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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That grain packing is the spatial arrangement of grains forming porous medium [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for late pleistocene (Keyword) returned 87 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 76 to 87 of 87
Non-invasive assessment of the archaeological potential of cave deposits: the example of Bishopston Valley Caves, Gower, South Wales, 2010, Dinnis Rob, Davies Jesse S. , Chamberlain Andrew T.

The caves of the Gower peninsula are known to contain Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene sedimentary deposits and are therefore of particular interest to Quaternary scientists, including archaeologists specialising in the Palaeolithic period. Such cave deposits should be viewed as a valuable scientific resource. Here we report the findings of an assessment survey of the caves of Bishopston Valley, south-eastern Gower, utilising a methodology for non-invasive survey of caves sites which enables their archaeological potential to be assessed. Several of the caves in the Bishopston Valley contain deposits of potential archaeological importance. These deposits are under threat from human/animal use of the caves, and further investigation of these sites is warranted


Reevaluation of the unusual bovid skull from Lunnaya Cave, Karabi karst plateau, Crimea (SE Ukraine), 2010, Vremir M.

A partial bovid skull, from the karst deposits of Lunnaya Cave (Karabi karst plateau, Crimea) is re-examined. The subfossil find of unknown age, was retrieved by local cavers from Simferopol, and was allocated to the late Pleistocene Eurasian musk-ox: Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780). Most recently, a reexamination of the specimen was possible, and a detailed analysis indicates an appurtenance to the water-buffalo (Bubalus bubalis (Kerr, 1792)), with some morphological disorders caused by Hydrocephalus, an inherited malformation sporadically recorded in extant bovids. However the skull was reported from below a thick flowstone crust, the age of the specimen is not older than 7th to 10th century A.D. (or even younger), when the domesticated form appear in SE Europe including the Crimean peninsula. Probably due to its disease, the animal was killed by a sharp axe-like tool and dropped into the cave. In this respect, late Pleistocene musk-ox finds are still missing from the Crimean theriofauna, their Southern range in the area, being limited to Zhytomyr-Kiev-Chernigov regions in Northern Ukraine.


Determination of the age of relief and denudation rates of the south-west part of the Inner Range of the Mountainous Crimea from karstological and speleological data, 2011, Klimchouk A. B. , Tymokhina E. I. , Amelichev G. M. , Dublyansky Yu. V. , Staubwasser M.

U/Th dating of calcite speleotems of karst cavities in the south-west part of the Inner Range of the Mountainous Crimea permitted to establish age constrains for the period of termination of the hypogenic development of karst systems and for geomorphologic settings corresponding to incipient and mature expression of the Paleocene segment of the range in relief. This also allowed evaluating rates of denudational deepening of the southern longitudinal depression (SLD). It is found that the main elements of the relief in this belt of the fore-mountains had been formed during the second half of Middle Pleistocene, which changes substantially a concept of the age of the relief for the region toward younger values. The rate of denudational deepening of the depression is determined to be 1.36 (0,08) mm/a. For the time intervals of the second half of Middle Pleistocene (250 130 ka) and Late Pleistocene Holocene (last 130 ka) the rates are, respectively, 0.9 and 1.8 mm/a, although determined with much higher error (0,3 mm/a). The increase in the rates of the denudational deepening of the SLD during Late Pleistocene Holocene indicates the respective increase in the uplift rates


The Mammalian Fauna of Abismo Iguatemi, Southeastern Brazil, 2011, Castro Mariela C. , Langer Max C.

The Quaternary vertebrate fauna record of South America is characterized by the predominance of mammals, and the study of cave deposits can provide important information on their diversity and distribution. In Brazil, cave deposits have preserved remarkable fossil remains, including both large and small vertebrates, although the former have been the focus of most paleontological works. The fossils studied here came from Abismo Iguatemi, a karstic fissure located in the municipality of Apiaı´, upper Ribeira River valley, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil. Blocks of sediment collected from its floor yielded a large sample of micro-remains, mainly composed of fragmentary small vertebrate specimens. Taphonomic parameters suggest that the fossil elements entered the cave either by entrapment or transported by rain runoff, as partially decayed carcasses or isolated elements. A total of 35 taxa were recorded in Abismo Iguatemi, four of which are extinct. The number of identified specimens per taxon (NISP index) is the best estimator of number of individuals at the burial site. The comparison of this fauna to that of other Quaternary deposits and to the present biodiversity of different areas reveals low similarity. The identification of fossil organisms with different ecological requirements (extinct savannah organisms and extant dense-forest organisms) suggests the existence of time averaging and may reflect environmental changes in the vicinity of the cave during the late Pleistocene and Holocene


Active tectonics and earthquake destructions in caves of northern and central Switzerland, 2012, Becker Arnfried, Huselmann Philipp, Eikenberg Jost, Gilli Eric

