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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst window is 1. depression revealing a part of a subterranean river flowing across its floor, or an unroofed part of a cave. 2. a small natural bridge or arch which can be seen through [10]. 3. a through opening in natural limestone walls, formed by the joining of karst grottos as a result of dissolution processes [20]. synonyms: (french.) fenetre karstique; (german.) karstfenster; (greek.) karstikon parathyron; (italian.) finestra carsica; (russian.) karstovoe okno; (spanish.) dolina en ventana; (turkish.) karst penceresi; (yugoslavian.) krsko (krasko) okno.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for paleoclimate (Keyword) returned 88 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 88
Provenance of suspended sediment discharged from a karst aquifer determined by clay mineralogy, 2004, Lynch F. L. , Mahler B. J. , Hauwert N. N.

Paleoclimate records from speleothems in limestone caves, 2004, White W. B.

The Sahara - East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Jerusalem speleothem, 2004, Frumkin, A. , And Stein, M.
This paper explores the potential of Sr and U isotope systems in speleothems as tracers of eolian dust transport and hydrological conditions. The study focuses on a speleothem from Jerusalem spanning the past 220 kyr. This speleothem provides a precisely dated record of dust flux from the Sahara to the East Mediterranean. Enhanced dust flux and Terra Rossa soil development is reflected by elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the speleothem (0.7082-6), while lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (~0.7078) indicate higher contribution of the local bedrock due to low dust flux and low soil accumulation. The strontium isotope system in the speleothem is a robust monitor of the Sahara monsoon-modulated climate, since dust uptake is related to development or reduction in vegetation cover of Sahara soil. The [234U/238U] activity ratios in the speleothem range between 1.12 and 1.0. The high activity values may indicate selective removal of 234U from the soil while the low values converge to the bedrock. The migration of 234U to the cave reflects mainly the regional hydrological conditions that are modulated by the North Atlantic-Mediterranean climate system. Thus, the speleothem provides a combined record of the Monsoon - North Atlantic climatic systems. Long-term stability in glacial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70831 over the past 220 kyr) suggests an overall similarity in eolian dust-sources, and uniformity in the synoptic conditions that dominate the dust storm tracks during glacial periods.

Stable isotope study of cave percolation waters in subtropical Brazil: Implications for paleoclimate inferences from speleothems, 2005, Cruz Fw, Karmann I, Viana O, Burns Sj, Ferrari Ja, Vuille M, Sial An, Moreira Mz,
We analyze the interannual monthly variability of oxygen isotope ratios in data from IAEA stations along the Atlantic coast of South America between 23 degrees and 34 degrees S to evaluate the influence of parameters such as temperature, rainfall amount and moisture source contribution on meteoric water recharging two karst systems in subtropical Brazil. In addition, a 2 year monitoring program performed on soil and cave drip and rimstone pool waters from sampling sites with contrasting discharge values and located at 100 and 300 m below the surface in the Santana Cave System (24 degrees 31' S; 48 degrees 43' W), is used to test the influence of hydrologic and geologic features on the temporal variations of seepage water delta(18)O. Interannual monthly variations in delta(18)O of rainfall reflect primarily regional changes in moisture source contribution related to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation from a more monsoonal regime in summer (negative values of delta(18)O) to a more extratropical regime in winter (positive values of delta(18)O). Variations in groundwater delta(18)O indicate that the climatic signal of recent rainfall events is rapidly transmitted through the relatively deep karst aquifer to the cave drip waters, regardless of location of collection in the cave. In addition, the data also suggest that water replenishment in the system is triggered by the increase in hydraulic head during periods when recharge exceeds the storage capacity of the soil and epikarst reservoirs. Significant perturbations in the groundwater composition, characterized by more positive values of delta(18)O, are probably connected to an increased Atlantic moisture contribution associated with extratropical precipitation. This implies that the delta(18)O of speleothems from caves in this region may be a suitable proxy for studying tropical-extratropical interactions over South America, a feature that is intrinsically related to the global atmospheric circulation. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

SASOWSKY, I. D. & MYLROIE, J. (eds) 2003. Studies of Cave Sediments. Physical and Chemical Records of Paleoclimate.: x? pp. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer. Price Euros 140, US $155, {pound}96 (hard, 2005, Waltham Tony,

