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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That twilight zone is the area of a cave where light penetrating through the entrance is sufficient to permit human vision [23]. see also zonation.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for asia (Keyword) returned 115 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 106 to 115 of 115
Groundwater in the Arab Middle East , 2012,
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Wagner, Wolfgang

The region covering the Arabian Peninsula and the adjoining northern Arabian countries coincides approximately with a specific large geologic struCture: the Arabian Plate. Politically the region includes the countries of the Arabian Peninsula together with the northern Arab countries: AI Mashreq - the eastern part of the caliphate or of the Arab World. In a geographic political view the region may be denominated Arab Middle East (Ash Sharq al Awsat) or Western Asia.
The Arab Middle East with an area of 3.7 million lan2 forms a small subcontinent between the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, the Gulf and, in the north, the Zagros-Taurus mountain chains. About 90% of the region are semiarid to arid steppe or desert areas. As perennial rivers exist only in the northern and western margins of the Arab Middle East, the use of groundwater resources is an essential basis for the economic development and survival of the countries. The
region includes 12 Arab countries; water demand/supply previews indicaTe precarious siruations in the near future for mosu of these countries.
The idea ci compiling a book on "Groundwater in the Arab Middle East" arose from the professional activities of the author as hydrogeologist in the services of the German Government between 1965 and 1998, much of which was devoted to groundwater projectS in the Middle East. The information presented in the book is based on reviews of a large number of publications, reportS and documents as well as on field experience in various Arab countries.
The groundwater projects in the Middle East, in which the author had the
chance to panicipate, were carried out in the framework of Technical Cooperation between national or international institutions of the region and the Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR, Hannover, partly in connection with activities of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, GTZ, Eschbom. The projects were sponsored by the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Bonn. Regional information on groundwater conditions in the Middle East were obtained, in panicular, through long-term assigrunents of  the author to international institutions: The Arab Centre for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands of the Arab League (ACSAD), Damascus, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Amman and Beirut. 


The climatic cyclicity in semiarid-arid central Asia over the past 500,000 years, 2012,
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Cheng H. , Zhang P. Z. , Sptl C. , Edwards R. L. , Cai Y. J. , Zhang D. Z. , Sang W. C. , Tan M. , An Z. S.

Central Asia is currently a semiarid-arid region, dominated by the Westerlies. It is important to understand mechanisms of climate and precipitation changes here, as water availability in the region is crucial today and in the future. High-resolution, absolutely-dated oxygen isotope (d18O) records of stalagmites from Kesang Cave characterize a dynamic precipitation history over most of the past 500,000 years. This record demonstrates, for the first time, that climate change in the region exhibits a processional rhythm with abrupt inceptions of low d18O speleothem growth at times of high Northern Hemisphere summer insolation followed by gradual d18O increases that track decreases of insolation. These observations and interpretations contrast with the interpretation of nearby, but higher elevation ice core records. The absolutely-dated cave d18O shifts can be used to correlate the regional climate variability by providing chronological marks. Combined with other paleoclimate records, the Kesang observations suggest that possible incursions of Asian summer monsoon rainfall or related moisture into the Kesang site and/or adjacent areas during the high insolation times may play an important role in changing orbital-scale hydrology of the region. based on our record, arid climate will prevail in this region for the next several millennia, providing that anthropogenic effects do not supersede natural processes.


OBSERVATIONS OF PLIOCENE KARSTS FOSSILIZED BY QUATERNARY EOLIAN SILTS IN THE MATMATA MOUNTAINS (SOUTH-EAST TUNISIA), 2012,
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Sghari, Abdeljalil