The present publication focuses on the study of caves in northern and central Switzerland in order to detect and date historical earthquakes and active tectonic displacements by investigations of broken and resealed or displaced speleothems datable by U/Th and 14C. While it can be shown that these methods are potentially suitable, the ages obtained are often beyond the range of historically recorded earthquakes, and it cannot be proved that the observed and dated events are related to a seismic event. Particularly this is true for the caves in central Switzerland, where most ages in the Melchsee-Frutt region were beyond the limits of the U/Th method, or of late Pleistocene age in the Siebenhengste-Hohgant region. A direct comparison with known historical (or prehistoric) earthquakes was not possible. In contrast to central Switzerland, the results in the Basle region of northern Switzerland indicates cave and speleothem damages in one cave within the epicentral area of the 1356 Basle earthquake. 14C datings allowed to directly relate the speleothem damages to this M 6.5 earthquake. Further dating results from caves in northern Switzerland on speleothems and organic material in cave deposits supplied ages which indicate older events not related to the historical Basle earthquake. The detection of active fault displacements and prehistoric strong earthquakes can only be achieved by a very careful deciphering of the palaeo-environmental records and many more age determinations which allow to separate active tectonic displacements and seismic events from other events not related to tectonics, i.e. glaciations, creep of sediments, catastrophic floods etc.


Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave in the Crimea, a huge bone accumulation of Late Pleistocene fauna, 2013, Ridush . , Stefaniak K. , Socha P. , Proskurnyak Y. , Marciszak A. , Vremir M. , Nadachowski A.

The Crimean Mountains are well known from the abundance of Middle and Late Palaeolithic sites and palaeontological remains recovered from cultural layers in caves and rockshelters. The fossil-bearing deposits of Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, located at the elevation of 1000 m on the Chatyrdag Plateau, yielded a very diverse and numerous vertebrate remains that widen the knowledge of Late Pleistocene faunal diversity in the Crimea. The assemblage comprised in total almost 50 species of vertebrates. Studies included geomorphological, geological and stratigraphic analyses as well AMS 14C dating. Faunal remains were present in ten palaeontological sites. The main bone accumulation (section Ba2) was deposited during Middle Valdai or Vytachiv (MIS 3) interstadial, and including a long time gap, to the end of the Pleistocene and the Holocene. Comparison of the Emine-Bair-Khosar fauna with vertebrate faunas of other Crimean sites showed a remarkable stability in the faunal composition and frequency during the whole MIS 3 interstadial. Steppe and other open-country species dominated in the compared assemblages, while boreal-tundra species were far less numerous. Inhabitants of forests, including red deer and some rodents, were stable members of fossil assemblages.


Caecidotea insula, A New Species of Subterranean Asellid from Lake Eries South Bass Island, Ohio (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae), 2013, Lewis, J. J.

Three species of obligate subterranean asellids were previously known from Ohio, all assigned to the stygia Group of the genus Caecidotea: C. stygia, C. filicispeluncae, and C. rotunda. Caecidotea insula, n. sp., is described here from two caves on South Bass Island, Ottawa County, Ohio. This island is only 7 km from the Canadian border. The new species is assigned to an assemblage proposed here as the forbesi Group, which includes the epigean species C. forbesi, C. racovitzai, C. attenuata, and C. obtusa. Evidence suggests that C. insula evolved as the result of a groundwater invasion by ancestral C. forbesi during the late Pleistocene.


Ascending speleogenesis in the Czech Republic and Slovakia , 2013, Bosák P. , Bella P.

Several examples of per ascensum (ascending) speleogenesis along deep faults (cf. also were recently described by Bella & Bosák (2012). The concept of ascending speleogenesis in confined or partly confined conditions connected with deep regional fault was proposed, for the first time on the territory of the past Czechoslovakia, by Bosák (1996, 1997) for the origin of the Koněpruské Caves and some other caves in the Koněprusy Devonian (central Bohemia, Czech Republic). Since that time, number of caves with similar speleogenesis has been studied in more of lesser detail. Most of them were originally described as products of phreatic, epiphreatic and vadose speleogenesis related to the evolution of local water courses, valley incision and river terrace systems usually during Middle to Late Pleistocene climatic changes; eventually with Plio-Quaternary climatic oscillations.


ESR and 230h/234U dating of speleothems from Aladaglar Mountain Range (AMR) in Turkey , 2014, Ulusoya Ülkü, Anbara Gül, Bayarıb Serdar, Uysalc Tonguç

Electron spin resonance (ESR) and 230Th/234U ages of speleothem samples collected from karstic caves located around 3000 m elevation in the Aladağlar Mountain Range (AMR), south-central Turkey, were determined in order to provide new insight and information regarding late Pleistocene climate. ESR ages were validated with the 230Th/234U ages of test samples. The ESR ages of 21 different layers of six speleothem samples were found to range mostly between about 59 and 4 ka, which cover the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) MIS 3 to MIS 1. Among all, only six layers appear to have deposited during MIS 8 and 5. Most of the samples dated were deposited during the late glacial stage (MIS 2). It appears that a cooler climate with a perennial and steady recharge was more conducive to speleothem development rather than a warmer climate with seasonal recharge in the AMR during the late Quaternary. This argument supports previous findings that suggest a two -fold increase in last glacial maximum mean precipitation in Turkey with respect to the present value.


