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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That exokarst is all features that may be found on a surface karst landscape, ranging in size between tiny karren forms and extensive projes, belong to the exokarst [9]. see also endokarst.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for brazil (Keyword) returned 82 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 61 to 75 of 82
Inscriptions of some historically known persons in Postojnska jama , 2011, Kempe Stephan, Hubrich Hanspeter

Imenski rov (Rov starih podpisov), the Old Cave (Stara jama), was the only part of Postojnska jama known for several centu­ries until 1818 when Luka Čeč discovered the access to the in­ner parts of the cave. Here we documented ca. 400 inscriptions. About 100 more were also recorded in the historic part of Pred­jama Cave. From these signatures we correlated 19 with inde­pendently historically known persons, less than 5% of the total. The correlation is firm for 15 names, but only tentative for Belle­garde, Kotze, Mihanović and Karl von Zur. The oldest one is that of Johann Melchior Ott(o) of 1642, a painter in the service of Johann Anton zu Eggenberg (1610–1649) the owner of the Cas­tle of Adelsberg at the time, whose coat of arms Ott drew as well. The next oldest is the name Josef Anton Nagel 1748 who also left Latin inscriptions in Predjama cave and in Sloup Cavern, Moravia. All other inscriptions of historic persons are younger than 1800 including those of Franz Graf von Hohenwart, Joseph Petsch Ritter von Löwengreif and Alois Schaffenrath (each with several inscriptions). Noteworthy are also the signatures of Josef Franz Eggenhöfner (1801 or 1809, and 1820; developer of Grotta di Padriciano), Johann Natterer (biologist, 1815, who stayed 19 years in Brazil and laid the basis of the zoological department of the Natural History Museum in Vienna), Karl Beyrich (1819, botanist who died during an expedition in Arkansas, 1834), Giuseppe de Volpi (1820, from Trieste who published first evi­dence of the cave bear presence in Postojnska jama), Johann Fercher, mine supervisor, and his team of miners from Idrija who signed during their survey of the cave in 1833, Johann Rit­ter von Hauer (1836 in Pisani rov, Vienna, Imperial Councelor of War and Palaeontologist), Ivan Andrej Perko (the later direc­tor of the cave) and several cave guides. Members of the nobility or state employees include Bellegard, Adrienne Brandis Desenf­fans and her brother Karl Graf Desenffans, Carl von Kotze, and Mihanović.


The Mammalian Fauna of Abismo Iguatemi, Southeastern Brazil, 2011, Castro Mariela C. , Langer Max C.

The Quaternary vertebrate fauna record of South America is characterized by the predominance of mammals, and the study of cave deposits can provide important information on their diversity and distribution. In Brazil, cave deposits have preserved remarkable fossil remains, including both large and small vertebrates, although the former have been the focus of most paleontological works. The fossils studied here came from Abismo Iguatemi, a karstic fissure located in the municipality of Apiaı´, upper Ribeira River valley, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil. Blocks of sediment collected from its floor yielded a large sample of micro-remains, mainly composed of fragmentary small vertebrate specimens. Taphonomic parameters suggest that the fossil elements entered the cave either by entrapment or transported by rain runoff, as partially decayed carcasses or isolated elements. A total of 35 taxa were recorded in Abismo Iguatemi, four of which are extinct. The number of identified specimens per taxon (NISP index) is the best estimator of number of individuals at the burial site. The comparison of this fauna to that of other Quaternary deposits and to the present biodiversity of different areas reveals low similarity. The identification of fossil organisms with different ecological requirements (extinct savannah organisms and extant dense-forest organisms) suggests the existence of time averaging and may reflect environmental changes in the vicinity of the cave during the late Pleistocene and Holocene


Dokumentation von zwei Quarzithhlen am Roraima Tepui (Brasilien, Guyana) , 2011, Plan L. , Hlzel M. , Auler A.
The Gran Sabana extends over the area between the Amazonas and Orinoco River in the northern part of South America. There about hundred table mountains (locally named Tepuis) are rising above the wet savannah plain. One of these, the Roraima Tepui, is situated at the triple border junction of the states of Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela. The plateau is built up of sandstones and quartzites of palaeoproterozoic age (c. 1.9 Billion years). Several caves which have mainly developed due to mechanical erosion of not or just partly lithified sandstone layers have been explored. The aim of a Brazilian Austrian expedition in November 2010 was to visit caves in the southern part of the Roraima Tepui and search for new caves in the less accessible northern part. The Cueva Ojos de Cristal (or Sistema Roraima Sur) was visited. With a mapped length of 16.1 km it is the biggest quartzite cave known in the world. Two caves were mapped, the Hotel Coati and the Lake Gladys Cave, which are the highest lying documented caves of Guyana and Brazil respectively. The Hotel Coati is situated in the north of the Tepui and is a cave often used as a bivouac. It is a shaft, acting as ponor, which is accessible through galleries aligned at rectangularly arranged fissures. North of that cave, in the Guyanese part, the single lake on the plateau, the Lake Gladys is situated at 2665 m a.s.l. There, the Lake Gladys Cave with a total length of 68 m is draining the lake. The entrance lies behind a boulder fall and water disappears into a sump. At the Roraima Tepui there are other not docu - mented objects so far, as the shaft ponor El Fosso (The Pit). Even though no major systems were found during this short expe - dition, the potential of finding further caves in the northern part seems still good.