The submeridional Dahar chain in southeastern Tunisia is over 200 km long. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Jeffara plain with some tens of kilometers in width. This landscape continues to the South into Libya, but to the North, the chain ends with the Matmata mountains which form a plateau slightly inclined to the west and some 10 km wide. The eastern scarp shows a mainly calcareous geological stratigraphy from Upper Permian to the Senonian. The Dahar-Matmata structure belongs to the Sahara platform and shows a hiatus during the whole Tertiary, since it was emerged since Upper Cretaceous. The Tunisian Atlas nearby shows a completely different paleogeographic evolution, with a complete Tertiary series and a later Plio-Quaternary structuration. These two paleogeographic domains of Southern Tunisia, the Sahara Atlas and the NE border of the Sahara platform, were influenced by the Messinian crisis (5.9 Ma to 5.3 Ma). This was expressed by the collapse of the Mediterranean Sea level, profoundly modifying the fluvial dynamics with an inversion of the erosional system, from normal erosion to regressive erosion. It results a deepening of canyons in the downstream part and a deepening of the watercourses in the upstream part. The geological structures in the Messinian have been deeply affected by these large eustatic changes, with an incision of cluses in the Atlas and the deposition of a thick clayeysandy series that we could recently link to deltaic systems and Gilbert deltas. The re-establishment of seaways between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and the subsequent infill in the Lower Pliocene (Zanclean transgression), with an important inpact in Southern Tunisia, had multiple consequences in that region. The newly adjusted sealevel, together with a more humid climate that was confirmed by faunal and floral extension oof tropical plants in Northern Africa, stimulated an important karstification of the limestone areas. In the Dahar chain, caves, dolines, karstic depressions or karstic dry valleys emerged, the most spectacular ones being found in the Matmata Mountains. The karstic depressions are the forms that represent best this Pliocene karstification that surely was interrupted in an early stage, because localized endokarstic forms had not enough time to develop. So the karstification seems to have been active in Matmata from 5.4 to 4.0 million years, i.e. two times as long than the duration of the Messinian crisis. The interruption of karstification is due to an increase in temperature and dryness, which even gets more intense during the Pliocene, pulverizing the soils. Already at the beginning of the desertification, a calcareous crust forms by rapid cristallization of dirt. It is immediately transported from the karstic zones to the Jeffara plain. This transfer fo dissolved calcite was the origin of the resistant calcitic crust well known in the Jeffara plain. We now identified the same crust in a karstic depression in the Matmata Mountains, opening the way to new geomorphologic and tectonic interpretations, and a review of the eolian silts formerly attributed to the Upper Pleistocene. Later, during Upper Pliocene-Gelasian, we observe a general tectonic uplift of the Dahar chain and the Matmata Mountains as well as the subsidence of the Jeffara plain at the Medenine fault (NW-SE), prolonging the large Gafsa fault towards the East. The karstic paleoforms were thus uplifted more than 500 m, but nevertheless remain open on the Jeffara plain, as seen by large depressions. As a consequence, the karstic depressions of Matmata played the role of traps for eolian silts blown from the Jeffara plain during the extreme desertification in the Upper Pliocene-Gelasian. The morphological reconstruction since the Messinian shows a succession of important events during the Pliocene that profoundly influenced the Quaternary. All indications permit to reject the hypothesis that the Matmata silts came from the West (Eastern Erg).

 


OBSERVATIONS OF PLIOCENE KARSTS FOSSILIZED BY QUATERNARY EOLIAN SILTS IN THE MATMATA MOUNTAINS (SOUTH-EAST TUNISIA), 2012,
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Sghari, Abdeljalil

The submeridional Dahar chain in southeastern Tunisia is over 200 km long. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Jeffara plain with some tens of kilometers in width. This landscape continues to the South into Libya, but to the North, the chain ends with the Matmata mountains which form a plateau slightly inclined to the west and some 10 km wide. The eastern scarp shows a mainly calcareous geological stratigraphy from Upper Permian to the Senonian. The Dahar-Matmata structure belongs to the Sahara platform and shows a hiatus during the whole Tertiary, since it was emerged since Upper Cretaceous. The Tunisian Atlas nearby shows a completely different paleogeographic evolution, with a complete Tertiary series and a later Plio-Quaternary structuration. These two paleogeographic domains of Southern Tunisia, the Sahara Atlas and the NE border of the Sahara platform, were influenced by the Messinian crisis (5.9 Ma to 5.3 Ma). This was expressed by the collapse of the Mediterranean Sea level, profoundly modifying the fluvial dynamics with an inversion of the erosional system, from normal erosion to regressive erosion. It results a deepening of canyons in the downstream part and a deepening of the watercourses in the upstream part. The geological structures in the Messinian have been deeply affected by these large eustatic changes, with an incision of cluses in the Atlas and the deposition of a thick clayeysandy series that we could recently link to deltaic systems and Gilbert deltas. The re-establishment of seaways between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and the subsequent infill in the Lower Pliocene (Zanclean transgression), with an important inpact in Southern Tunisia, had multiple consequences in that region. The newly adjusted sealevel, together with a more humid climate that was confirmed by faunal and floral extension oof tropical plants in Northern Africa, stimulated an important karstification of the limestone areas. In the Dahar chain, caves, dolines, karstic depressions or karstic dry valleys emerged, the most spectacular ones being found in the Matmata Mountains. The karstic depressions are the forms that represent best this Pliocene karstification that surely was interrupted in an early stage, because localized endokarstic forms had not enough time to develop. So the karstification seems to have been active in Matmata from 5.4 to 4.0 million years, i.e. two times as long than the duration of the Messinian crisis. The interruption of karstification is due to an increase in temperature and dryness, which even gets more intense during the Pliocene, pulverizing the soils. Already at the beginning of the desertification, a calcareous crust forms by rapid cristallization of dirt. It is immediately transported from the karstic zones to the Jeffara plain. This transfer fo dissolved calcite was the origin of the resistant calcitic crust well known in the Jeffara plain. We now identified the same crust in a karstic depression in the Matmata Mountains, opening the way to new geomorphologic and tectonic interpretations, and a review of the eolian silts formerly attributed to the Upper Pleistocene. Later, during Upper Pliocene-Gelasian, we observe a general tectonic uplift of the Dahar chain and the Matmata Mountains as well as the subsidence of the Jeffara plain at the Medenine fault (NW-SE), prolonging the large Gafsa fault towards the East. The karstic paleoforms were thus uplifted more than 500 m, but nevertheless remain open on the Jeffara plain, as seen by large depressions. As a consequence, the karstic depressions of Matmata played the role of traps for eolian silts blown from the Jeffara plain during the extreme desertification in the Upper Pliocene-Gelasian. The morphological reconstruction since the Messinian shows a succession of important events during the Pliocene that profoundly influenced the Quaternary. All indications permit to reject the hypothesis that the Matmata silts came from the West (Eastern Erg).


