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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That aggrading river is river that is actively elevating its bed by deposition of sediments [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for terrain (Keyword) returned 289 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 289
Les rseaux souterrains de la rgion de Lbamba (Gabori), 1987, Peyrot B. , Massala J.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF KARSTIC SYSTEMS OF THE LEBAMBA REGION (GABON) - The Lebamba region is situated in the extreme southern part of Gabon close to the Republic of Congo. Geologically, it can be included within the Niari-Nyanga synclinorium, where the Precambrian schists and limestones show many karstic features and particularly a remarkable subterranean network, as to yet only partially surveyed. The dolomitic limestone of Lebamba, although of little importance, contains many cave systems: Lebamba, Bongolo, Mbenaltembe. A severe tectonic mesh together with fine micro-stratifications have opened the way to biochemical corrosion which, after observations and analysis, appears to result from a climate wetter than at present. The dimensions of the underground passages appear disproportionate, relatively to the low aggressivity of the present environment, thus illustrating the importance of paleoclimatic factors on the morphogenesis of central african karsts.

Subsidence hazard prediction for limestone terrains, as applied to the English Cretaceous Chalk, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Green Cp, Higginbottom Ie,
Soluble carbonate rocks often pose a subsidence hazard to engineering and building works, due to the presence of either metastable natural solution features or artificial cavities. There is also an inherent danger to the public and lives have been lost because of unexpected ground collapses. Although site investigation techniques are becoming increasingly elaborate, the detection of hazardous ground conditions associated with limestones is frequently difficult and unreliable. Remedial measures to solve subsidence problems following foundation failure are expensive. It would be advantageous if areas liable to subsidence could be identified in a cost-effective manner in advance of planning and ground investigation. Hazard mapping could then be used by planners when checking the geotechnical suitability of a proposed development or by engineering geologists/geotechnical engineers to design the type of ground investigation best suited to the nature and scale of the potential hazard. Recent research focussed on the English Chalk outcrop has led to the development of two new models to predict the subsidence hazard for both natural solution features and artificial cavities. The predictive models can be used to map the hazard at any given chalkland locality, as a cost-effective precursor to ground investigation. The models, although created for the Chalk outcrop, have important implications for all types of limestone terrain. The basis of the predictive modelling procedure is an analysis of the spatial distribution of nearly 1600 natural solution features, and more than 850 artificial cavity locations, identified from a wide varietyy of sources, including a special appeal organized by CIRIA. A range of geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological factors are evaluated to identify significant relationships with subsidence. These factors are ranked, numerically weighted and incorporated into two quantitative subsidence hazard model formulae. The models can be applied to perform hazard mapping


Cave dams of the Guanyan System, Guangxi, China, 1987, Smart P. L. , Waltham A. C. ,
With well over 1 million km2 of carbonate rocks exposed at the surface, and a history of exploitation spanning in excess of 2000 years, the Chinese probably have more experience than any other people in developing the water resources of carbonate aquifers. Interestingly, many of the smaller scale projects are carried out by local farmers and co-operatives, with little recourse to the advice of professional engineers and hydrologists, although even in large regional schemes, much local expertise and labour is involved (see for example Hegtkcar 1976). While recently some of the Chinese work on karst hydrology has become available in the west (Song 1981; Song et al 1983; Yuan 1981, ) much of the practical experience resulting from these local and small scale developments remains unpublished even in China. We were therefore very fortunate to be able to examine the engineering works associated with the Guanyan cave system, just south of Guilin, Guangxi Province, SE China, during a recent joint venture with the Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, Guilin. The Guanyan (Crown Cave) system is developed in a sequence of relatively pure, predominantly finegrained limestones and dolomites over 2600 m thick, and ranging from Devonian to Carboniferous in age (Yuan 1980). These are folded into thrust faulted, NW-SE-trending folds, but dips are generally less than 30{degrees}. The underlying impermeable shales, siltstones and sandstones form a mountainous terrain rising to 1400 m above sea-level east of the limestone, and provide the headwaters for streams feeding into the caves (Fig. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Water movement and storage in the unsaturated zone of a maturely karstified carbonate aquifer, Mendip Hills, England,, 1987, Smart P. L. , Friederich H.

