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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That marble is 1. metamorphosed and recrystallized carbonate rock that is generally capable of supporting cave development. for example much of the antro del corchia in italy and many caves in the south nordland area of norway have formed in marble [9]. 2. limestone recrystallized and hardened by heat and pressure. 3. commercially, any limestone that will take a high polish [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bay (Keyword) returned 120 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 106 to 120 of 120
Karst and caves of the north-east fringe of the Baydarsky Depression (Mountainous Crimea), 2011, Amelichev G. N. , Matyushkin B. E.

Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida, 2011, Cunningham K. J. , Sukop M. C.

Research is needed to determine how seepage-control actions planned by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) will affect recharge, groundwater flow, and discharge within the dual-porosity karstic Biscayne aquifer where it extends eastward from the Everglades to Biscayne Bay. A key issue is whether the plan can be accomplished without causing urban flooding in adjacent populated areas and diminishing coastal freshwater flow needed in the restoration of the ecologic systems. Predictive simulation of groundwater flow is a prudent approach to understanding hydrologic change and potential ecologic impacts. A fundamental problem to simulation of karst groundwater flow is how best to represent aquifer heterogeneity. Currently, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and academic partners are applying multiple innovative technologies to characterize the spatial distribution of porosity and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer.


Karst landforms in an interior layered deposit within the Coprates Chasma, Mars , 2011, Baioni Davide, Hajna Nadja Zupan, Wezzel Forese Carlo

The Coprates Chasma forms part of the backbone of the Valles Marineris canyon system. In the westernmost part of the chasma in an embayment on the northern wall a mound of layered material rises from the chasma floor and displays a characteristic dome-shaped morphology. The mineralogical characteristics of the dome and its surroundings have been de­termined by analysis of the CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data (image HRL00003752). The unit shows the clear signatures of kieserite, an evaporite mineral also found on Earth. Through analysis of the M.RO. HiRISE (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imag­ing Science Experiment images) we have investigated the dome landforms and the possible processes involved in their forma­tion and shaping in great detail. The analysis shows that the landforms observed clearly indicate the presence of solutional processes that made those karst landforms. The results of our observation also suggest that liquid water must have existed on the dome in the past for long enough for the solution features to be formed, and that the karst landforms investigated exhib­it an older erosional age or shorter than the same landforms studied in a similar kieserite dome located within Tithonium Chasma, another graben of the Valles Marineris system.


Results of speleological explorations of the Kyzyl-Shevar karst plateau (the republic of Uzbekistan), 2011, Skachko A.

In July-August, 2011 exploration work was conducted on the territory of the Gissarsky preserve (Kyzyl-Shevar plateau, foot of the Chimbay Mountain) by the research expedition of Chertkovsky “Crystal” speleological club of the Ukrainian speleologicheskoy association, composed of 7 persons. During this expedition more than 90 dolines, collapses and crevices were examined on a plateau, and 40 caves were found as result, ranging from 5 to 204 m in depth. Based on these results, the inventory of caves of the Kyzyl-Shevar plateau was compiled


Karst and caves on the coast of the Sudak Bay (Crimea) , 2011, Amelichev G. N. , Batueva E. I. , Svetlov R. S.

The article reports on results of examination of karst on the slopes of Sudak mountain-seashore amphitheater of Crimea. The phisical-geographical conditions of modern karstification are characterized. Description of geological and hydrogeological structure of area is given with an account for a new geodynamic model of the region. Karstological and speleological investigations reveal wide occurence of caves and related morphs of the hypogenic origin. Five cave clusters are distinguished, each of which includes one to four karst caves, accompanied with a set of relict forms in the superficial outcrops. Maps and descriptions of a several known caves of the coast are given, previously unpublished


