MWH Global

Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water-balance is an instrument designed to measure evaporation by gravimetry [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for runoff (Keyword) returned 113 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 106 to 113 of 113
Hydrogeology of Karst Aquifers, 2012, White, William B.

Karst aquifers are those in which caves or conduits form an important part of the flow path. Conduit permeability ranges from pipe-like openings greater than one centimeter in aperture to caves many meters in aperture. Recharge to karst aquifers comes from sinking streams, from dispersed infiltration through the epikarst, to storm runoff and into sinkholes. Discharge from karst aquifers is through large springs. Spring discharge tends to respond rapidly to storm flow. Groundwater moves through conduits in turbulent flow and typically carries a sediment load during storm runoff.


Delineating Protection Areas for Caves Using Contamination Vulnerability Mapping Techniques: The Case of Herreras Cave, Asturias, Spain, 2012, Marn A. I. , Andrea B. , Jimnezsnchez M. , Dominguezcuesta M. J. , Melndezasensio

 

Diverse approaches are adopted for cave protection. One approach is delineating protection areas with regard to their vulnerability to contamination. This paper reports the main results obtained from the delineation of a protection zone for Herrerı´as Cave, declared of Cultural Interest by the Asturias Regional Government, based on assessing its vulnerability to contamination. The cave is situated in a complex karst hydrogeologic environment in which groundwater flows from southwest to northeast, following the bedrock structure. A stream flows inside the cave, emerging in a spring located to the northeast of the system. Karst recharge occurs by direct infiltration of rainfall over limestone outcrops, concentrated infiltration of surface runoff in the watershed draining the cave, and deferred infiltration of water from alluvial beds drained by influent streams. The soil and vegetation covers are natural in the majority of the test site, but land uses in the watershed, including scattered farming, stock breeding, quarrying, and tourist use, are changing the natural characteristics and increasing the cave’s vulnerability to contamination. The procedure followed for delineating protection zones is based on the method COP+K that is specifically designed for vulnerability mapping of groundwater springs in carbonate aquifers. To cover the hydrological basin included in the cave’s catchment area, the protection zones established includes two different areas, the hydrogeological catchment basin and adjacent land that contributes runoff. Different degrees of protection in the zones have been proposed to make human activity compatible with conservation of the cave, and our results show remarkable differences from the protection zone previously proposed for the same area.


Environmental Hydrogeological Study of Louros watershed, Epirus, Greece, 2012, Konstantina Katsanou

The present study aims to describe and characterize the Ionian zone karst formation concerning the karstification grade of carbonate formations and the development of aquifers, through the hydrogeological study of Louros River drainage basin, considering hydrological, hydrogeological and meteorological data, as well as major, trace element, rare earth element and isotope concentrations. It also aims to investigate basic karst properties such as storativity, homogeneity, infiltration coefficients and the parameters of the Louros basin hydrological balance.

To accomplish this aim daily discharge measurements obtained from Public Power Corporation at the Pantanassa station during the years 1956-1957, along with random discharge measurements from 15 springs along the basin performed by IGME between the years 1979-1989, daily meteorological data from 18 stations and 18 sets of potentiometric surface measurements from 38 sites were compiled. Additionally, chemical analyses on major and trace element concentrations of 42 rock samples and of five sets of water samples from 64 sampling sites, along with fourteen sets of successive periods in order to study the seasonal variation in the chemical composition of 11 springs and REE concentrations of 116 water samples. Moreover isotope ratios from 129 rain samples collected at five different altitudes, 331 samples of surface and groundwater samples, radon measurements on 21 groundwater samples and microbiological on 46 samples of surface and groundwater were evaluated. Daily runoff and random spring discharge missing data were completed applying the SAC-SMA and MODKARST simulation algorithms and the values of these parameters for the duration of the research (2008-2010) were predicted. The accuracy of the predicted values was tested applying statistical methods but also against observed values from in situ measurements performed during the same period (2008-2010).

Louros River drainage basin is located at the southern part of Epirus and covers an area of 953 km2. It is elongated and together with the adjacent basin of River Arachthos they constitute the major hydrographic systems discharging in the Amvrakikos Gulf. The main morphological features of the basin are elongated mountain ranges and narrow valleys, which are the result of tectonic and other geological processes mainly controlled by the limestone-“flysch” alternations. The length of the river’s major channel, which is parallel to the major folding direction (NNW-SSE), is 73.5 km. The mountainous part of the hydrogeological basin covers an area of 400 km2 and its endpoint was set at the Pantanassa station, where discharge measurements are performed. The underground limits of the basin coincides with the surface one, defined by the flysch outcrops at the western margin of the Ziros-Zalongo fault zone to the South, the application of isotope determinations and hydraulic load distribution maps at the North and East.

