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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That output point is a point where water exists from an underground drainage route or aquifer. an obvious output point is a surface resurgence or exsurgence, where drainage emerges from a conduit system. less obvious are points where drainage leaves a carbonate aquifer and enters an adjacent non-carbonate bed, such as a sandstone aquifer [9].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for clastic sediments (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 50 of 50
Cave clastic sediments and implications for speleogenesis: New insights from the Mugnano Cave (Montagnola Senese, Northern Apennines, Italy), 2011, Martini Ivan

The study of cave clastic sediments has been considered one of the hottest topics during the last years because of their importance in paleoclimatic reconstructions and archaeological surveys.
This paper focuses on clastic deposits of the Mugnano Cave, a small cave located in the Siena district (Northern Apennines, Italy), showing unique features regarding the sedimentary fill, mostly made of grey-blue dolomitic silts. The sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological analysis aimed at a better understanding of sedimentary processes active during the deposition.
The entire succession was subsequently reinterpreted through an allostratigraphic approach: the recognition of an important erosional surface, associated with a significant change in sedimentation, allowed the distinguishing of two main allounits labelled MG1 and MG2. Furthermore, the different kinds of sediments collected in the cave were analysed using the XRF and XRD techniques, in order to establish their chemical and mineralogical compositions.
The integration of lithological, sedimentological, allostratigraphic and mineralogical data permits formulation of an interesting hypothesis about speleogenetic processes that influenced the cave, with particular reference to the processes capable of generating the underground space. In this context, most of the current available space results from a complex interplay between different processes: disintegration of a particular lithofacies of the bedrock, consequent production of sediments and deposition into a subterranean lake. These sediments were removed from the cave during some non-depositional and erosive phases, which led to a positive balance in the available space


Clastic Sediments in Caves, 2012, Springer, Gregory S.

This article focuses on the natures, origins, and significances of clastic sediments in caves. Clastic sediments are fragments of preexisting rocks that have been transported and redeposited. Streams transport large quantities of clastic sediments through caves, including stream gravels and mud, but clastic sediments also move as gravity flows by slumping and sliding. Sedimentology and stratigraphy offer the means to understand the origins and transport mechanisms behind individual clastic deposits. Together, the two methodologies consider layering within deposits and grain sizes, sorting, mineralogies, and sedimentary structures within individual beds. Facies are recognized where those variables include diagnostic properties tied to particular depositional processes or driving forces. As is shown using examples, stratigraphy and facies analysis make it possible to reconstruct cave or landscape histories, including system responses to disturbances such as climate change and land use. Notably, system responses typically reflect changes in sediment supply, hydraulic gradients, or obstructions. These factors are recorded in passage morphologies, which should always be considered when studying clastic sediments in caves, and examples are cited.


Paleomagnetic Records in Cave Sediments, 2012, Sasowsky, Ira D.

The Earth’s magnetic field reverses polarity at irregular intervals in the range of a few hundred thousand years. Magnetic mineral grains suspended in cave waters orient themselves with respect to the prevailing field direction when they settle from the water and then become locked in place in the resulting pile of cave sediment. Because the time scale of magnetic reversals is well-established, measurement of magnetic orientation in cave sediments and the location of magnetic reversals within sediment piles can be used to date the deposits and thus provide a minimum age for the cave.


Provenance and geological significance of red mud and other clastic sediments of the Mugnano cave (Montagnola Senese, Italy), 2012, Lacoviello Francesco, Martini Ivan

 

The Mugnano cave is characterized by a thick clastic sedimentary fill showing a great variability of sedimentary facies, ranging from clay to coarse-grained sand deposits. This paper deals with combined sedimentological and mineralogical (XRD and SEM) studies of these sediments and bedrock insoluble residues in order to understand the origin and geological significance of cave deposits, with particular attention to red mud sediments, often considered as the residue of host rock dissolution. Three different sedimentary facies were recognized: i) YS, yellow sand with occasionally shell fragments, testifying the arrival of sediments from the surrounding landscape; ii) RS, red laminated mud; iii) GS, grey and red-grey mud and sand, dolomite-rich sediments. Furthermore, the results obtained in the present study allowed the identification of two fingerprint minerals: i) quartz, present only as traces in the limestone host-rock, and ii) dolomite, certainly related to the incomplete bedrock dissolution. Results obtained by this multidisciplinary approach testify that no one of the investigated sediments is representative of a completely autochthonous sedimentation (i.e. accumulation of insoluble residue of limestone in a cave environment). In fact, all the three sedimentary facies show a bulk composition rich in quartz, a mineral indicating an external origin for these sediments. Also the grey sediments, despite of their high content of bedrock- related dolomite, are quite rich in quartz and they testify the mixing of autochthonous and allocthonous sediments. The clay fraction of cave sediments shows strong compositional similarities with bedrock insoluble residue and consequently its analysis cannot be considered as a clear proxy for distinguishing between different parent materials. Therefore, the origin of these cave deposits is dominantly related to external sediments inputs, with terra rossa surface soils as the most probable parent material for red mud sediments.


Uncommon cave minerals associated to hypogene speleogenesis in Southern France, 2013, Audra, Philippe

Five hypogenic-origin caves from Southern France are presented. Investigations using XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, reveal the presence of uncommon cave minerals. Oilloki Cave is a small lead ore mine-cave containing galena, cerussite, and bismuth (present as native element or as sulfide).La Baume Cave is a hydrothermal breccia-pipe, filled with colorful (red, green, white) clays. Some of the clay minerals (clinochlore se-piolite), could originate from hydrothermal weathering of clastic material. The Mala-coste Quarry, harbors a hydrothermal chimney with enlarged vugs lined with calcite spar and filled with iron oxyhydroxides poolfingers (goethite-hematite) and manganese oxides (birnessite, todorokite). Deposition of iron and manganese oxides results of the pH-Eh evolution along the hydrothermal chimney. Pigette Cave is a hydrothermal ver-tical maze with calcite lining and small iron oxyhydroxides and manganese oxides mass-es. The hydrothermal weathering of the walls deposited grains of lithiophorite, barite, and celadonite, which could originate from glauconite. Baume Galinière Cave is a small horizontal maze originating from the oxidation of sulfide masses of pyrite. Beside the common byproducts (gypsum, goethite, sulfur), the six members of the jarosite sub-group are present: jarosite, ammoniojarosite, argentojarosite, hydronium jarosite, natro-jarosite, plumbojarosite, together with fibroferrite. In these caves, three minerals are new cave minerals (bismuth, celadonite, argentojarosite); some others have been men-tioned before only in a few caves worldwide (clinochlore, lithiophorite, ammoniojaro-site, hydronium jarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite, fibroferrite). The mineralogene-sis involves different processes: (i) Deposition in mixing zone from species carried by rising deep flow (barite, galena, bismuth, birnessite, todorokite, lithiophorite); (ii) Hy-drothermal weathering of clay minerals contained in host rock or present as clastic sediments (clinochlore, sepiolite, celadonite); (iii) Oxidation of sulfide masses (goethite, cerussite, jarosite subgroup minerals, fibroferrite).


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