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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That parting is the separation of sedimentary rock along bedding planes [16]. synonyms: bedding-plane; bedding-plane parting. see also bedding plane.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for hungary (Keyword) returned 98 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 98
Geoecological system of karst , 1998,
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Bá, Rá, Nykevei Ilona

The paper presents some results of the karst geo-ecological system research. The first sphere of the karst-ecological system is the karst microclimate in accordance with the microclimatic factors. Macroclimate is responsible for the quantity and intensity of precipitation while microclimatic effects modify the quantity of water infiltrating to the rocks. Microclimate affects the development of vegetation, soil temperature and humidity. Millions of microorganisms live in the soil, changing the components of soil-air through the decomposition of organic materials and through their own metabolism. They also influence the physical and chemical soil properties indirectly. The inner dynamism of soil can prevent extreme changes occurring in the system, it can change, possibly leading to disturbance in the whole system. The changes due to external effects are reversible down to the rock boundary. When they have entered the rock layer, they become irreversible. Water in the rock layer is the transport agent of materials and energy. This water reaches the surface again in karst springs. Another irreversible process, the dripstone degradation can also be due to polluted water.


The experimental examination of microbal origin corrosion aggressivity of karst soils , 1998,
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Zá, Mbó, Lá, Szló,

Impacts of agricultural land use on some Hungarian karst regions, 1999,
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Brnykevei Ilona
The karst regions are found in the medium altitude mountains of Hungary. Their land use types are natural and sustainable forestry, grazing and vineyards. In international comparison, Hungary belongs to those countries of Europe where arable land is abundant, therefore, in the future its extension has to be reduced. That means agricultural activity has to be restricted on the sensitive karst surfaces. This paper presents ways of sustainable forestry and other land use types for three karst regions of Hungary.

Brittle tectonics and major dextral strike-slip zone in the Buda karst (Budapest, Hungary), 1999,
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Benkovics L, Obert D, Bergerat F, Mansy Jl, Dubois M,
Three large (kilometric-scale) caves were studied in the Buda hills and the main directions of cave corridors, fault planes and mineralized veins were measured. Different stages of mineralizations are recognised: calcite scaleno-hedrons, baryte, silica, gypsum. New investigations of fluid inclusions in the baryte suggest a crystallization temperature of 50 degrees C and a freshwater fluid source. Microtectonic analysis allows the reconstruction of the successive tectonic events: (1) a NE-SW extensional phase at the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene limit (phase I), (2) a strike-slip phase with NW-SE compression and NE-SW extension during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (phase II), (3) a NW-SE transtensional phase (phase III) and finally (4) a NE-SW extensional phase of Quaternary age (phase IV). The major phase is the strike-slip one, characterized by an important dextral strike-slip zone: the Ferenc-hegy zone. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Karstmorphological research in the Mecsek Mountains, South Hungary, 1999,
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Barta Ká, Roly, Tarnai Tamá, S

Besides less investigated and less known karst areas are Mecsek Mountains in South Hungary. For four years research has been conducted to confirm the existence of a cave system several kilometres in length beyond the most abundant karst spring of the Western Mecsek, the Vízfö Spring. Attempts have been made to find the optimal site for opening an entrance to the cave. The article is meant to show the methods and achievements of preliminary geomorphological and hydrological field surveys, which were preceded by a thorough study of literature. Parallel to clearing the entrance to the cave, observations of karst processes and features were also made. The article presents the findings concerning the impacts of young tectonic movements on the extension and links of the catchment area, the communication between surface and underground water-courses and cave formation.


Paleokarst features and other climatic relics in Hungarian caves, 1999,
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Bolnertaká, Cs Katalin

Relics of climatic changes during the modern phase of karstic development have been preserved in the morphology, sediments and speleothems of several caves in Hungary; and there are examples of real paleokarst features exposed by modern caves as well. The unique sandstone morphology of Cserszegtomaj Well Cave (Keszthely Mts., Transdanubian Mountain Range), developed along the contact of Triassic dolomite and Pannonian sandstone, displays the relief of a karst surface formed probably under the subtropical conditions of the Early Miocene. The uppermost parts of Beremend Crystal Cave (Villány Mts., South Transdanubia) exposes also from below the clastic fill of an ancient karst shaft that, according to its rich vertebrate remains, dates back at least to the Lower Pleistocene. With their Late Eocene marine sediment fill, the small paleokarst cavities exposed in the Eocene bedrock of Mátyás-hegy and Pál-völgy Caves (Buda Hills) are interpreted as salt-fresh water mixing zone cavities formed during a short immersion of a tropical reef.