The first record of external abnormalities in the subterranean Aegla marginata Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aeglidae), from a karst area of Southeastern Brazil, 2011, Camile Fernandes, Rafael Gregati, Maria Bichuette

The occurrence of a morphologically altered individual identifi ed as Aegla marginata is reported in this note. The specimen was found in the subterranean environment, as part of wider bioespeleological study. The observed abnormalities consist mainly of deformities in abdominal epimera, pleopods, telson and uropods, which could results in diffi culties for reproduction and escape from predators. Genetic or nutritional factors related to the scarce food supply observed in the cave environment are admitted as being the most probable cause of the deformities reported here. We emphasize the need of new studies in the area as well as efforts to preserve subterranean environment.


Swimming performance of epigeal and hypogeal species of Characidae, with an emphasis on the troglobiotic Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bhlke, 1965, 2012, Costa Sampaio F. A. , Santos Pompeu P. , De Andrade E Santos H. , Lopes Ferreira R.

Swimming performance of fish constitutes a good ecophysiological tool to evaluate the ability of species to use different types of habitats. In order to understand how the swimming performance is related to the hydraulic environment, we compared the critical velocity of five fish (Characidae): Stygichthys typhlops (groundwater troglobiotic); Piabina argentea and Bryconamericus stramineus (riverine); Hemigrammus marginatus (generalist, found in rivers and floodplains) and Psellogrammus kennedyi (lacustrine). Swimming speed tests were performed in a respirometer-type apparatus. Total body length was the variable that best explained the maximum speed attained by all species under study. The critical swimming speed values (in body lengths per second) for each species were as follows: P. argentea (13.75); B. stramineus (9.32); H. marginatus (6.32); P. kennedyi (4.00); and lower in hypogean species, S. typhlops (3.31). All data of this study suggest a strong correlation between swimming performance and the hydraulic environment in which the species are found. The riverine, generalist and lacustrine species (the troglobiotic being included in the last group) showed a trend toward a decrease in speed.

 


A large Cervidae Holocene accumulation in Eastern Brazil: an example of extreme taphonomical control in a cave environment, 2012, Hubbe Alex, Auler Augusto S.

A remarkable cervid bone accumulation occurs at a single passage (named Cervid Passage; CP) at Lapa Nova, a maze cave in eastern Brazil. CP lies away from cave entrances, is a typical pitfall passage and contains bone remains of at least 121 cervids, besides few bats, peccaries and rodents remains. There is no evidence of water (or sediment) flow at the site and in general bones lack post depositional alterations and display anatomical proximity, suggesting that the majority of the remains found inside CP (mainly cervids) are due to animals that after entering the cave got trapped in the site. Observations suggest that two entrances could have provided access to cervids (and the few other animals, besides bats), either by falling inside the cave or by entering by their own free will. Once inside the cave, the maze pattern would make route finding difficult, and of all passage intersections, only the one leading to CP would result in a non-return situation, starving the animal to death. Radiocarbon dates suggest that animal entrapment occurred during at least 5 thousand years, during the Holocene. The reasons why mainly cervids were found are unknown but they are probably related to the biology of this group coupled with the fact that caves provide several specific taphonomic processes that may account for a strong bias in bone accumulation. Indeed, the frequent occurrence of Cervidae in both the fossil and sub-fossil record in Brazilian caves may be related to an overall high faunal abundance or may suggest that these animals were especially prone to enter caves, perhaps in search of nutrients (as cave saltpetre) or water.


Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation, 2012, Pellegrini T. G. , Ferreira R. L.

Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas) were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.


