MWH Global

Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That aquifer, coastal is an aquifer in a coastal region open to salt-water intrusions [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for karst terrains (Keyword) returned 67 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 67
An improved method for determination of holocene coastline changes around two ancient settlements in southern Anatolia: A geoarchaeological approach to historical land degradation studies, 2003, Bal Y, Kelling G, Kapur S, Akca E, Cetin H, Erol O,
Two well-known ancient sites in southern Anatolia were selected to investigate and quantify the impact of historical land degradation on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. These sites are the Luwian settlements of Kelenderis (modern Aydincik) and nearby Nagidos (Bozyazi), both in Mersin Province and both occupied since around 4000 BP. Changes in local climatic conditions over this period have produced variations in the rates of fluvial transport of sediment/soil from the hinterland into the relevant deltaic regions, thus influencing rates of coastal progradation and aggradation. In addition, both eustatic and neotectonic movements have contributed to deltaic subsidence and/or hinterland uplift, with consequential impact on coastal evolution (positive or negative). The novel gcoarchaeological methodology adopted in this study involves the creation of a graphical archive from detailed and standardised measurements taken from rectified mono- and stereoscopic aerial photographs. These archival data were then integrated with data from several types of historical map and field measurements in order to develop a geographical information system (GIS) database that could be interrogated, enabling graphical models of past coastal change to be constructed and calculations then made of the coastal configurations at successive historical periods. These calculations reveal that over the past 6000 years there has been only limited erosion/degradation in the karstic hinterland supplying the sediment to these two study sites (contrary to some previous statements concerning the high degradation risk of Mediterranean karst terrains). Furthermore, rates of progradation in each delta appear to have become diminished or even reversed in the past several decades as a result of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The precise contribution of neotectonic movements in this seismically active zone remains unquantified and is a topic requiring further interdisciplinary study.

The hydrologic catchment area of a chain of karst wetlands in central Pennsylvania, USA, 2003, O'driscoll M. A. , Parizek R. R. ,
Shallow depressions found in karst terrains may contain wetlands (karst pans) that fluctuate seasonally in response to climatic conditions. This study examined the ground-water hydrology of a chain of 17 wetlands, ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.4 hectares, located in an Appalachian karst valley in central Pennsylvania, USA. The study objective was to determine the contributing area of wetland source waters. A variety of hydraulic head, soil stratigraphy, and water chemistry-data indicate that the combined contributing areas of these wetland ponds extend to a maximum distance of approximately 150 in from the ponds. The hydrologic catchment area of the ponds during January and February, 1999 (approximately 2-8 hectares) was significantly smaller than catchment area based on topography (69 hectares). The water source of the wetlands consists of direct precipitation inputs and shallow (0.5-6 m) perched ground water. The hydrologic catchment area of the ponds expands during wet periods and contracts during dry periods. The ponds have been shown to be perched above the regional water table

Paleoseismic phenomena in karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco, 2003, Angelova Dora, Belfoul M'hamed Alaeddin, Bouzid Sophia, Filahi Mustapha, Faik Farid

During the recent years there has been a growing interest in recording and investigating the effects of paleoseismic events in surface and underground karst in almost all countries. Karst represents a reliable reference marker for understanding the potential seismicity in regions with instrumentally established low to moderate seismicity. The karst errains in Bulgaria and Morocco occupy considerable areas. The disturbances in surface and underground karst had usually been provoked by catastrophic one-act events or by repeatedly activated movements by earthquakes. The catastrophic seismic events had disturbed the naturally interrelated karst ecosystems and were the reason for rejuvenation, reactivation or attenuation of karst processes. The natural surface and underground relief had been partially or entirely destroyed; a new type of relief had been formed; the geological environment had been disturbed; changes occurred in the flowrate and direction of surface and underground karst water; wetlands of the gravitation type had been formed; natural caves, local grabens, rock-falls and landslides collapsed partially or entirely and terrains were subjected to subsidence and destruction; the ecological balance in urbanized territories had been disturbed. The present work considers the different types of paleoseismic phenomena in the karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco. Recommendations are given for the protection of these areas.

Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary, 2003, Bá, Rá, Nykevei Ilona

This study represents the changes of Hungarian karst terrains due to human impacts paying special attention to sylviculture. The functioning of the karst geo-ecosystem is considerably determined by the climate-soil-vegetation system, which will influence the dynamism of karst development. Most of the Hungarian karst terrains are the scene of sylviculture. The planting of non-adequate forest associations resulted the alteration of climate and soils, which resulted in a change of the intensity of karst corrosion. This paper focuses on the change of sylviculture in the Aggtelek National Park, a World Heritage site, and makes suggestions for optimal land use.

Heterogeneity of parent rocks and its constraints on geochemical criteria in weathering crusts of carbonate rocks, 2004, Wang S. J. , Feng Z. G. ,
Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions. especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the, heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be. reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of pain-size distribution. Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity

Geochemistry of red residua underlying dolomites in karst terrains of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau II. The mobility of rare earth elements during weathering, 2004, Ji H. B. , Wang S. J. , Ouyang Z. Y. , Zhang S. , Sun C. X. , Liu X. M. , Zhou D. Q. ,
The aim of this study is to characterize the evolution of the rare earth elements (REE) in the Pingba red residua on karst terrain of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The in-situ weathering and the two-stage development of the profile had been inferred from REE criterions. The REE were significantly fractionated, and Ce was less mobilized and separated from the other REEs at the highly enriched top of the profile. This is consistent with the increase of oxidation degree in the regolith. And it is also suggested that the wet/dry climate change during chemical weathering caused Ce alternative change between enrichment and invariance in the upper regolith. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns for samples from dolomites and the lower regolith are characteristic of MREE enrichment and remarkable negative Ce-anomalies patterns (similar to the convex-up REE patterns). The following processes are interpreted for the patterns in this study: (1) the accumulation of MRRE-rich minerals in dolomite dissolution, (2) water-rock interaction in the weathering front, and (3) more leaching MREE from the upper part of the profile. The latter two explanations are considered as the dominant process for the formation of the REE patterns. Samples from the soil horizon exhibit typical REE distribution patterns of the upper crust, i.e., La-N/Yb-N = 10 and Eu/Eu* = 0.65. All data indicate that the leaching process is very important for pedogenesis in this region. The experiments demonstrating that abnormal enrichment of REE at the upper regolith-bedrock interface is caused by a combination of volume change, accumulation of REE-bearing minerals, leaching of REE from the upper regolith, and water-rock interaction during rock-soil alteration processes. Our results support the conclusion that the weathering profile represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, whereas REE enrichment occurs under favorable conditions in terms of stable tectonics, low erosion and rapid weathering over sufficiently long time. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Engineering classification of karst ground conditions, 2005, Waltham A. C. , Fookes P. G.

On a world scale, the dissolution of limestone and gypsum by natural waters creates extensive karst landforms that can be very difficult ground for civil engineers. Caves threaten foundation integrity, notably where their width is greater than their roof thickness. Sinkholes pose many problems, and are classified into six types, including subsidence sinkholes formed in soil cover within karst terrains. Rockhead morphology varies from uniform to pinnacled, also creating difficult ground to excavate or found upon. A proposed engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions by the geohazards that they provide, mainly the caves, sinkholes and rockhead relief. Ground investigation techniques and foundation design philosophies are considered so that they are appropriate to the ground conditions provided by the different classes of karst.

Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions, 2005, Frumkin A, Fischhendler I,

Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the pateohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Processes of Speleogenesis: a Modeling Approach, 2005, Dreybrodt W. Gabrovsek F. , Romanov D.

This book draws together the major recent advances in the modeling of karst systems. Based on the dissolution kinetics of limestone, and flow and transport processes in its fractures, it presents a hierarchy of cave genetic situations that range from the enlargement of a single fracture to the evolution of cavernous drainage patterns in confined and unconfined karst aquifers. These results are also applied to the evolution of leakage below dam sites in karst. The book offers a wealth of information that helps to understand the development of cave systems. It addresses geologists, hydrologists, geomorphologists, and geographers. It is also of interest to all scientists and engineers who have responsibilities for groundwater exploration and management in karst terrains.

