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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flood water is water that has overflowed its confines; the water of a flood [1].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for poland (Keyword) returned 110 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 91 to 105 of 110
Correlating specific conductivity with total hardness in limestone and dolomite karst waters, 2006, Krawczyk W. E. , Ford D. C. ,
Under field conditions modern digital conductivity meters give standardized, rapid and reproducible measurements. Here we investigate the accuracy of their estimates of the composition of karst waters, as total hardness (TH, as mg/L CaCO3) for limestone and dolomite. These are the fundamental measures of process in carbonate karst geomorphology. PHREEQC theoretical curves for the dissolution of pure calcite/aragonite and dolomite in water at 25 degrees C are compared with water analyses from karst studies worldwide. Other principal ions encountered are sulphates, nitrates and chlorides (the 'SNC' group). From carbonate karsts, 2309 spring, well and stream samples were divided into uncontaminated (SNC < 10%), moderately contaminated (10 < SNC < 20%), and contaminated (SNC > 20%) classes. Where specific conductivity (SpC) is less than 600 mu S/cm, a clear statistical distinction can be drawn between waters having little contamination and substantially contaminated waters with SNC > 20%. As sometimes claimed in manufacturers' literature, in 'clean' limestone waters TH is close to 1/2SpC, with a standard error of 2-3 mg/L. The slope of the best-fit line for 1949 samples covering all SNC classes where SpC < 600 mu S/cm is 1.86, very close to the 1.88 obtained for clean limestone waters; however, the value of the intercept is ten times higher. The regression line for clean limestone waters where SpC > 600 mu S/cm helps to distinguish polluted waters from clean waters with possible endogenic sources of CO2. In the range 250 < SpC < 600 mu S/cm, dolomite waters can be readily distinguished from limestone waters. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

The beginning, development and termination of the Middle Miocene Badenian salinity crisis in Central Paratethys, 2006, Peryt Tadeusz Marek,
Middle Miocene Badenian evaporites of the Carpathian region are underlain and overlain by deep-water deposits, the onset of evaporite deposition was sudden but not synchronous in all facies zones and the deposition of evaporites was controlled by the evolution of Carpathian orogen. In the Carpathian Foredeep (and most probably in other basins) the Badenian evaporites represent the lower part of the NN6 zone. Halite and associated deposits in the central part of the Badenian evaporite basin show the same facies successions and marker beds can be traced across and between individual basins. Characteristic marker beds made it possible to correlate various facies zones of the marginal Ca-sulfate platform. These marker beds seem to reflect events that may be related to sudden and widespread changes in water chemistry, which in turn imply major changes in basin hydrology. The onset of the evaporitic deposition in the Carpathian Foredeep was clearly diachronous and the evaporites deposited in the basin centre preceded the beginning of evaporite sedimentation in the marginal basin, however, depositional history in the marginal basin and the basin centre was the same. A general transgressive sequence of evaporites found in the Carpathian Foredeep resulted from the migration of facies zones induced by the nappe movement.Isotopic studies of Badenian foraminifers occurring below evaporites suggest that the interrupted communication of the Paratethys with the ocean was a consequence of eustatic sea-level fall, possibly related to climatic cooling, and it was coupled with a tectonic closure of connection with the Tethys. Thus both tectonics and eustacy have contributed to the origin of salinity crisis. Sedimentological and geochemical data indicate recycling of evaporites throughout most of the evaporite deposition. The recycling at the end of gypsum deposition in the marginal sulfate platform was accompanied by a change in the hydrology of the Central Paratethys that was tectonically-driven, and possibly related to the block tectonic phase manifested in the marginal part of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin. The change in hydrology implied the dilution of brines by inflowing marine water and this terminated the Middle Miocene Badenian salinity crisis. The onset of the Badenian salinity crisis shows great similarities to the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis and the terminations of both crises were different

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,

"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Contents:
Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail: atyc@us.edu.pl


INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING BEAR CAVE MASSIF (LOWER SILESIA) LONG-TERM STABILITy, 2008, M?kolski Krzysztof, Caco? Stefan Jamroz, Olgierd, Ko?k Blahoslav & Kacza?ek Miros?aw
Bear Cave under Mt nienik is located near the Lower Silesian Village of Kletno in a wider tectonic fault zone of Sudeten, Klodzko Valley, South Poland. Stability requirements along the visitors path in the cave called for permanent checks of possible rock movements in the massif, while mining operations in the neighbouring marble quarry represented major threat to cave stability. Precise levelling network for vertical movements in the cave and its vicinity was established about 20 years ago. Outside the cave in the Klenica River valley levelling traverses were crossing tectonic faults. Periodical measurements have been repeated since 1984. In the cave two fault zones of major risk have been checked also with TM-71 crack gauges and records have been taken with a month frequency. These two were the tectonic crack zones of the Water Corridor and the main fault structure of the cave found in the Cascade Alley. Fourteen years ago after finding that quarry blasts induced increased movements in the cave, quarry operations were stopped. Recently, gradual subsidence of some levelling bench-marks was observed, as well as some periods of increased micro-displacements on the tectonic crack zones. Such observations are discussed.

Sulphate speleothems in Pomorzany Zn-Pb ore mine, Southern Poland., 2008, Caba?a Jerzy, Bzowska Gra?yna

Caves in gypsum of the Southern Poland and the Western Ukraine - a comparison., 2008, Urban Jan, Andrejchuk Viacheslav, Guba?a Jacek, Kasza Andrzej,

Karst of the Czestochowa Upland and of the Eastern Sudetes : palaeoenvironments and protection, 2009,

Preface

Karst phenomena consist mainly in dissolving of rock by water, with subsequent formation of underground voids. Studies on karst and caves are of extremely nterdisciplinary character; they are within the scope of interest of all the disciplines of earth sciences. Since caves provide permanent habitats or temporary shelter to many organisms including Palaeolithic man, they are of interest to biologists and archaeologists.

Because of its glacial history and geological structure, southern Poland offers a good opportunity to study all the karst-related phenomena. It holds two main, geographically remote karst areas of much different landscape: the Kraków- Częstochowa Upland and the Eastern Sudetes. Their caves are filled with sediments which document various phases of karst development in Poland, including Pleistocene glaciations, as well as changes in palaeoenvironments and faunal evolution. Many contain traces of occupancy by Palaeolithic man; the archaeological record found in some of them extends to modern times. The special significance of caves and karst areas – often the only places where traces of fossil environments and human occupancy are preserved – in Poland was recognised more than 150 years ago. Modern speleological studies in karst areas of Poland started in the 1940s with the wide ranging research of Kazimierz Kowalski - the inventory of caves and review of earlier studies (Kowalski K. 1951 & 1954 – Jaskinie Polski, Vol. 1-3). They triggered comprehensive and interdisciplinary cave studies by representatives of various disciplines. Much progress was made during the last twenty years. Numerous new caves were explored and studied with modern methods; cave sediments containing numerous faunal remains and artifacts were discovered, and earlier information on environmental changes and history of human occupancy could be verified. Despite the long-term and extensive research and exploration, either the studies in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland nor those in the Eastern Sudetes were ever summarised. The data, though abundant, are scattered among many sources, mostly associated with particular scientific disciplines. This volume is an attempt at a comprehensive summary of the information on karst and karst-related phenomena in these two regions.

Since the 1950s many scientists have contributed enormously to the knowledge of various aspects of karst-related phenomena in Poland. Some of these pioneers of interdisciplinary karst studies have departed recently: Waldemar Chmielewski (archaeologist), Jerzy Głazek (geologist, speleologist), Kazimierz Kowalski (pa-laeontologist, speleologist), Stefan Kozłowski (geologist), Marian Pulina (geomorphologist, speleologist) and Teresa Wiszniowska (palaeontologist, speleologist). Thanks to their great passion and commitment, the interest in caves and karst of the Kraków-Częstochowa-Upland and Eastern Sudetes in the last fifty years has considerably increased.



Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins, 2009,

The volume contains papers presented during the International Conference held May 13 through 17, 2009 in Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

The PDF file contains cover, title and contents pages. Download and save this file to your disk and use hyperlinked titles of papers in the content list to download PDF files of individual papers. 