Late glacial to Holocene climate and sedimentation history in the NW Black Sea, 2005, Bahr A, Lamy F, Arz H, Kuhlmann H, Wefer G,
Gravity cores from the continental slope in the northwestern Black Sea were studied using high-resolution stable isotope, grain size and XRF-scanning data. The measurements provide a 30 000 years AMS 14C-dated record of variations in the hydrological regime of the Black Sea and give insight into changing paleoenvironments in the surrounding areas. Stable climatic conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum were followed by a series of meltwater pulses most likely originating from the Scandinavian ice sheet between 18 000 and 15 500 yr BP.1 This meltwater input rose the level of the Caspian Sea to a point that Caspian water could spill into the Black Sea via the Manych-depression north of the Caucasian mountains. High-frequency oscillations in the XRF-data during this period suggest a probable link to the arctic climate regime. Later, during the Bolling/Allerod and the early Holocene, prevailing high temperatures led to authigenic calcite precipitation through increased phytoplankton activity, interrupted by the Younger Dryas and the '8200 yr BP cold event' with dominant clastic sedimentation

Book Review: Studies of cave sediments: physical and chemical records of paleoclimate, 2005, Doerr Sh,

Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, 2006, Vaks, A. , Barmatthews, M. , Ayalon, A. , Matthews, A. , Frumkin, A. , Dayan, U. , Halicz, L. , Almogilabin, A. , And Schilman, B.
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th?U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope compositionwere used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type.Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190?150 ka, 76?25 ka, 23?13 ka and interglacials at 200?190 ka, 137?123 ka and 84?77 ka. The dominant rainfall sourcewas the EasternMediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ∼300?350 mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lowerminimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe withmixed C3+C4 vegetation,Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer toMediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150?144 ka, 141?140 ka, 117?96 ka, 92?85 ka, 25?23 ka, and 13 ka?present-day. Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198 ka, 127 ka, 83 ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176 ka, 151 ka, 61 ka and 33 ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105 ka and 11 ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region. Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes byRayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast.

Carbon and oxygen isotope records and paleoclimate reconstruction (140_'250'ka B.P.) from a stalagmite of Shuinan Cave, Guilin, China, 2006, Meiliang Zhang, Hai Cheng, Daoxian Yuan, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yushi Lin, Jiaming Qin, Edwards R. ,

Applications of stalagmite laminae to paleoclimate reconstructions: Comparison with dendrochronology/climatology, 2006, Tan Ming, Baker Andy, Genty Dominique, Smith Claire, Esper Jan, Cai Binggui,
Laminated stalagmites, observed in either ultra-violet or visible light or recognized via trace elements, are now widely recognized as a common deposition form. Annually laminated stalagmites should be expected in caves which have an overlying climate that has a strong seasonality, similar climate zones to where trees grow with distinct annual rings. Continuous laminated stalagmite chronologies (up to several thousand years) should be expected where some mixing of stored water occurs. Such stalagmites can be used to reconstruct climate, particularly through variations in lamina width. Such climate records would be relatively damped by mixing of `event' water with `stored' groundwater, constraining the amount of high-frequency climate signals contained in the stalagmite, but relatively long continuous lamina sequences permit the preservation of low frequency, centennial scale, climate signals. This contrasts with numerous tree ring climate records, which are frequently limited in preserving multi-centennial trends, due to the necessary removal of age related noise from relatively short tree segments. Laminated stalagmites and tree rings should therefore to some degree provide complementary climate information. Appropriate methods for compiling stalagmite layer chronologies and climatologies are presented

New data on the chronology of the Termination II and paleoclimate during MIS 5, based on the study of a stalagmite from Closani Cave (SW Romania)., 2006, Constantin, S. , Lauritzen, S. E. , And Lundberg, J.

