). Although the entire carbonate succession of the Karst Dinarides was deposited within carbonate platform environments, there were different types of carbonate platforms located in different palaeogeographical settings. Carboniferous to Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposits were accumulated along the Gondwanian margin, on a spacious epeiric carbonate platform. After tectonic activity, culminating by regional Middle Triassic volcanism recorded throughout Adria (the African promontory), a huge isolated carbonate Southern Tethyan Megaplatform (abbreviated as STM) was formed, with the area of the future AdCP located in its inner part. Tectonic disintegration of the Megaplatform during the middle to late Early Jurassic resulted in the establishment of several carbonate platforms (including the Adriatic, Apenninic and Apulian) separated by newly drowned deeper marine areas (including the Adriatic Basin as a connection between the Ionian and Belluno basins, Lagonero, Basin, and the area of the Slovenian and Bosnian troughs). The AdCP was characterised by predominantly shallow-marine deposition, although short or long periods of emergence were numerous, as a consequence of the interaction of synsedimentary tectonics and eustatic changes. Also, several events of temporary platform drowning were recorded, especially in the Late Cretaceous, when synsedimentary tectonics became stronger, leading up to the final disintegration of the AdCP. The thickness of deposits formed during the 125 My of the AdCP's existence is variable (between 3500 and 5000 m). The end of AdCP deposition was marked by regional emergence between the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene. Deposition during the Palaeogene was mainly controlled by intense synsedimentary tectonic deformation of the former platform area-some carbonates (mostly Eocene in age) were deposited on irregular ramp type carbonate platforms surrounding newly formed flysch basins, and the final uplift of the Dinarides reached its maximum in the Oligocene/Miocene. The Adriatic Carbonate Platform represents a part (although a relatively large and well-preserved one) of the broader shallow-water carbonate platform that extended from NE Italy to Turkey (although its continuity is somewhat debatable in the area near Albanian/Greece boundary). This large carbonate body, which was deformed mostly in the Cenozoic (including a significant reduction of its width), needs a specific name, and the Central Mediterranean Carbonate Platform is proposed (abbreviated to CMCP), although the local names (such as AdCP for its NW part) should be kept to enable easier communication, and to facilitate description of local differences in platform evolution,

Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene-Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm, 2005, Rojasagramonte Y. , Neubauer F. , Handler R. , Garciadelgado D. E. , Friedl G. , Gadodamas R. ,
In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D-1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D-2-D-4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Caves in conglomerate: Case of Udin boršt, Slovenia, 2005, Gabrovš, Ek Franci

Speleologically, a "pie" of mainly carbonate conglomerate atop of a sequence of impermeable oligocene and mainly fed by autochtonic waters, represents a simple speleological settings. There are 14 registered caves in the area, mostly concentrated along the western rim of the terace. Four caves extend more than 200 m, the cave Arneževa luknja is the longest with 815 m. In the chapter I describe the general speleological settings in Udin boršt, characteristics of caves and factors important for their genesis.


Les stalagmites du rseau du trou Noir (Gironde) : rle de leffet de site dans lenregistrement du signal climatique et environnemental, 2006, Lans Benjamin , Maire Richard , Ortega Richard , Deves Guillaume , Bacquart Thomas , Plaisir Cyril , Quinif Yves Et Perrette Y.
The speleothems of trou Noir cave (Gironde, France): the role of their situation in registering climatic signals - The trou Noir is an active cave system (sinkhole-resurgence) situated in the Oligocene porous limestone of the plateau of Entre-deux-Mers near Bordeaux (Gironde). Six stalagmites have been sampled for analyzing the environmental evolution controlled by local parameters inside the cave. The studied indicators are calcitic microfabrics, lamination, discontinuities, porosity, organic matter, and radioactivity. Because of a narrow passage located in the middle of the cave, three speleothems upstream have recorded the fluctuations of the underground river during floods, especially detritic sedimentation (clay/calcite alternations), erosion (internal corrosion surface), mechanical shocks (fissures). Downstream, the three other stalagmites have not been flooded; in the small dry passage near the resurgence, two speleothems show, in thin section, many biologic filaments (bacteria or mycelian filaments) because of organic matter (guano from bats). The site is protected (Natura 2000). The trou Noir is an example of a young cave which has recorded the Holocene evolution, particularly the Little Ice Age (detrital/calcitic stalagmite) and the present period.