CONTENTS

PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS
Alexander Klimchouk

HYPOGENE CAVE PATTERNS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SPELEOGENESIS: HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

HYPOGENE CAVES IN DEFORMED (FOLD BELT) STRATA: OBSERVATIONS FROM EASTERN AUSTRALIA AND CENTRAL EUROPE
R.A.L. Osborne

IDENTIFYING PALEO WATER-ROCK INTERACTION DURING HYDROTHERMAL KARSTIFICATION: A STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH
Yuri Dublyansky and Christoph Spötl

MICROORGANISMS AS SPELEOGENETIC AGENTS: GEOCHEMICAL DIVERSITY BUT GEOMICROBIAL UNITY
P.J.Boston, M.N. Spilde, D.E. Northup, M.D. Curry, L.A. Melim, and L. Rosales-Lagarde

SIDERITE WEATHERING AS A REACTION CAUSING HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE IBERG/HARZ/GERMANY Stephan Kempe

SIMULATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUTION CONDUITS IN HYPOGENE SETTINGS
C. Rehrl, S. Birk, and A.B. Klimchouk

EVOLUTION OF CAVES IN POROUS LIMESTONE BY MIXING CORROSION: A MODEL APPROACH
Wolfgang Dreybrodt, Douchko Romanov, and Georg Kaufmann

SPELEOGENESIS OF MEDITERRANEAN KARSTS: A MODELLING APPROACH BASED ON REALISTIC FRACTURE NETWORKS
Antoine Lafare, Hervé Jourde, Véronique Leonardi, Séverin Pistre, and Nathalie Dörfliger

GIANT COLLAPSE STRUCTURES FORMED BY HYPOGENIC KARSTIFICATION: THE OBRUKS OF THE CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY
C. Serdar Bayari, N. Nur Ozyurt, and Emrah Pekkans

ON THE ROLE OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN SHAPING THE COASTAL ENDOKARST OF SOUTHERN MALLORCA (WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN)
Joaquín Ginés, Angel Ginés, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Merino and Francesc Gràcia

HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE APENNINES (ITALY)
Sandro Galdenzi

STEGBACHGRABEN, A MINERALIZED HYPOGENE CAVE IN THE GROSSARL VALLEY, AUSTRIA
Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spötl, and Christoph Steinbauer

HYPOGENE CAVES IN AUSTRIA
Lukas Plan, Christoph Spötl, Rudolf Pavuza, Yuri Dublyansky

KRAUSHÖHLE: THE FIRST SULPHURIC ACID CAVE IN THE EASTERN ALPS (STYRIA, AUSTRIA) (Abstract only)
Lukas Plan, Jo De Waele, Philippe Audra, Antonio Rossi, and Christoph Spötl

HYDROTHERMAL ORIGIN OF ZADLAŠKA JAMA, AN ANCIENT ALPINE CAVE IN THE JULIAN ALPS, SLOVENIA
Martin Knez and Tadej Slabe

ACTIVE HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS AND THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS AROUND THE EDGES OF ANTICLINAL RIDGES
Amos Frumkin

SEISMIC-SAG STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN TERTIARY CARBONATE ROCKS BENEATH SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA, USA: EVIDENCE FOR HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS?
Kevin J. Cunningham and Cameron Walker

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE PIEDMONT CRIMEA RANGE
A.B. Klimchouk, E.I. Tymokhina and G.N. Amelichev

STYLES OF HYPOGENE CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN ANCIENT CARBONATE AREAS OVERLYING NON-PERMEABLE ROCKS IN BRAZIL AND THE INFLUENCE OF COMPETING MECHANISMS AND LATER MODIFYING PROCESSES
Augusto S. Auler

MORPHOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE MAIN ORE BODY AT NANISIVIK ZINC/LEAD MINE, BAFFIN ISLAND, CANADA: AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE OF PARAGENETIC DISSOLUTION OF CARBONATE BEDROCKS WITH PENE-CONTEMPORANEOUS PRECIPITATION OF SULFIDES AND GANGUE MINERALS IN A HYPOGENE SETTING
Derek Ford

THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOGENE AND EPIGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE VAZANTE KARST MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL
Cristian Bittencourt, Augusto Sarreiro Auler, José Manoel dos Reis Neto, Vanio de Bessa and Marcus Vinícios Andrade Silva

HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKÓW-CZĘSTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) ? EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF
Andrzej Tyc

EVIDENCE FROM CERNA VALLEY CAVES (SW ROMANIA) FOR SULFURIC ACID SPELEOGENESIS: A MINERALOGICAL AND STABLE ISOTOPE STUDY
Bogdan P. Onac, Jonathan Sumrall, Jonathan Wynn, Tudor Tamas, Veronica Dărmiceanu and Cristina Cizmaş

THE POSSIBILITY OF REVERSE FLOW PIRACY IN CAVES OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN BELT (Abstract only)
Ira D. Sasowsky

KARSTOGENESIS AT THE PRUT RIVER VALLEY (WESTERN UKRAINE, PRUT AREA)
Viacheslav Andreychouk and Bogdan Ridush

ZOLOUSHKA CAVE: HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS OR REVERSE WATER THROUGHFLOW?
V. Eirzhyk (Abstract only)

EPIGENE AND HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE NEOGENE GYPSUM OF THE PONIDZIE AREA (NIECKA NIDZIAŃSKA REGION), POLAND
Jan Urban, Viacheslav Andreychouk, and Andrzej Kasza

PETRALONA CAVE: MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON ITS SPELEOGENESIS
Georgios Lazaridis

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN MAINLAND NORWAY AND SVALBARD?
Stein-Erik Lauritzen

VILLA LUZ PARK CAVES: SPELEOGENESIS BASED ON CURRENT STRATIGRAPHIC AND MORPHOLOGIC EVIDENCE (Abstract only)
Laura Rosales-Lagarde, Penelope J. Boston, Andrew Campbell, and Mike Pullin

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN SAUDI ARABIA (LAYLA LAKE SINKHOLES, AIN HEETH CAVE)
Stephan Kempe, Heiko Dirks, and Ingo Bauer

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN JORDAN (BERGISH/AL-DAHER CAVE, UWAIYED CAVE, BEER AL-MALABEH SINKHOLE)
Stephan Kempe, Ahmad Al-Malabeh, and Horst-Volker Henschel

ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF 2D RESISTIVITY IMAGING TO MAP A DEEP AQUIFER IN CARBONATE ROCKS IN THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGION
Bakhtiar K. Aziz and Ezzaden N. Baban

FEATURES OF GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ORDINSKAYA UNDERWATER CAVE, FORE-URALS, RUSSIA
Pavel Sivinskih

INIAAIIINOE AEIIAAIIIAI NIAEAIAAIACA AI?II-NEEAA?AOIE IAEANOE CAIAAIIAI EAAEACA
A.A.Aao?ooaa

AEOAEIIIA NO?IAIEA AEA?IAAINOA?U: IIAAEU AA?OEEAEUIIE CIIAEUIINOE
A.I. Eaoaaa

?IEU EA?NOA A OI?IE?IAAIEE NIEAIUO AIA E ?ANNIEIA IEAI?ENEIAI AANNAEIA
Aeaenaia? Eiiiiia, Na?aae Aeaenaaa, e Na?aae Nooia


Artesian origin of a cave developed in an isolated horst: a case pf Smocza Jama (Kraków Upland, Poland), 2009, Gradziñ, Ski Michal, Motyka Jacek, Gó, Rny Andrzej