Geologically, Louros River drainage basin is composed of the Ionian zone formations. Triassic evaporites constitute the base of the zone overlain by a thick sequence of carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks deposited from the Late Triassic to the Upper Eocene. In more detail, from base to top, the lithostratigraphical column of the zone includes dolomite and dolomitic limestone, Pantokrator limestone, Ammonitico Rosso, Posidonia Shales, Vigla limestone, Upper Senonian limestone, Palaeocene-Eocene limestone and Oligocene “flysch”. The major tectonic features of the regions are folds with their axes trending SW-NE at the northern part and NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW southern of the Mousiotitsa-Episkopiko-Petrovouni fault system and the strike-slip fault systems of Ziros and Petousi.

The evaluation of the daily meteorological data revealed that December is the most humid month of the year followed by January, whereas July and August are the driest months. Approximately 40-45% of the annual precipitation is distributed during the winter time and 30% during autumn. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 897.4 to 2051.8 mm and the precipitation altitude relationship suggests an increased precipitation with altitude at a rate of 84 mm/100 m. The maximum temperature is recorded during August and it may reach 40°C and the minimum during January. The temperature variation with the altitude is calculated at 0.61°C/100 m. The maximum solarity time is 377.8 h, recorded during July at the Arta station. December displays the highest relative humidity with a value of 84.2% recorded again at the Arta station. The highest wind velocity values are recorded at the Preveza station and similar velocities are also recorded at the Ioannina station. The real evapotranspiration in Louros drainage basin ranges between 27-39%. The potential evapotranspiration was calculated from the Ioannina station meteorological data, which are considered more representative for Louros basin, at 785.8 mm of precipitation according to Thornthwaite and at 722.0 mm according to Penman-Monteith.

According to the SAC-SMA algorithm the total discharge (surficial and underground) for the years 2008-2010 ranges between 61-73% of the total precipitation. The algorithm simulates the vertical percolation of rainwater in both unsaturated and saturated zones taking into account 15 parameters including the tension water capacity of the unsaturated zone, the maximum water storage capacity of both unsaturated and saturated zones, the water amount escaping into deeper horizons and not recorded at the basin’s outlet, the percentage of impermeable ground which is responsible for instant runoff, etc. These parameters are correlated to the hydrograph and are recalculated according to it. Two interesting aspects were pointed out from the discharge measurements and the algorithm application. The first is related to the maximum amount of free water, which can be stored at the basic flow of the karstic system, which is very high for the whole basin, reaching 1200 mm of precipitation and the second is the amount of water filtered to the deeper horizons, which reaches 0.098.

The discharge of individual karstic units was simulated applying the specialized MODKARST code. The code, which transforms precipitation to discharge resolving mathematical equations of non-linear flow using the mass and energy balance, successfully completed the time series of available data of spring discharge measurements for the period between the years 2008-2010.

Additionally, a number of useful parameters including spring recharge, delay period between precipitation and discharge, the storage capacity of the discharge area were also calculated by the MODKARST code. These data enabled the calculation of the annual infiltration coefficient for each one of the 15 springs and for the whole basin; the latter was found to range between 38-50% of annual precipitation. The total supply area was estimated approximately at 395 km2, which is consistent with the area of Louros hydrogeological basin calculated from hydrogeological data.

The 18 sets of water table measurements, each one corresponding to a different period, revealed that the aquifers of the intermediate part of Louros basin, which are developed in Quaternary alluvial sediments, are laterally connected to the carbonate formations of the individual karstic spring units, forming a common aquifer with a common water table.

Groundwater flow follows a general N-S direction from the topographic highs to the coastal area with local minor shifts to NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The artificial lake at the position of the Public Power Corporation’s Dam at the south of the region is directly connected to the aquifer and plays an important role in water-level variation. The water table contours display a higher gradient to the southern part due to the decreased hydraulic conductivity of the limestones close to Agios Georgios village. The decreased hydraulic conductivity is believed to be the reason for the development of the homonymous spring although the hydraulic load distributions suggest the extension of the aquifer to the south and a relation to the water level in Ziros Lake, boreholes and the Priala springs. The hydraulic gradient in the broader region ranges between 4-16‰. The absolute water level variation between dry and humid season ranges from 2 m at the South to 15-20 m to the North with an average of 9 m.