Le peuplement animal des karsts de France (deuxime partie : lments de biogographie pour les Invertbrs terrestres), 1988, Ginet R. , Juberthie C.
THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN FRENCH KARSTS. SECOND PART THE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA - This text analyses the bibliographic data in order to draw up a schematic representation of the biogeographical distribution of Invertebrate animals found in french karsts up to 1985. The animal population of these karsts is very varied, especially in the south of France. For many groups, there are obvious links with geological history and paleo-ecology. This text first (cf. Karstologia n 10) lists the aquatic groups (from Porifera to Crustacea; the latter is the most varied and numerous in karstic water). It puts forward possible solutions to the problems posed by the ways followed by the ancestors of present-day groups, either of superficial freshwater origin, or of marine origin during the Tertiary, and whose areas were later modified by the impact of quaternary glaciations. This second part concerns the terrestrial groups, subterranean penetration followed different pathways, among which the Superficial Hypogean Compartment (MSS = Milieu Souterrain Superficiel) plays an obvious role; this shows that many troglobites are not limited in the underground environment, just to caves and karst. The Arthropods, and among them the Insects, are of course the most varied and the best known. Their bio-geographical distribution reflects the problems of speciation, ecology and endemism, which are discussed in the text.

Subsidence associated with the abstraction of fluids, 1988, Bell Fg,
Subsidence of the ground surface due to the withdrawal of groundwater, oil, gas or brine from sedimentary deposits has ccurred in many parts of the world. The abstraction of groundwater has been the principal cause of subsidence, primarily because more groundwater is abstracted than all the other liquids put together. Subsidences of several metres have been recorded, for example, in California due to the exploitation of oil, as well as groundwater. Such ground movements represent a notable problem in engineering geology. Generally these subsidences take place slowly but the occurrence at the surface of sinkholes as a result of water tables being lowered in limestone terrains is a rapid process. In the case of groundwater, gas or oil abstraction the reduction in pore pressure in the voids due to the decline in head leads to an increase in effective load on the sediments concerned, bringing about consolidation, which is reflected at the surface as subsidence. On the other hand when mineral deposits are worked by solution mining the rock material itself is removed which, if uncontrolled, resultsin subsidence. The removal of fluids from sediments frequently has resulted in the formation of fissures at the surface. Indeed there are cases on record where faults are alleged to have been formed. Such fissures often occur around the periphery of the subsidence trough

Civil engineering difficulties in the karst of China, 1988, Waltham A. C. , Smart P. L. ,
Karst landscapes, developed by solutional erosion of massive limestones, are characterized by underground drainage and the development of closed depressions. In tropical areas, with high solution rates, long uninterrupted periods of erosion and a lack of glacial planation, the expansion and deepening of these closed depressions creates a rugged relief dominated by either conical hills or steeper-sided towers. The form of the cones and towers is a function of both the carbonate lithology and the erosional history; the towers develop only in massive, mechanically strong, compact limestones where erosional planation and tectonic uplift have kept pace over a long period of time (Smart et al 1986). These karst landscapes are characteristic of huge areas of southern China, largely in the provinces of Guangxi and Guizhou (Fig. 1) and the spectacular scenery of the limestone has often been represented in classical Chinese painting. They are now also becoming a major tourist attraction, with Guilin, in Guangxi, frequently visited by Westerners. These terrains do, however, pose serious difficulties to the civil engineer. Where relief is not great, or where rates of uplift have been low, corridors of flatter ground have often been created by lateral planation at the water table. These corridors may be lithologically or structurally controlled, and form obvious routes through the karst. Where the relief is higher and the regional water table is not intersected, coalescence of the depressions to form flatter ground is rare, and road and rail development is more problematic. In order to avoid excessive and ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terraines, 1988, White W. B.