The cave of Smocza Jama located in the centre of Kraków is developed in the Wawel Horst built of Upper Jurassic limestone and surrounded by grabens with Miocene clays. The cave is composed of two series: the old one has been known for ages and the new one was discovered when an artificial shaft was mined in 1974. The new series comprises small chambers separated by intervening thin walls while the old series consists of three connected together spatial chambers. The cave abounds in extensively developed solution cavities – cupolas and ceiling pockets. The internal fine-grained deposits, predominantly representing clay fraction are built of illite, mixed layer illite- smectite, kaolinite and iron oxides. They are probably the residuum after dissolution of Jurassic limestone. The cave originated in phreatic condition due to water input from below. The new series represents juvenile stage of cave evolution. The water rose through fissure-rifts located in chamber bottoms, circulated convectionally within particular chambers, finally led to bleaching of intervening walls, and hence to connection of the neighbouring chambers. The evolution of the old series is far more advanced. The rounded solution cavities imply that the cave was formed by water of elevated temperature. The lack of coarse-grained fluvial deposits, Pleistocene mammal remains and Palaeolithic artefacts prove that the cave was isolated since its inception till Holocene time. The cave originated due to artesian circulation, when the Wawel Horst was covered by impermeable Miocene clays. A foreland basin with carbonate basement, filled with fine-grained molasse-type deposits seems to be particularly favourable for the development of artesian caves.


HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKW-CZESTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF, 2009, Tyc A.

Polygenetic and multiphase karst within Upper Jurassic limestone of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland (South Poland) is characterized by a distinct stage of speleogenesis taking place in conditions of phreatic ascending circulation. This stage (or stages) is evidenced by both cave morphology and surface relief. Morphostratigraphic studies show that the hypogenic ascending features were early forms in the caves and later became integrated into cave systems. Conditions favorable for hypogenic caves development existed during a late Cretaceous-Paleogene phase of speleogenesis when the carbonate massif was covered by low permeability Cretaceous sediments and was subject to intense tectonic Laramian movements. In spite of the significant transformation of caves and their morphology by later vadose, epigenetic speleogenesis and denudation - especially under Pleistocene glacial and periglacial conditions - features of hypogenic ascending circulation are widely observed in the region. Relics of hypogene caves are common in the walls of rock monadnocks in the highest part of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland.


EPIGENE AND HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE NEOGENE GYPSUM OF THE PONIDZIE AREA (NIECKA NIDZIA?SKA REGION), POLAND, 2009, Urban J. , Andreychouk V. , Kasza A.

The Neogene gypsum of the Ponidzie area (SE part of the Niecka Nidzialska region) is in the same evaporite series as the giant hypogenic caves of the Western Ukraine. In spite of this, most of the Ponidzie gypsum caves were formed in later stages of speleogenesis and are epigenic. They differ from the Ukrainian caves in many features, e.g.: size, patterns and karst microforms. The epigenic caves of the Ponidzie are relatively short, horizontal and poorly branched conduits or flat, low chambers, situated close to the water table and related to the surface karst landforms. But a few caves characterized by the occurrence of karst features suggesting deep, hypogenic karsti?cation have been also recognized in this region. The most specific features of these caves are dome-like chambers with oval and lenticular concavities in the ceiling. Thus, although the dominance of epigene karst in Ponidzie is determined by factors such as hydrological properties of rock overlying and underlying the gypsum strata, structural patterns and joint systems in the gypsum itself (which differ from those of the Ukrainian karst region), local specific tectonic-hydrological conditions could also have generated karst during the deep circulation of artesian water in the early phases of the hydrological evolution. The hypogenic caves of Ponidzie occur in the axial part of a narrow syncline and on the downthrow side of a fault, so that the hypogenic karst is most likely connected with water circulation in marls underlying the gypsum and is limited to the deepest tectonic structures, with tectonic discontinuities being the routes for ground water circulation. This hypothesis should be verified by evaluation of larger numbers of hypogenic karst forms, if they can be found.


Rethinking eastern Australian caves, 2010, Osborne, R. A. L.

There are some 300 bodies of cavernous limestone in eastern Australia, extending from Precipitous Bluff in southeastern Tasmania to the Mitchell Palmer region in north Queensland. These impounded karsts, developed in Palaeozoic limestones of the Tasman Fold Belt System, contain many caves. The caves have a suite of features in common that allows them to be thought of as a major group: the Tasmanic Caves. The Tasmanic Caves include multiphase hypogene caves such as Cathedral Cave at Wellington and multiphase, multiprocess caves such as Jenolan with Carboniferous hypogene and younger paragenetic and fluvial elements. Active hypogene caves occur at Wee Jasper and possibly at five other localities. The Tasmanic Caves are one of the most complex suites of caves in folded Palaeozoic limestones in the world. Field techniques developed to study these caves are now being applied to complex caves in central Europe: in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.