The hydrological balance of Louros River mountainous basin according to the aforementioned data is calculated as follows: The total precipitation between the years 2008-2010 ranged between 5.67E+08-9.8E+08 m3 and the discharge at Pantanassa site between 3.47E+08-6.83E+08 m3. The real evapotransiration ranged between 29-39% of the precipitation. The total discharge (runoff and groundwater) accounted for 61-73% of the precipitation, whereas the basic flow due to the percolation ranged between 34-38%. Considering a mean water level variation of 9 m, between the dry and humid season, the water amount constituting the local storage is 2025Ε+07 m3.

Statistical evaluation on spring discharge data and the recession curves analysis revealed three distinct levels with diverse karstic weathering along Louros basin coinciding to the upper, intermediate and low flow of Louros River, respectively. The developed karstic units are generally complex but simple individual units develop as well. The response of spring discharge to the stored water amounts is immediate but with relatively large duration suggesting the storage of large quantities of water and a well-developed system of karstic conduits, which however has not yet met its complete evolution. The karst spring’s units are homogeneous and each one is distinguished from different recession coefficients.

The three levels of flow are also distinguished from the duration curves, which point to individual units upstream, complex units receiving and transmitting water to the adjacent ones in the middle part and complex that only receive water from the upper. This distinguishment is also enhanced by the groundwater’s major ion concentrations, which reveal Ca-HCO3 water-type upstream, along with the isotopic composition at the same part. The prevalent Ca-HCO3-Cl-SO4 water-type in the middle part, the Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water-type downstream and isotope variation confirms this distinguishment. Moreover, REE variation is also consistent with the three levels. The assumption of relatively large stored water reserves, which contribute to analogous “memory” of spring karstic units, as pointed out by autocorreletion functions is enhanced from SAC-SMA algorithm which premises an increased capacity at the lower zone of basic flow, as well as from the hydrochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Monitoring of the seasonal variation in groundwater composition revealed minor variations of hydrochemical parameters and remarkably stable isotopic composition. Both aspects can be explained by the existence of a considerable water body acting as a retarder to external changes.

The crosscorrelation functions suggest a well-developed karstic system, which however has not yet reached its complete maturity also confirmed from field observations. The same conclusion is extracted from the homogeneous evolution at the interval of each karstic unit as demonstrated from recession curves on spring hydrographs.

The results from hydrochemical analyses also revealed the effect of evaporitic minerals and phosphate-rich rocks in groundwater composition and confirmed the hydraulic relationships between surface and groundwater.

The study of the isotopic composition also contributed to exclude the potential connection between the Ioannina and Louros basins, confirmed the meteoric origin of groundwater and revealed the effect of seawater in the chemical composition of few sampling sites.

The microbiological research only revealed minor incidents of contamination and significant attenuation of microorganisms during periods of high discharge.


Denudation and Erosion Rates in Karst, 2013, Gunn, J.

In many lithologies erosion (removal of material) and denudation (lowering of the land surface) are directly related butthis is not the case in karst where the majority of erosion is subsurface and only contributes to denudation over geological time. Dissolution is the dominant agent of both denudation and erosion although mechanical weathering of karst rock by clasts brought in by allogenic streams may contribute to the enlargement of cave passages. Most published ‘denudation’rates are actually corrosion rates and many were based on at most a few years of spot measurements at a spring or at a catchment outlet. Hence, considerable caution is necessary in interpreting the results. Cosmogenic nuclides could provide loner-term denudation estimates but have only rarely been applied to karst. Theoretical equations allow prediction of maximum erosion rates from runoff (water surplus), temperature, and carbon dioxide concentrations but field measurements indicate that erosion rarely operates at the maximal rate. Erosion rates vary spatially, with dolines a clear focus, and vertically, with most dissolution contributing to development of the epikarst rather than direct lowering of the land surface. Human activities, and particularly limestone quarrying, are potent erosive forces and in some areas more limestone was removed by quarrying in the twentieth century than by corrosion over the Holocene. Quarrying is also a direct agent of denudation, locally lowering land surface by tens or hundreds of meters


Salt Karst, 2013, Frumkin, A.

Halite is the most soluble common mineral. Salt karst is concerned with extremely soluble and erodible rock-salt geomorphology, which demonstrates a dynamic end member to karst processes. Salt outcrops are rare, due to the high solubility, and common total dissolution underground, but subsurface salt is common, and commonly associated with environmental problems. These are associated with salt hazards, generally due to anthropogenic modification of hydrological systems, causing aggressive water to attack salt rock. Most salt outcrops appear under desert conditions, where the salt mass escapes total dissolution. In such outcrops, runoff produces well-developed karst terrains, with features including karren, sinkholes, and vadose caves. Existing salt relief is probably not older than Pliocene, but the known well-developed


COMPLEX EPIKARST HYDROLOGEOLOGY AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN A SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY KARST LANDSCAPE, 2013, Polk J. S. , Vanderhoff S. , Groves C. , Miller B. , Bolster C.