Cave sediments and paleoclimate, 2007, White William B.
This paper is a review of cave sediments: their characteristics and their application as paleoclimate archives. Cave sediments can be separated into two broad categories, clastic sediments and chemical sediments. Of these, stream-transported clastic sediments and calcite speleothems are both the most common and also the most useful as climatic records. Techniques for dating cave sediments include radiocarbon and U/Th dating of speleothems and paleomagnetic reversals and cosmogenic isotope dating of clastic sediments. Cosmogenic isotope dating of clastic sediments in caves with multiple levels or which occur at different elevations provide a geomorphic record of cave ages and river system evolution over the past 5 Ma. Isotope profiles, trace element profiles, color banding and luminescence profiles of speleothems, mainly stalagmites, produce a detailed paleoclimate record with very high time resolution over the past several hundred thousand years. There is potential application of these methods to late Holocene climates with implications for evaluation of current concern over global warming.

Climate influence on geochemistry parameters of waters from Santana?Pérolas cave system, Brazil, 2007, Karmann Ivo, Cruz Francisco W. Jr. , Viana Oduvaldo Jr. , Burnsb Stephen J.
A four-year study of water geochemistry and hydrology was performed in a relatively deep cave system (overlying bedrock thickness varies from 100 to 300 m) as part of two monitoring programs, from June 1990 to February 1992 and from March 2000 to March 2002. The pH, saturation index for calcite, Ca and SO4 concentrations, and elemental ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca were measured in surface, well and drip waters throughout the system. Despite local hydrological and geological differences among sampling sites, the monitoring revealed significant synchronous intersite variations in these parameters that are related to seasonal changes in rainfall recharge, suggesting that element ratios of speleothems formed in deep caves are capable of recording short-term climate variations. Groundwater residence time appears to be the main factor affecting the water composition in the epikarst. Epikarstic waters are always undersaturated with respect to calcite but both saturation index (S.I.) and dissolved solids content increase substantially during drier periods because of longer residence times and longer interaction between meteoric water and limestone. By contrast, results from cave drips and rimstone pools indicate constant supersaturation for calcite and demonstrate that a major control on trace element ratios of waters in the deep vadose zone is the degree of prior calcite precipitation. This mechanism is more effective during drier periods when higher Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values are observed in all drip and pool sites. However, variations do occur independently of the general trend of drip discharge, which suggest non-linear features in cave seepage water geochemistry. In addition, synchronous variations in SO4 and Cl concentration indicate high connectivity between different water flow pathways characterized by similar response to interseasonal changes in vadose water level. Fluctuations in trace element ratios of cave streams appear to reflect increased contribution of waters flushed from the vadose fissure aquifer during very wet periods by a piston flow mechanism. Flushing episodes are also responsible for maintaining more positive saturation indices in streams even during periods of high river discharge. Our results suggest that trace elements are a potential proxy for past rainfall changes but they also reveal different scenarios for interpreting trace elements ratios of speleothems and freshwater tufa deposited in a deep cave systems located in tropical humid areas.

Desert speleothems reveal climatic window for African exodus of early modern humans, 2007, Vaks, A. , Barmatthews, M. , Ayalon, A. , Matthews, A. , Halicz, L. And Frumkin, A.
One of the first movements of early modern humans out of Africa occurred 130?100 thousand years ago (ka), when they migrated northward to the Levant region. The climatic conditions that accompanied this migration are still under debate. Using high-precision multicollector?inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) U-Th methods, we dated carbonate cave deposits (speleothems) from the central and southern Negev Desert of Israel, located at the northeastern margin of the Saharan-Arabian Desert. Speleothems grow only when rainwater enters the unsaturated zone, and this study reveals that a major cluster of wet episodes (the last recorded in the area) occurred between 140 and 110 ka. This episodic wet period coincided with increased monsoonal precipitation in the southern parts of the Saharan- Arabian Desert. The disappearance at this time of the desert barrier between central Africa and the Levant, and particularly in the Sinai-Negev land bridge between Africa and Asia, would have created a climatic ?window? for early modern human dispersion to the Levant.

New data on the chronology of the Second Termination and the paleoclimate during MIS 5 based on the study of a stalagmite from Closani Cave (SW Romania), 2007, Blackwell, B. A. B. , Montoya, A. , Blickstein, J. B. , Skinner, A. R. , Pappu, S. , Gunnell, Y. , Taieb, M. , Kumas, A. , And Lundberg, J. ,

Results 46 to 60 of 88
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