THE FIRST DATING OF CAVE ICE FROM THE TATRA MOUNTAINS, POLAND AND ITS IMPLICATION TO PALAEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS, 2010, Hercman H. , Gą, Siorowski M. , Gradziń, Ski M. Kiciń, Ska D.

Lodowa Cave in Ciemniak, which belongs to the dynamic ice cave type, contains the biggest perennial block of cave-ice in the Tatra Mountains. The ice represents congelation type, since it originates from freezing of water which infiltrates the cave. Two generations of ice have been recognized in this cave. They are divided by the distinct unconformity. The ice building both generations is layered. Two moths which were found in the younger generations were sampled and dated by 14C method yielding 195 ± 30 and 125 ± 30 years. Bearing in mind the position in the section and the fact that the cave ice has waned since the 20s of the last century, the age is 1720-1820 AD and 1660-1790 AD respectively. It proves that the ice was formed during the Little Ice Age. Hence, the erosion boundary which underlies this generation records the degradation of ice before the Little Ice Age most probably during the Medieval Warm Period. The ice volume in the cave was substantially smaller before the Little Ice Age than it is today, despite the clear tendency to melting, which has been recognized since 20s of the last century. The older generation of ice is supposed to have its origins in a cold stage between the Atlantic period and the Medieval Warm Period.


Ascending speleogenesis of Sokola Hill: a step towards a speleogenetic model of the Polish Jura, 2011, Gradziń, Ski M. , Hercman H. , Kiciń, Ska D. , Pura D. , Urban J.

The paper deals with the origin of caves in Sokola Hill (Polish Jura). the caves abound in solution cavities in the walls and ceilings, many of them arranged hierarchically, some others arranged in rising sets. blind chimneys and ceiling half-tubes are also present. these features collectively indicate that the caves originated under phreatic conditions by an ascending flow of water, probably of elevated temperature. Phreatic calcite spar, crystallized from water of elevated temperature, lines the cave walls. during the formation of the caves the Jurassic limestone aquifer was confined by impermeable cover. three possible scenarios for the origin of the caves are suggested. the first scenario points to formation of the caves during the Palaeogene prior to the removal of the confining cretaceous marls. the second connects the origin of the caves with regional palaeoflow driven by tectonic loading by carpathian nappes to the south, while the third refers to local topographically driven palaeoflow. both the second and third scenarios assume that the Polish Jura had a cover of Miocene impermeable clastics. All the scenarios account for the origin of the caves in Sokola Hill and explain the common occurrence of ascending caves throughout the Polish Jura.

In the subsequent stages of evolution the caves were partly filled with various deposits. conglomerates composed of Jurassic limestone clasts, quartz sands and sandstones are preserved as erosional remnants, locally covered by or interfingered with calcite flowstones. the clastic deposits were laid down by surface streams that invaded the caves earlier than 1.2 Ma. the caves were not invaded by water from Pleistocene glaciers, which is proved by the assemblage of heavy minerals in the cave clastics.


Fungi isolated from Niedźwiedzia Cave in Kletno (Lower Silesia, Poland), 2013, Ogrek Rafal, Lejman Agnieszka, Matkowski Krzysztof

Niedźwiedzia Cave is the most beautiful cave in Poland, discovered in a block of Cambrian marbles. It is the most important part of the reserve established in 1977. The cave is located within the Kłodzko Valley, in Śnieżnik Mt. Massif, in Kleśnica Stream Valley and was discovered in 1966 while working in a quarry. The study aimed at first mycological evaluation of the air and the rocks in Niedźwiedzia Cave. Nine species of filamentous fungi and a yeast species were isolated from the air sampled in the cave, whereas from the rocks - nine species of filamentous fungi and two species of yeasts were collected. Rhizopus stolonifer was the species most frequently isolated from the air and from the rocks, while the least isolated from the air was Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Among the species found in the rock, the least frequently collected were Fusarium oxysporum and the yeast Rhodotorula rubra.


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