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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That temperature log is a recording curve of ground-water temperature in a well [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for western (Keyword) returned 661 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 661
Notes on the Occurence of the Snail, Euglandina rosea, in Caves of Northwestern Florida, 1971,
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Franz Richard, Lee David S. , Stifel Peter B.

Caves of the Western Sierra de Cuera, 1971,
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Cox G. Et Al.

A Check on the Radiocarbon Dating of Dessicated Thylacine (Marsupial "Wolf") and Dog Tissue From Thylacine Hole, Nullarbor Region, Western Australia, 1971,
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Merrilees, D.

A "modern" (180 + or - 76 years B.P.) radiocarbon date (N.S.W. 42) on dessicated rabbit flesh from Thylacine Hole (N63) suggests that dates N.S.W. 28c (4,650 + or - 153 radiocarbon years B.P.) on thylacine flesh and hair and N.S.W. 30 (2,200 + or - 96 radiocarbon years B.P.) on dog (dingo) flesh from the same cave are reliable within limits discussed.


A Collection of the Bat, Chalinolobus Morio (Gray), From The Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1971,
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Hall, Leslie S.

A collection of 23 live specimens and 26 complete skeletons of the bat, Chalinolobus - (Gray), was taken from two caves on the Nullarbor Plain. Tables of their forearm and skull measurements are presented. A comparison of the forearm measurements of Nullarbor specimens of C. morio with those of eastern Australian specimens of this species revealed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01). In Western Australia, C. morio appears to roost and breed in caves, while in eastern Australia, it is generally recognised as a tree dweller. Records of other species of bats collected on the Nullarbor Plain are given.


Lake Level Fluctuations In Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1971,
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Lowry, David C.

Changes in air pressure in Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, cause the lake level to fluctuate by several centimetres. The relationship suggests that the explored part of Cocklebiddy Cave is part of a much larger system.


Caves of Kitava and Tuma, Trobriand Islands, 1971,
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Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K. , Heers G.

The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated a hundred miles off the north-east coast of Papua and north of the D 'Entr'ecasteaux Islands. In previous papers we have described caves on Kiriwina (the main island), Vakuta and Kitava (see References). We now describe caves of Kaileuna and Tuma (see Figures l and 2). In August 1970, we spent one week of intensive search for caves on these two islands, making our headquarters in the copra store in the village of Kadawaga. Kaileuna island is six miles long and almost four miles wide, and supports a population of 1,079 (1969 Census). It is separated from the large island of Kiriwina by a channel two miles wide between Mamamada Point and Boll Point, though the main village of Kadawaga on the west coast of Kaileuna is 18 miles from Losuia and 14 miles from Kaibola. The island is generally swampy in the centre with a rim of uplifted coral around the edge. We were assured that the correct name of the island is Laileula, but since Kaileuna is used on all previous maps it is retained here. However, we prefer Kadawaga to the Kudawaga or Kaduwaga that appear on some maps. The inhabitants are of mixed Melanesian-Polynesian Stock, who are almost totally self-supporting, being in the main farmers and fishermen. The yam (taitu) constitutes the staple crop and the harvest is still gathered in with ceremonies unchanged for centuries. There is great competition among families for the quantity and quality of the crop, which is displayed firstly in garden arbours (kalimonio), later in the village outside the houses; traditionally styled yam huts (bwaima) are then constructed to display the harvest until the next season. The transfer of yams from the garden to the village is occasion for a long procession of gatherers to parade through the village blowing conch shells and chanting traditional airs (sawili) to attract the attention of villagers to the harvesting party, After storage of the harvest, a period of dancing and feasting (milamala) continues for a month or more, Traditional clothing is the rule, Women and girls wear fibre skirts (doba), most of the men, especially the older ones, wear a pubic leaf (vivia) made from the sepal of the betel nut palm flower (Areca catechu Linn.). Tuma, the northernmost of the main islands in the Trobriand group, is six miles long and less than a mile wide. It is a low ridge of coral with swamps in the centre and along much of the western side. The island has been uninhabited since 1963 when the last few residents abandoned it and moved to Kiriwina, but it is still visited from time to time by other islanders who collect copra and fish. Tuma is believed by all Trobriand Islanders to be inhabited now by the spirits of the dead. It is also generally believed that Tuma is the original home of the TrobIiand ancestors; these ancestors are also said to have emerged at Labai Cave on Kiriwina Island, and from many other places of emergence or 'bwala". Lack of consistency in the legends does not appear to concern the Trobrianders very much. The cave maps in this paper are sketches based mainly on estimated dimensions, with a few actual measurements and compass bearings. Bwabwatu was surveyed more accurately, using a 100 ft steel reinforced tape and prismatic compass throughout.


A new genus of Bulgarian cave spider (Protoleptoneta bulgarica n.g., n.sp., Leptonetidae)., 1972,
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Deltshev Christo
A new genus Protoleptoneta (P. bulgarica n. g., n. sp.) is described, which was collected in caves of the Western Balkan mountains; Bulgaria. The new genus unites features of the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta but there are many differences, which divide it from these genera. It differs from Leptoneta as follows: the tarsus of male palp does not possess the characteristic apophysa of Leptoneta; the tarsus is less depressed and does not branch out; the teeth of chelicerae are equable and equidistant. It differs from Paraleptoneta as follows: the femora of male palp is spineless; near the top of tarsus, on ectal side, there is a thicker spot, provided with a strong spine longer than others; the tarsus is more depressed. Paraleptoneta italica is placed in the new genus Protoleptoneta. The origin and relationships between the genera Protoleptoneta, Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta are discussed; a hypothesis is that the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta had been developing as independent phyletic groups and the origin of the two had been Protoleptoneta.