?Processes of Speleogenesis: a Modeling Approach is an exciting book that brings together and displays the products of the first and second generations of karst cave and aquifer computer modeling in a succinct fashion, with excellent illustrations and stimulating contrasts of approach. It is a ?benchmark? publication that all who are interested in speleogenesis should read. It will be a very useful volume for teaching, not only in karst and hydrogeology, but for others who use computer modeling in the physical and spatial sciences.? (From the foreword by D.C. Ford)

?This book is an extraordinary achievement that warrants close attention by anyone interested in speleogenesis??This book is ideal for researchers in speleogenesis who have a solid grasp in technical aspects. Most of the necessary background information is outlined in the first chapter, but subtle aspects will be clear only to those who already have a good background in geochemistry and computer modeling especially when interpreting the figures. This book is not aimed at groundwater hydrologists, although the results would be eye-opening to anyone in that field who denies the importance of solution conduits in carbonate aquifers.? (From book review by A.N. Palmer, JCKS, Volume 67, No.3, 2005)

?To specialists the book is very helpful and and up-to-date, providing many ideas and answering many questions.? (From book review by P. Hauselmann, Die Hohle, Volume 56, 2005)


  1. Introduction
  2. Equilibrium chemistry and dissolution kinetics of limestone in H2O-CO2 solutions
  3. The evolution of a single fracture
  4. Modeling karst evolution on two-dimensional networks: constant head boundary conditions
  5. Unconfined aquifers under various boundary conditions
  6. Karstification below dam sites
  7. Conclusion and future perspectives
  8. Bibliography

GUEST CHAPTER by Sebastian Bauer, Steffen Birk, Rudolf Liedl and Martin Sauter
Simulation of karst aquifer genesis using a double permeability approach investigation for confined and unconfined settings

GUEST CHAPTER by Georg Kaufmann
Structure and evolution of karst aquifers: a finite-element numerical modeling approach

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai

China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Studies of Condensation/Evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand., 2006, De Freitas Chris R. , Schmekal Antje Anna
The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. The work describes an explanatory model of processes leading to condensation using data based on measurements of condensation and evaporation as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux. The results show that the model works well. However, one of the most important messages from the research reported here is the introduction of the condensation sensor. The results show that condensation in caves can actually be measured and monitored, virtually in real time. In conjunction with the recent developments in data logging equipment, this opens exciting perspectives in cave climate studies, and, more generally, in hydrogeological studies in karst terrains.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Modle dvolution de paysages, application aux karsts en cockpit de Jamaque, 2007, Fleurant Cyril , Tucker Gregory, Viles Heather
LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION MODEL, EXAMPLE OF COCKPIT KARST TERRAINS, JAMAICA. A model of cockpit karst landscape evolution is presented. After explaining implementation of dissolution processes of limestone in the landscape evolution model CHILD, we develop a model of limestone denudation based on epikarst theory processes. The model takes into account an anisotropic dissolution in space and time according to what is observed in reality or described by scenarios of cockpit karst landscape evolution. This model requires a fractures network to take into account subsurface flow. Then, dissolution and thus fractures widening are computed and show a positive feedback between dissolution and flow. The relation between subcutaneous dissolution of fractures and denudation of the topography is introduced by means of an empirical equation associated with epikarst processes: the denudation is taken to be proportional to the dissolution in the subcutaneous zone. Simulated cockpit karst terrains are compared with real landscapes by means of morphometric criteria. Results of the model are very close to reality which hence confirms the importance of anisotropic dissolution processes and above all could be a numerical validation of the epikarst processes to describe cockpit karst genesis.

Natural and anthropogenic rock collapse over open caves, 2007, Waltham T. , Lu Z. ,
Natural rock collapse that reaches the ground surface to form a collapse doline is relatively rare in limestone karst. The anthropogenic karst geohazard is posed by the possibility of rock collapse when additional loading is imposed by engineering works directly over a known or unknown cave. An intact rock-cover thickness that exceeds half the cave width appears to be safe in most karst terrains formed in strong limestone. Guidelines suggest that drilling or probing prior to construction should prove sound rock to depths ranging between 3 and 7 m in most of the various types of karst

Results 31 to 45 of 67
You probably didn't submit anything to search for