Fauna reported from Batu caves, Selangor, Malaysia: annotated checklist and bibliography, 2012,
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Moseley Max, Lim Teck Wyn, Lim Tze Tshen

The Batu caves are the only caves in the Malay Peninsula that are well investigated zoologically, and they are the most thoroughly sampled anywhere in Southeast Asia. However, the records have not been collated to provide a comprehensive overview of the fauna present. This issue is addressed here by presenting an authoritative checklist of all reported zoological taxa, together with ecological annotations and a comprehensive bibliography.


Karst and caves of headstreams of the Lena River, 2012,
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Philippov V. M. , Filippov A. G. , Indyukov A. E.

Karst phenomena of headstreams of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia between junctions of the Zolotokan Creek and Chanchur River are described in the paper. Wide spreading of karst is determined by: areal occurrence of marine carbonate rocks of the Lower and Middle Cambrian, their monoclinal bedding, increased tectonical fracturing of karstiferous rocks, relatively high roughness of surface topography, flattened dividing ranges, relatively humid climate (precipitation 400-500 mm per year), and long history of continental regime of the area. The relics of ancient gently sloped river valleys at dividing ranges are the most karstified. There is no surface drainage in their limits, and groups of dolines up to 40-80 individuals per square kilometer are common. Karst development determines an existence of vast meadows covered with the dwarf birch, reindeer moss and herbs (Trollius asiaticus, Scutellaria baialensis, Rhodiola rosea, Veratrum lobelianum, Gentiana sp., Allium sp. .) among stocked coniferous taiga at the altitude of 1080-1150 m a.s.l. at the watershed divides of the Lena and Levaya Tongoda rivers (Mongolian Steppe Stow), and Lena and Pankucha-2nd rivers. On the rest of the territory, dolines do not form large groups, but they occur as isolated individuals or scattered clusters consisting of 3 to 5 individuals. Karst dry valleys are widely spread. Their total length is not less than 397 km, and 126 km of them belongs to the watershed of the Yukhta-1st River. Residual hills having morphology of pillars, towers and ridges were observed. Descriptions of two karst caves and two crevice caves are given.


Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012,
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Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Yeh T. C. J.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.


Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012,
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Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Jim Yeh T. C.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.


Occurrence of troglobitic clivinines in China (Insect: Coleoptera: Carabidae), 2013,
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Tian, M.

A new genus, Guiodytes gen. nov., and two new species, G. cavicola sp. nov. and G. bedosae sp. nov., of the ground beetle tribe Clivinini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described from two caves of Guangxi, southern China. Guiodytes gen. nov. is characterized. It is the first genus of troglobitic clivinines discovered in Asia, and its relationships with other clivinines remain unclear. 


Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), 2015,
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Briestensky Milos, Rowberry Matt, Stemberk Josef, Stefanov Petar, Vozar Jozef, Sebela Stanka, Petro Lubomir, Bella Pavel, Gaal Ludovit, Ormukov Cholponbek,

The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customised three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and subsequent extension across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE-SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the northwestern block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites evidence simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted to reflect the widespread propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.


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