Investigations of the vegetation and soil in the dolinas of Mecsek mountains, South Hungary, 1999,
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Hoyk, Edit

The data of karst ecological study in Mecsek Mountain (South Hungary) can be compared by the analyses in Bükk Mountain and Aggtelek (North Hungary). The western part of Mecsek Mountain is rich in karst forms, the rock base being in strongly fissured Triassic limestone. From a morphometric point of view these dolines are significantly different from those in the karst areas of Bükk and Aggtelek; they are smaller, more shallow and funnel shaped. The amount of 700 mm precipitation per year and increased CO2 production of root systems play an essential role. Soil research studies also support the juvenility of these dolines. Dolines in the Orfü karst plateau are in a natural state, more or less free from anthropogenic influences; however, indirect effect can be shown by the fact that the soil pH is turning sour. This state close to its natural condition is of great value of the landscape, as nowadays it is an important task to conserve the natural conditions of the environment, especially in karst regions. The karst is a highly vulnerable natural system that reacts with great sensitivity to anthropogenic influences, so it requires increased protection; this is why it would be reasonable to include the Orfü karst region in conservation projects.


Geoecological studies on the karstic surfaces of the planned Protected Area in Western Mecsek, South Hungary, 1999,
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Hoyk, Edit

Earlier studies on the karst in Western Mecsek have already shown that this area is worth protection due to its quite well preserved natural state. In consequence, declaring the karstic territory with its wider environment as a protected area is being considered in the Danube-Drava Natural Park. In order to prove the almost untouched natural state of an area good starting point is to examine its soil and flora. Soil studies focus on determining the pH, detecting any tendency of a shift towards lower pH values and on examining the carbonate content. In the future measurements to check the heavy metal content that are especially suitable for showing the levels of anthropogenic contamination will be added to these studies. Investigations on the flora based on the examination of water balance, soil reaction and determination of the rank according to the categories of nature conservation value offer a support to the claim of being protected. The results show that indirect anthropogenic effects can be detected by the pH shift towards lower values, but the same tendency of turning acidic is less characteristic in dolines which are the most sensitive points of karstic fields. However, the relatively high carbonate content favours the resistance against felling pH values. Examining the vegetation, and paying special attention to the ranking into nature conservation categories, a significantly high ratio of association - forming and accompanying species and the presence of protected species in relatively high numbers can be seen that proves the nature conserving feature of the territory. On the basis of the investigations carried out the maintenance of the present state of the territory is a desirable objective and in order to realize it the protection of the area is absolutely justified.


Reconstruction of the development history of karstic water networks on the southern part of the Gšmšr-Torna karst on the basis of ruined caves and landforms, 1999,
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Já, Nos Mó, Ga

The author demonstrates the surface development of the Gomor-Torna karst situated on the Hungarian-Slovakian border from the Tertiary until the present day. He follows the process of transition from the covered karst conditions to the open karst on the karst plateau, and its effect upon the landforms and the karstic water network. He studied the evolution of surface and sub-surface water networks, and the regularity of the movements of underground rivers based on water tracing. He reconstructed the ancient surface outflow directions of the covered karst from the scarce remains of the epigenetic valleys inherited from cover deposits onto the limestone surface, from ruined swallow hole lines in valleys, as well as from decaying water conducting tubes generated in earlier phases.


Research on the soils of karst areas in Hungary (example from Bükk Mountain), 1999,
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Zseni Anikó,

The author studied the characteristics of the soil nutrient system in a Hungarian karst area, that is on 8 km2 area of the Bükk plateau. The pH, total carbonate content, total soil-nitrogen content, plant available calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus contents of 63 soil samples were measured. She was able to compare the nutrient system of the soils which occurred in different ecological conditions. There are differences between the nutrient status of the soils of the beech and pine forest and the open fields. The knowledge of the pH plus the N, P, K, Ca, Mg content of the soils can be important regarding the protection of the environment, the maintenance of the forest and the management of the meadows.


Book Review: ''Palaeokarst Studies in Hungary'' by L. Korps, 2000,
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Lowe D. J.