Transport and consumption of organic detritus in a neotropical limestone cave , 2012, Souzasilva Marconi, Ferreira De Oliveira Bernardi Leopoldo, Parentoni Martins Rogrio, Lopes Ferreira Rodrigo
Caves are permanently aphotic environments, a fact that precludes the occurrence of photosynthetic organisms. In these systems the resource is allochthonous, coming mainly from the surrounding epigean environment, being imported by physical and biological agents. Even knowing about the importance of the organic allochthonous resources in caves, little is known of their importation and processing. The present work had as an objective, the measuring the coarse particulate organic matter processing and import rates in the subterranean environment. The cave studied was Lapa da Fazenda Extrema I, limestone cave, located in Brazilian savanna biome. Through bimonthly collections, it was observed that the organic detritus penetrated into the cave in low amounts in dry season and high amounts in rainy season. The processing of the organic plant matter in the aquatic hypogean environment was moderate (K-day=0.025), in the epigean environment the processing was predominantly slow (K-day =0.0104). The detritus commonly brought to the interior of the cave were large woods (58.18 g/day), followed by leaves and fragmented material (12.76 g/day), fruits and seeds (0.0069 g/day), animal carcasses (0.002 g/day) and roots (0.001 g/day). The highest richness and abundances of invertebrates were found in the same periods in which there were the highest rates of organic matter import to the cave.

Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, Filho William Sallun, Almeida Luis Henrique Sapiensa, Boggiani Paulo Cesar, Karmann Ivo

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, William Sallun Filho, Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida, Paulo Cesar Boggiani, Ivo Karmann

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Caverna Das Mos: An example of dark zone rock art in Brazil, 2012, Travassos Luiz Eduardo Panisset, Rodrigues Bruno Duro, Schwertz Da Motta Acio Rodrigo

The cave environment inf luencing the lipid prof ile and hepatic lipogenesis of the f ish Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), 2013, Bastos V. A. A. , Lopes Ferreira R. , Carvalho D. C. , Pugedo M. L. , De Matos Alves Pinto L.

The metabolism of hypogean organisms is frequently molded by the cave environment traits, especially food scarcity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the inf luence of such environment on lipid composition and hepatic lipogenesis in the f ish Ancistrus cryptophthalmus. For this, the species was compared to an epigean population of the species. A greater accumulation of total lipids was observed in the cave-dwelling f ish (18.36 g/100 g tissue) compared to the surface f ish (14.09 g/100 g tissue). The muscle fatty acid prof ile also varied between the populations. Arachidonic acid was only detected in the epigean f ish, while docosahexaenoic acid was present in the cave f ish. In the lipid prof ile of Ancistrus cryptophthalmus there was a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; Ancistrus sp. showed a predominance of monounsaturated fatty acids. Signif icant differences were also observed in the activities of the hepatic enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. The activities of these two enzymes were greater in the epigean animals. The differences could be related to different food availability observed in the two environments. An ecotone zone was observed, located next to the entrance of the Lapa do Angélica cave (Goiás State, Brazil), where the f ishes showed characteristics that were intermediate between those of hypogean f ishes from deeper within the cave, and the epigean population. It could be concluded that the characteristics of the cave environment signif icantly inf luenced the composition of muscle fatty acids and lipogenesis in the hypogean f ish Ancistrus cryptophthalmus.


Phototactic behaviour of subterranean Copionodontinae Pinna, 1992 catf ishes (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae) from Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia, northeastern Brazil, 2013, Rantin B. , Bichuette M. E.

The phototactic behaviour of three Copionodontinae (Trichomycteridae) catf ish species (two troglobites and one epigean) from Chapada Diamantina was studied in order to detect modif ications related to isolation in the subterranean environment. Differences in response under different luminosities were detected and, unlike other cavef ish, Copionodontinae cave species have shown to be more photophobic than the epigean syntopic to them. The troglobitic Glaphyropoma spinosum is the most photophobic, presenting this behaviour under all light intensities, and more homogeneous regarding morphological characters. It suggests that this population is probably isolated for a longer time in the subterranean environment compared to Copionodon sp. n., the other cave species, which is only photophobic under low light intensities. The indifference to light exhibited by the epigean species C. pecten could be an answer to a recent predation pressure, an ecological aspect, and perhaps this character-state is under f ixation in this population. There are also evidences that the skin has a relevant role in the perception of light for the Copionodontinae species.


Late Quaternary Caviomorph Rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) from Ceara State, Northern Brazil, 2013, De Oliviera P. V. , Ribeiro A. M. , Kerber L. , Lessa G. , Viana M. S.

In this paper we report the first remains of caviomorph rodents from the karst of the Parque Nacional de Ubajara, Ceara´ State, northeastern Brazil, collected with precise stratigraphic and radiometric control. The material is derived from levels with thermoluminescence dating of about 8,000 years BP, corresponding to the early Holocene. In these levels, we found remains of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820, cf. Dasyprocta Illiger, 1811 and Thrichomys Trouessart, 1880. The data here reported contribute to the knowledge of Brazilian Quaternary rodents and show the potential of the studied area for fossils.


Notes on feeding and reproduction of the threatened phreatic fish Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bhlke, 1965 (Characiformes: Characidae) from eastern Brazil, 2013, Simoes Luiza B, Rantin Bianca, Bichuette Maria E

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