Eiszeitliche Klimadynamik im Spiegel eines Stalagmiten aus dem Hlloch (Bayern/Vorarlberg) , 2011, Sptl C. , Boch R. , Wolf A.
A speleothem recovered from Hlloch Cave located at the border between Germany and Austria that was deposited during the Last Glacial shows prominent layers of silt and clay documenting episodes of extensive cave flooding. Such intermittent flooding events are not known from the modern cave system, although some galleries are situated in the epiphreatic zone. According to Uranium-Thorium age determinations of 13 calcite subsamples, stalagmite growth started around 62 kyr (= 62,000 years) before present and ended 40 kyr ago, i.e. the only 41 cm-tall stalagmite comprises a time interval of ca. 20 kyr during the Last Glacial. Fin-like extensions in the lower part of the stalagmite document calcite deposition competing with the aggradation of coarsegrained sand. U-Th dates in combination with the internal structure of the stalagmite constrain the age of this period of clastic sedimentation by the cave stream to between 62 and 46 kyr. In addition, the stalagmite also reveals several layers of silty clay documenting growth interruptions as a result of prolonged flood events. Highresolution oxygen isotope measurements along the stalagmite growth axis highlight abrupt alternations of warmer and colder climate conditions during the Last Glacial period. The flooding events occurred preferentially at the end of the relatively short warm phases (interstadials) and at the onset of the subsequent cooling episodes (stadials).

A Sustainability Index for Karst Environments, 2012, Van Beynen P. , Brinkmann R. , Van Beynen K.

With growing populations and ever increasing pressure on resources, the need to live sustainably with our environment has increased in significance. When considering such anthropogenic pressures, karst landscapes are as vulnerable, if not more so, than any other environment. Such vulnerability arises from the rapid transit times of percolating water, the poor filtering ability of carbonate bedrock, and the highly specialized biota of subterranean karst. The Karst Sustainability Index (KSI) was created as a standardized metric of sustainable development practices in karst settings. The KSI uses predetermined targets to ascertain the overall sustainability of a karst region. Indicators are designed to incorporate common measures of sustainability for the three domains of social, environmental, and economic resource use. Benchmarking the current state of karst environments allows the comparison of sustainability practices temporally and spatially to highlight areas where remedial policies or actions are needed. This is the first index to incorporate the emerging field of environmental sustainability with karst landscape assessment. To test the applicability of the KSI, a study was undertaken in the Tampa Bay Metropolitan Area, which encompasses four counties that are entirely karst. The TBMA was found to be progressing towards the sustainable management of karst resources, and the KSI provided a robust measure of sustainability.


105 Jahre Forschung am Hlloch im Mahdtal und seiner Umgebung, Bayern, 2012, Wolf, A.
Hlloch im Mahdtal is currently Germanys second longest cave. One branch of this system extends into the province of Vorarlberg (Austria). This article summarises the caving activities of the last five years since 2007, during which a total of 1400 m of new passages were surveyed.

Results of speleological explorations of the Kyzyl-Shevar karst plateau (the republic of Uzbekistan), 2012, Skachko, . V.

In July-August, 2011 exploration work was conducted on the territory of the Gissarsky preserve (Kyzyl-Shevar plateau, foot of the Chimbay Mountain) by the research expedition of Chertkovsky “Crystal” speleological club of the Ukrainian speleologicheskoy association, composed of 7 persons. During this expedition more than 90 dolines, collapses and crevices were examined on a plateau, and 40 caves were found as result, ranging from 5 to 204 m in depth. based on these results, the inventory of caves of the Kyzyl-Shevar plateau was compiled.


Karst and caves on the coast of the Sudak Bay (Crimea), 2012, Amelichev G. N. , Batueva E. I. , Svetlov R. S.

The article reports on results of examination of karst on the slopes of Sudak mountain-seashore amphitheater of Crimea. The phisical-geographical conditions of modern karstification are characterized. Description of geological and hydrogeological structure of area is given with an account for a new geodynamic model of the region. Karstological and speleological investigations reveal wide occurence of caves and related morphs of the hypogenic origin. Five cave clusters are distinguished, each of which includes one to four karst caves, accompanied with a set of relict forms in the superficial outcrops. Maps and descriptions of a several known caves of the coast are given, previously unpublished


The nature and origin of the ghost-rocks at Bullslaughter Bay, South Wales, 2012, Rowberry Matt D. , Battiauqueney Yvonne, Blazejowski Blazej, Walsh Peter