Karstmorphological research in the Mecsek Mountains, South Hungary, 2000,
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Barta Karoly, Tarnai Tamas

Infiltration measured by the drip of stalactites, 2000,
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Sanz E. , Lopez J. J. ,
The hydrodynamic processes and mechanisms involved in rain infiltration and recharge in local areas of karst terrain can be identified and quantified by using measurements of the seepage of cave stalactites, Detailed measurements of the seepage of stalactites in seven caves located in an area close to the land surface, or the subcutaneous area of the karst, show a diversity of complex factors involved in infiltration: type of precipitation (rain or snow), air temperature, soil type and thickness, etc., which give rise to larger or smaller variations of flow in the espeleothem hydrographs, In some cases, no explanation can be found for the response of stalactites to rainfall, while in others there is a relationship between outer atmospheric parameters and the recharge represented by the stalactite drip. Romperopas Cave (Spain) has both a rapid and a basic flow, with hydrograph recessions similar to those observed in other caves. Water seepage in this cave varies greatly both in space and in time. The infiltration in Altamira Cave (Spain) was calculated and a multiple regression was found between infiltration, rain and outside air temperature. In other cases, the balance of the water on the soil is responsible for the seepage, Thus, a precipitation runoff numerical model that simulated the stalactite hydrographs could be applied to the Baradla and Beke Caves (Hungary), The complex properties of the ground, which are required for other flow numerical models for the unsaturated zone, were not taken into consideration

Formation of dolomite mottling in Middle Triassic ramp carbonates (Southern Hungary), 2000,
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Torok A. ,
The Middle Triassic carbonates of the Villany Mountains were deposited on a homoclinal carbonate ramp. Many of the carbonates from the 700 m-thick sequence show partial or complete dolomitization. The present paper describes dolomites that occur in a limestone unit as irregular mottles and as pore- and fracture-filling cements. Replacement-type scattered dolomite rhombs in the mottles having inclusion-rich, very dull luminescent cores and limpid non-luminescent outer zones represent the initial phase of dolomitization. The isotopic composition of these dolomites (delta(13)C = .30 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -3.60 parts per thousand VPDB) is similar to that of the calcitic micrite (delta(13)C = .6 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -4.00 parts per thousand VPDB) indicating that no external fluids were introduced during dolomite formation. The elevated Sr content of the micrites implies that sediment was originally aragonite or high-Mg calcite. Dolomitization took place in the burial realm from a 'marine' pore-fluid in a partly closed system. Later fracture-related saddle dolomite reflects elevated formation temperatures and increasing burial. Five calcites were identified. Multiple generations of calcite-filled fractures were formed during burial diagenesis generally having dull or no luminescence (delta(13)C = .80 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -6.40 parts per thousand VPDB). The latest phase calcites are related to karst formation, having a very negative isotopic composition (delta(13)C = -5.0 to -7.2 parts per thousand VPDB and delta(18)O approximate to -7.44 parts per thousand VPDB). The karst-related processes include dissolution, calcite precipitation and partial replacement of dolomites by complex zoned bright yellow calcite. The timing of dolomitization is uncertain, but the first phase took place in a partly closed system prior to stylolite formation. Late-stage saddle dolomites were precipitated during maximum burial in the Cretaceous. The dissolution of dolomites and karst-related calcite replacement was not earlier than Late Cretaceous. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrothermal speleogenesis in the Hungarian karst, 2000,
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Dublyansky Y. V.
Hydrothermal karst caves in Hungary were formed in a variety of speleogenetic settings. The oldest small solutional cavities (vugs) were formed in the deep-seated low-gradient zone at temperatures in excess of 90 oC. The temperatures decreased with time, as inferred from fluid inclusion studies of cave calcite. The caves were formed by normal carbonate corrosion. Large two-dimensional mazes of the Buda Hills were formed in the shallow low-temperature (but still hydrothermal) setting. The leading speleogenetic processes were normal carbonate corrosion (including mixing/cooling corrosion) and sulfuric acid corrosion. Temperatures at this stage were lower: ca. 50 oC and less. Above the thermal water table, in the subaerial zone, some specific and powerful speleogenetic processes occurred; condensation corrosion (by CO2-bearing waters) and replacement corrosion involving sulfuric acid reactions. Three-dimensional bush-like caves composed of connected spherical niches were formed as the result of this subaerial karstification.

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