BAHAMIAN CAVES AND BLUE HOLES: EXQUISITELY PRESERVED FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGES AND TAPHONOMIC INFLUENCES, 2014, Albury N. A. , Mylroie J. E.

In The Bahamas, caves and blue holes provide clues to the geologic and climatic history of archipelago but are now emerging as windows into the ecological and cultural past of islands. Cave environments in The Bahamas alternate cyclically between vadose and phreatic conditions with sea-level change, thereby providing unique but ephemeral fossil capture and preservation conditions.

A diverse assemblage of fossil plants and animals from Sawmill Sink, an inland blue hole on Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas, has revealed a prehistoric terrestrial ecosystem with exquisitely preserved fossil assemblages that result from an unusual depositional setting. The entrance is situated in the pine forest and opens into a flooded collapse chamber that intersects horizontal conduits at depths to 54 meters. The deepest passages are filled with sea water up to an anoxic mixing zone at depths of 14 to 9 meters and into the upper surface fresh-water layer. The collapse chamber is partially filled with a large talus pile that coincides with an anoxic halocline and direct sunlight for much of the day.

During glacioeustatic sea-level lowstands in the late Pleistocene, Sawmill Sink was a dry cave, providing roosting sites for bats and owls. Accumulations of bones deposited in depths of 25 to 30 meters were subsequently preserved by sea-level rise in the Holocene. The owl roost deposits are dominated by birds but also include numerous small vertebrate species that were actively transported by owls to the roost sites.

As sea levels rose in the Holocene, Sawmill Sink became a traditional passive pitfall trap. Significant quantities of surface derived organic material collected on the upper regions of the talus at the halocline where decaying plant material produced a dense layer of peat within an anoxic mixing zone enriched with hydrogen sulfide. Vertebrate species that drowned were entombed in the peat, where conditions inhibited large scavengers, microbial decomposition, and mechanical disarticulation, contributing to the superb preserva­tion of the fossil assemblage in the upper regions of the talus.


Rockmagnetic and palaeomagnetic studies of unconsolidated sediments of Bukovynka Cave ( Chernivtsi region, Ukraine), 2014, Bondar K. , Ridush B.

Rockmagnetic, palaeomagnetic, and paleontological studies of loamy non-consolidated sediments of the Bukovynka Cave (Chernivtsi region, Ukraine) have been carried out. The sections include three main types of deposits: 1 – fluvial deposits containing travertine grus derived from the karst massif, 2 – fluvial deposits derived from temporary waterflows from outside the cave, 3 – aeolian deposits. Deposits of type 2 and 3 were examined in Sections 1 and 2 in the Trapeznyi Chamber. Their low field magnetic susceptibility (χ) reflects climatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene. The layer with cave hyena bones has higher magnetic susceptibility and appeared to indicate warmer climate. Deposits of type 1 and 2 were investigated in the Section 3 in the Dry Chamber of the cave. Low-field magnetic susceptibility of fluvial deposits, derived from inside of the karst massif, is much higher than for deposits derived from outside the cave. Deposits in Section 3 sharply differ in χ, NRM intensity and Keonigsberger ratio. The fluvial strata of type 1 in Section 3, dated using paleontological remains as Holocene, contains the record of palaeosecular variations of the geomagnetic field. The Etrussia excursion dated 2.8 ka BP was found at 1 m depth in Section 3. The lowest layer has anomalous polarity.
 


Hidden sinkholes and karst cavities in the travertine plateau of a highly-populated geothermal seismic territory (Tivoli, central Italy), 2015,

Sinkholes and other karst structures in settled carbonate lands can be a significant source of hazard for humans and human works. Acque Albule, the study area of this work, is a Plio-Pleistocene basin near Rome, central Italy, superficially filled by a large and thick deposit of late Pleistocene thermogene travertine. Human activities blanket large portions of the flat territory covering most evidence from geological surface processes and potentially inducing scientists and public officials to underestimate some natural hazards including those connected with sinkholes. To contribute to the proper assessment of these hazards, a geomorphologic study of the basin was performed using digital elevation models (DEMs), recent aerial photographs, and field surveys. Historical material such as old aerial photographs and past geomorphologic studies both pre-dating the most part of quarrying and village building was also used together with memories of the elderly population. This preliminary study pointed out the presence of numerous potentially active sinkholes that are at present largely masked by either quarrying or overbuilding. Where this first study pointed out the apparent absence of sinkholes in areas characterized by high density of buildings, a detailed subsurface study was performed using properly-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and dynamic penetration measurements (DPSH), together with some borehole logs made available from the local municipality. This second study highlighted the presence of sinkholes and caves that are, this time, substantially hidden to the resolution of standard methods and materials such as aerial photographs, DEMs, and field surveys. Active sinkhole subsidence in the Acque Albule Basin may explain, at least in part, the frequent damages that affect numerous buildings in the area. The main conclusion from this study is that the mitigation of sinkhole hazard in highly populated areas has to pass through a thorough search of (hidden) sinkholes that can be masked by the Anthropocenic molding and blanketing of the territory. For these purposes, data from historical (pre-Anthropocene) documents as well as, where possible, subsurface investigations are fundamental.


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