Mangroves, Mountains and Munching Molluscs: The Evolution of a Tropical Coastline, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

The highly scenic Andaman coast of peninsular Thailand is locally dominated by steep limestone hills and karst towers that rise from broad alluvial plains, from mangrove swamps or from the sea. The karst terrain stretches north and west across the Malay peninsula to the Gulf of Siam. Some of the variations in the style of this karst have resulted from lithological and structural factors. However, steepening of the slopes by marine erosion at times of formerly high sea levels has probably been important to the development of the most spectacular part of this landscape. Notches and caves cut in limestone towers up to 10-15m above present sea level may represent the maximum transgression of the Last Interglacial. Morphological evidence hints that former shorelines may now lie hundreds of metres above present sea level due to diastrophic movements during the late Cainozoic. However, this evidence is equivocal and it has been argued that similar landforms in neighboring parts of Malaysia may be the result of terrestrial planation processes that operated independent of sea level during the Pleistocene glacial stages.

Exploitation d'une photo arienne pour la dtermination des coordonnes d'une cavit situe en terrain dcouvert, 1989, Lismonde, B.
Use of aerial view to determine geographic coordinates of caves located in bare area - A computation is presented to determine geographic coordinates from an air-photography with the correction of inclinations and reliefs deformations.

Groundwater chemistry and cation budgets of tropical karst outcrops, Peninsular Malaysia, I. Calcium and magnesium, 1989, Crowther J,
The discharge and chemical properties of 217 autogenic groundwaters were monitored over a 1-yr period in the tower karsts of central Selangor and the Kinta Valley, and in the Setul Boundary Range. Because of differences in soil PCO2, calcium concentrations are significantly higher in the Boundary Range (mean, 82.5 mg l-1) than in the tower karst terrain (44.6 mg l-1). Local differences in both source area PCO2 and amounts of secondary deposition underground cause marked intersite variability, particularly in the tower karst. Dilution occurs during flood peaks in certain conduit and cave stream waters. Generally, however, calcium correlates positively with discharge, since the amount of secondary deposition per unit volume of water decreases at higher flows. Magnesium concentrations and Mg:Ca Mg ratios of groundwaters are strongly influenced by bedrock composition, though bedrock heterogeneity and the kinetics and equilibria of carbonate dissolution reactions preclude extremely low or high Mg:Ca Mg values. Net chemical denudation rates range from 56.6 to 70.9 m3km2yr-1.The results are considered in relation to cation fluxes in surface runoff, soil throughflow and nutrient cycling. Preliminary calcium and magnesium budgets show that (1) dissolutional activity is largely confined to the near-surface zone; and (2) the annual uptake of calcium and magnesium by tropical limestone forests is similar in magnitude to the net solute output in groundwaters

Water-Formed Structures, 1989, Bloom Al,

Water-Formed Structures: Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains, 1989, Bloom Al,

Le massif de la Chartreuse, Alpes franaises du Nord : paysages karstiques et organisation des rseaux souterrains, 1990, Lismonde B. , Delannoy J. J.
The massif of Chartreuse: karsts features and underground systems (Alps, France) - The Chartreuse massif is the smallest of the subalpine massifs, but it contains the most important underground systems of French Alps. The massif of Chartreuse is characterised by parallel folds directed N020. The eastern plateau spreads out urgonian limestone (perched syncline); it contains the two largest cave systems: "Alpe-Alpette" (54 km) and "Dent de Crolles" (54 km). To the W, the limestone layers are uplifted by the orogenic strains and thereby, the caves are very deep: "rseau Ded" (- 780m), "puits Francis" (- 723m), "gouffre de Gnieux" (- 675m). Two transverse rivers make the hydrologic drainage: the "Guiers Vif" and the "Guiers Mort", which cut up the region into small hydrological basins. The greatest of them is "Guiers Vif" basin, with an area of 9.2 km2.

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