 

The movement of autogenic recharge through the shallow epikarstic zone in soil-mantled karst aquifers is important in understanding recharge areas and rates, storage, and contaminant transport processes. The groundwater in agricultural karst areas, such as Kentucky’s Pennyroyal Plateau, which is characterized by shallow epikarst and deeper conduits flow, is susceptible to contamination from organic soil amendments and pesticides. To understand the storage and flow of autogenic recharge and its effects on contaminant transport on water flowing to a single epikarst drain in Crump’s Cave on Kentucky’s Mississippian Plateau, we employed several techniques to characterize the nature and hydrogeology of the system. During 2010–2012, water samples and geochemical data were collected every four hours before, during, and between storm events from a waterfall in Crumps Cave to track the transport and residence time of epikarst water and organic soil amendments during variable flow conditions. Geochemical data consisting of pH, specific conductivity, temperature, and discharge were collected continuously at 10-minute intervals, along with rainfall amounts. In addition, stable isotope data from rainfall, soil water, and epikarst water were collected weekly and during storm events to examine storage and recharge behavior of the system. The changes in geochemistry indicate simultaneous storage and transport of meteoric water through epikarst pathways into the cave, with rapid transport of bacteria occurring through the conduits that bypass storage. The isotopic data indicate that recharge is rapidly homogenized in the epikarst, with storage varying throughout the year based on meteorological conditions. Results indicate current best management practices in agricultural karst areas need to be revisited to incorporate areas that do not have surface runoff, but where contaminants are transported by seepage into local aquifers.


Spring discharge records – a case study, 2013, Wicks, Carol M.

Spring discharge records integrate of all the processes and the reactions occurring within a karst basin. A brief summary of the use of discharge records as a means to constrain the internal structure of karst basins, as means to constrain rainfallrunoff models for karst basin, and as a means to determine the value of hydrodynamic parameters of karst basins is presented. Data collected from Devils Icebox, a karst basin spring in Missouri, USA, were used to assess these approaches to characterizing karst basins. For Devils Icebox, most of the discharge responses do not record information about the internal structure of the basin rather the responses record information about the recharge to the basin. A rainfall-runoff model failed to reproduce the data from which model parameters were derived and has little utility in a predictive mode. Use of conservation of mass equations as a means to derive hydrodynamic parameters is a useful approach, although critical data are lacking. More generally, karst hydrologists need quantitative tracer data and long-term, high-resolution temporal data of the input(s) to and the output(s) from karst basins.


Caractérisation et modélisation hydrodynamique des karsts par réseaux de neurones. Application à l’hydrosystème du Lez , 2014, Virgile, Taver

Improving knowledge of karst hydrodynamics represents a global challenge for water resources because karst aquifers provide approximately 25% of the world population in fresh water. Nevertheless, complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, non-linearity and possible non-stationarity of these aquifers make them underexploited objects due to the difficulty to characterize their morphology and hydrodynamics. In this context, the systemic paradigm proposes others methods by studying these hydrosystems through input-output (rainfall-runoff) relations.

The approach proposed in this thesis is to use information from field measurement and from systemic analyses to constrain neural network models. The goal is to make these models interpretable in terms of hydrodynamic processes by making model functioning to be similar to natural system in order to obtain a good representation and extract knowledge from model parameters.

This work covers the association of information available on the hydrosystem with correlation and spectral analyses to develop a temporal multiresolution decomposition of variables and to constrain neural network models. A new method for variable selection, adapted to represent long term hydrodynamics of the system, has been proposed. These constrained models show very good results and allow, through their parameters, to study the temporal contribution of inputs variables to the output.

Modeling nonlinear and non-stationary hydrosystems with neural network has been improved by a novel implementation of data assimilation. More precisely, when non-stationarity is attributed to the catchment, data assimilation is used to modify the model parameters. When the inputs are non-stationary, data assimilation can be used to modify the inputs.

The modification of inputs opens considerable scope to: i) fill gaps or homogenizing time series, ii) estimate effective rainfall.

Finally, these various analyses and modeling methods, mainly developed on the karst hydrosystem Lez, can improve the knowledge of the rainfall-runoff relationship at different time scales. These methodological tools thus offer perspectives of better management of the aquifer in terms of floods and resources. The advantage of these analyses and modeling tools is that they can be applicable to other systems.


Results 106 to 113 of 113
You probably didn't submit anything to search for