Continental France and Belgium during the early Cretaceous: paleoweatherings and paleolandforms, 2006, Thiry Medard, Quesnel Florence, Yans Johan, Wyns Robert, Vergari Anne, Theveniaut Herve, Simoncoincon Regine, Ricordel Caroline, Moreau Marie Gabrielle, Giot Denis, Dupuis Christian, Bruxelles Laurent, Barbarand
During the early Cretaceous, successive tectonic phases and several sea level falls resulted in the emersion of the main part of western Europe and the development of thick 'lateritic' weathering. This long period of continental evolution ended with the Upper Cretaceous transgressions. During this period, the exposed lands displayed a mosaic of diverse morphologies and weathered landscapes. Bauxites are the most spectacular paleoweathering features, known for long in southern France. Recently, new residual outcrops have been identified, trapped in the karstic depressions of the Grands Causses. Other bauxitic formations, containing gibbsite, have also been recognised, occurring with the Clay-with-Jurassic-cherts in the southeastern border of the Paris Basin. These bauxitic formations overlay Jurassic limestone and are buried beneath Upper Cretaceous marine deposits. The recognition of bauxites up north into the southern Paris Basin significantly widens the extension of the Lower Cretaceous bauxitic paleolandscapes. On the Hercynian basements thick kaolinitic weathering mantles occur. They have been classically ascribed to the Tertiary. The first datings of these in situ paleosoils, by means of paleomagnetism and/or radiogenic isotopes, record especially early Cretaceous ages. This is the case for the 'Siderolithic' formations on the edges of the French Massif Central, but also for the kaolinitic profiles in the Belgian Ardennes. In the Flanders, the Brabant basement is deeply kaolinised beneath the Upper Cretaceous cover. These paleosoils show polygenetic evolutions. The relief of these basement paleolandscapes may have been significant. There where probably high scarps (often of tectonic origin) reaching 200 m in elevation or beyond, as well as wide surfaces with inselbergs, as in the present day landscapes of tropical Africa and South America. On the Jurassic limestone platforms occur diverse kaolinitic and ferruginous weathering products. Around the Paris Basin they show various facies, ranging from kaolinitic saprolites to ferricretes. Due to the lack of sedimentary cover, the age of these ferruginous and kaolinitic weathering products has been debated for long, most often allocated to the Siderolithic sensu lato (Eocene-Oligocene). Recent datings by paleomagnetism have enabled to date them (Borne de Fer in eastern Paris Basin) back also to the early Cretaceous (130 {} 10 Ma). These wide limestone plateaus show karstified paleolandforms, such as vast closed and flat depressions broken by conical buttes, but also deep sinkholes in the higher areas of the plateaus and piedmonts. The depth of the karst hollows may be indicative of the range of relative paleoelevations. Dissolution holes display seldom contemporaneous karst fillings, thus implying that the karstland had not a thick weathering cover or that this cover had been stripped off before or by the late Cretaceous transgression. Nevertheless, some areas, especially above chert-bearing Jurassic limestone or marl, show weathering products trapped in the karst features or as a thick weathering mantle. In the Paris Basin, the Wealden gutter looked like a wide floodplain in which fluvio-deltaic sands and clays were deposited and on which paleosoils developed during times of non-deposition. The edges of the gutter were shaped as piedmonts linked up with the upstream basement areas. The rivers flowing down to the plain deposited lobes of coarse fluvial sands and conglomerates. The intensity of the weathering, the thickness of the profiles and their maturation are directly dependent on the duration of the emersion and the topographic location relative to the gutter. Near the axis of the gutter, where emersion was of limited duration, the paleoweathering features are restricted to rubefaction and argillization of the Lower Cretaceous marine formations. On the other hand, on the borders of the basin and on the Hercynian basement, where emersion was of longer duration, the weathering profiles are thicker and more intensively developed. The inventory of the Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering features shows the complexity of the continental history of this period. Moreover, the preserved weathering products are only a part of this long lasting period, all the aspects relative to erosion phases are still more difficult to prove and to quantify. In this domain, apatite fission tracks thermochronology (AFTT) can be helpful to estimate the order of magnitude of denudation. Residual testimonies and subsequent transgressions may enable to estimate relative elevations, but in return, we presently have no reliable tool to estimate absolute paleoelevations. In the work presented here, the inventory enabled to draw a continental paleogeographic map showing the nature of the weathering mantles and the paleolandscape features, just as paleoenvironments and paleobathymetry presently appear on marine paleogeographic maps. For the future, the challenge is to make progress in dating the paleoweathering profiles and especially in the resolution of these datings, in order to correlate precisely the continental records with the different events which trigger them (eustatism, climate, regional and global geodynamics). The final goal will be to build up a stratigraphic scale of the 'continental geodynamic and climatic events' in parallel with 'sequential stratigraphy' in the marine realm

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