The ‘ghost-rocks’ of the British Isles have attracted very little research interest over the years despite being widely distributed. In South Wales, the ghost-rocks of the Pembroke Peninsula are usually associated with the mudrock formations immediately above and below the Carboniferous Limestone. This study focuses on their nature and origin through a detailed investigation of the cliff sections at Bullslaughter Bay. The investigated ghost-rocks are associated with a suite of breccias, collectively termed the Gash Breccias. These are an enigmatic suite of around twenty-five large breccia masses located exclusively in the eastern part of the peninsula. They comprise huge masses of coarse, chaotic, clast-supported, monomictic breccia and represent highly disturbed features in the otherwise unbroken sequences of Carboniferous Limestone. Their origin may be karstic, tectonic, or a combination of the two. They could, theoretically, have formed at any point between the end of the Carboniferous and the Pliocene. If their origin is karstic, it cannot yet be determined if the processes were attributable to per descensum or per ascensum groundwater systems. If tectonic, it is not known whether they formed during periods of compression or extension. From our own geological and geophysical fieldwork, we believe that the breccias originated as a result of subterranean karstic processes whilst retaining an open mind with regard to the role played by tectonics. The breccia and ghost-rocks are both displayed in fine cliff exposures around Bullslaughter Bay. These sections, although not extensive, are extremely instructive. The processes that generate ghost-rock result in isovolumetric weathering of the host rock and an associated loss of density and strength. They may or may not involve the removal of certain chemical constituents in the regolith through solution and hydrolysis followed by the formation of secondary minerals, frequently clay. In reality, the precise weathering process differs according to the type of rock. The process is controlled by the permeability of each rock type in banded rocks such as mudstones or shale with banded chert whereas it is controlled by fissures and faults in homogenous rocks. This control is clearly seen in the Carboniferous Limestone around Bullslaughter Bay, where ghost-rocks are present, more commonly in case of impure or dolomitic limestone. At present, it is not clear whether the groundwater movements were caused by hydrothermal or meteoric processes and this forms the basis of ongoing research. Finally, the study considers the relationship that exists between the ghost-rock and the Gash Breccia. We examine whether there is a logical correlation between the processes that came to generate the ghost-rock and the processes responsible for the generation of the breccia. It may then be possible to accurately state whether the ghost-rock formed before, during, or after, the breccia. The reasons that the ghost-rocks of the British Isles have attracted very little research interest may stem from the fact that they have no current commercial value, have seldom presented engineering problems, and are normally difficult to date. It is clear that numerous karst related sag-subsidences in the British Isles result from the large-scale decalcification of the Carboniferous Limestone (e.g. the Tortonian Brassington Formation of the southern Pennines). There is, however, an increasingly large body of evidence to suggest that these subsidences result from the same processes that generate ghost-rock rather than those that create endokarstic voids. The subsidences may preserve stratigraphical sequences several decametres thick and reach depths and widths of many hectometres. Unfortunately, the masses of decalcified limestone below the Tortonian sediments are of no commercial interest and have hardly ever been penetrated by boreholes. Therefore, we do not know exactly what underlies the karstic fills. The possibility that most of these structures are best explained as the result of per ascensum groundwater flow is discussed.


Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae) from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France) with the description of two new species, 2013, Nicole Coineau, Claude Boutin, Malvina Artheau

The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae) is highly diversified in southern France. A new species,Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouarin. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the grouprouchi.


Hypogene Höhlengenese: Aufsteigendes Grundwasser und Erdwärme als Antrieb der Entstehung labyrinthischer Höhlen in der Nördlichen Frankenalb und in anderen Teilen Bayerns, 2013, Glaser, Stefan