Biospeologica sovietica. XLIX. The first troglobite representative of Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Ciscaucasia., 1972,
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Ljovuschkin S. I.
During a recent exploration of caves in western Ciscaucasia there was collected, among others, a new species representing a new genus of Trechini (Coleoptera, Caraboidea), the description of which is given here; it has been named Birsteiniotrechus ciscaucasiens n.gen., n.sp., in memory of Prof. J.A. Birstein, famous Soviet biospeleologist, the founder and promotor of the "Biospeologica sovietica" series who passed away recently (cf. I.J.S., 4, part.2). The interest of Birsteiniotrechus lies in the fact that, until now no troglobite or endemic species of Trechini was known from the Ciscaucasian mountains; this genus belongs to the phyletic series of Neotrechus and is nearly allied to Troglocimmerites, but differs from it by its labial characters.

A new genus of Bulgarian cave spider (Protoleptoneta bulgarica n.g., n.sp., Leptonetidae)., 1972,
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Deltshev Christo
A new genus Protoleptoneta (P. bulgarica n. g., n. sp.) is described, which was collected in caves of the Western Balkan mountains; Bulgaria. The new genus unites features of the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta but there are many differences, which divide it from these genera. It differs from Leptoneta as follows: the tarsus of male palp does not possess the characteristic apophysa of Leptoneta; the tarsus is less depressed and does not branch out; the teeth of chelicerae are equable and equidistant. It differs from Paraleptoneta as follows: the femora of male palp is spineless; near the top of tarsus, on ectal side, there is a thicker spot, provided with a strong spine longer than others; the tarsus is more depressed. Paraleptoneta italica is placed in the new genus Protoleptoneta. The origin and relationships between the genera Protoleptoneta, Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta are discussed; a hypothesis is that the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta had been developing as independent phyletic groups and the origin of the two had been Protoleptoneta.

Biospeologica sovietica. XLIX. The first troglobite representative of Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Ciscaucasia., 1972,
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Ljovuschkin S. I.
During a recent exploration of caves in western Ciscaucasia there was collected, among others, a new species representing a new genus of Trechini (Coleoptera, Caraboidea), the description of which is given here; it has been named Birsteiniotrechus ciscaucasiens n.gen., n.sp., in memory of Prof. J.A. Birstein, famous Soviet biospeleologist, the founder and promotor of the "Biospeologica sovietica" series who passed away recently (cf. I.J.S., 4, part.2). The interest of Birsteiniotrechus lies in the fact that, until now no troglobite or endemic species of Trechini was known from the Ciscaucasian mountains; this genus belongs to the phyletic series of Neotrechus and is nearly allied to Troglocimmerites, but differs from it by its labial characters.

Phascolarctos (Marsupialia, Vombatoidea) and an Associated Fossil Fauna From Koala Cave Near Yanchep, Western Australia, 1972,
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Archer, M.

A recently discovered fossil fauna from Koala Cave (Yn 118), Yanchep, Western Australia, contains the marsupials Sthenurus brownei, Potorous platyops, Phascolarctos sp., Perameles sp., Vombatus sp., and a large snake. The fauna is in some respects comparable with the Mammoth Cave and Labyrinth Cave faunas of the Cape Leeuwin-Cape Naturaliste region.


A Review of the Invertebrate Fauna of Volcanic Caves in Western North America, 1973,
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Peck, Stewart B.

A new troglobitic Isopod of the Genus Lirceus (Asellidae) from Southwestern Virginia, with notes on its ecology and additional cave records for the Genus in the Appalachians., 1973,
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Bowman Thomas E. , Holsinger John R.
Lirceus usdagalun new species, the first known troglobitic species of the genus, is described from three caves in Lee County, Virginia. The potential taxonomic value of the endopod tip of the male second pleopod, heretofore dismissed as a diagnostic character in this genus, is pointed out. Some general ecological data for the new species are presented, and cave records for other populations of Lirceus spp. from the Appalachians are given.

A new troglobitic Isopod of the Genus Lirceus (Asellidae) from Southwestern Virginia, with notes on its ecology and additional cave records for the Genus in the Appalachians., 1973,
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Bowman Thomas E. , Holsinger John R.
Lirceus usdagalun new species, the first known troglobitic species of the genus, is described from three caves in Lee County, Virginia. The potential taxonomic value of the endopod tip of the male second pleopod, heretofore dismissed as a diagnostic character in this genus, is pointed out. Some general ecological data for the new species are presented, and cave records for other populations of Lirceus spp. from the Appalachians are given.

Environmental and climatic controlled fractionation of elements in the Mesozoic carbonate sequences of the western Carpathians, 1973,
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Veizer Jan, Demovic Rudolf,
CaO, MgO, insoluble residue, strontium, barium, manganese and titanium distribution and controls

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