Die klassische Erklärung für die Entstehung von „epigenetischen“ bzw. „meteorischen“ Karsthöhlen ist, dass Niederschlagswasser versickert und im Karstgestein durch in der Atmosphäre oder im Boden erworbenes CO2 Hohlräume erweitert. Langfristig entstehen so unterirdische Gewässernetze mit Sammelsträngen, durch die das Wasser letztlich über Karstquellen wieder an die Oberfläche gelangt. Angetrieben wird der Prozess hauptsächlich von der Schwerkraft, unter deren Einfluss das Wasser fließt. Beim Besuch mancher Höhlen fällt es jedoch schwer, die Beobachtungen vor Ort in Einklang mit einer solchen Höhlenentstehung zu bringen. Insbesondere in der Nördlichen Frankenalb finden sich mehrere sehr labyrinthische Höhlen, die weder in den Raumformen noch in den Sedimenten oder in ihrer Gesamtanlage Spuren von ehemals fließendem Wasser erkennen lassen. Auch auf alternative Entstehungsmechanismen, die für atypische Höhlen in anderen Gebieten angenommen werden, gibt es in der Frankenalb keine Hinweise. Weder ist das Gebiet bekannt für hydrothermale Aktivität, noch für H2S oder CO2-Austritte aus dem Erdinneren. Der einzige in dem Gebiet bekannte Basaltgang liegt weit entfernt von den großen Höhlen. Wenn während dessen Entstehung ein erhöhter geothermischer Gradient und vulkanisches CO2 auftraten, so wären Auswirkungen hiervon vor allem im Nahbereich um den Basaltkörper zu erwarten


Flow characterization in the Santee Cave system in the Chapel Branch Creek watershed, upper coastal plain of South Carolina, USA., 2013, Edwards A. E. , Amatya D. M. , Williams T. M. , Hitchcock D. R. , James A. L.

Karst watersheds possess both diffuse and conduit flow and varying degrees of connectivity between surface and groundwater over spatial scales that result in complex hydrology and contaminant transport processes. The flow regime and surface-groundwater connection must be properly identified and characterized to improve management in karst watersheds with impaired water bodies, such as the Chapel Branch Creek (CBC), South Carolina watershed, which has a long-term sampling station presently listed on an EPA 303(d) list for phosphorous, pH, and nitrogen. Water from the carbonate limestone aquifer of the Santee Cave system and spring seeps in the CBC watershed were monitored to characterize dominant flow type and surface-groundwater connection by measuring dissolved calcium and magnesium, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, alkalinity, pH, specific conductance, and stable isotopes (d18O, d2H). These measurements indicated that the conduit flow to Santee Cave spring was recharged predominantly from diffuse flow, with a slow response of surface water infiltration to the conduit. Qualitative dye traces and stage elevation at Santee Cave spring and the adjacent Lake Marion (equal to the elevation of the flooded portion of CBC) also indicated a relation between fluctuating base level of the CBC reservoir-like embayment and elevation of the Santee Limestone karst aquifer at the spring. Methods described herein to characterize the flow type and surface-groundwater connection in the Santee Cave system can be applied not only to watershed management in the Chapel Branch Creek watershed, but also to the greater region where this carbonate limestone aquifer exists. 


The weathered Carboniferous limestone at Bullslaughter Bay, South Wales: the first example of ghost-rock recorded in the British Isles, 2014, Rowberry Matt D. , Battiauqueney Yvonne, Walsh Peter, Blazejowski Blazej, Boutroumazeilles Viviane, Trentesaux Alain, Krizova Lenka, Griffiths Hywel

The Carboniferous Limestone at Bullslaughter Bay hosts some of the most notable examples of deep weathering in  the British Isles as well as two members of an enigmatic suite of breccias known as the Gash Breccias. The weathered limestone has  been investigated thoroughly in order to identify the process responsible for the weathering. In this paper it is demonstrated that the  weathering is isovolumetric but the weathering profile is not characterised by a vertical gradient and its depth suggests that meteoric  waters did not contribute significantly to the weathering process. The weathered limestone has lost significant amounts of calcium and  parts are virtually decalcified. It is seen that the dominant primary minerals of illite and quartz have been preserved while secondary  clay minerals are generally absent. The weathered limestone cannot be a saprolite sensu stricto as it has been subjected to only restricted  chemical processes. It is, therefore, interpreted as a “ghost-rock”. This type of weathering results from chemical dissolution by slow  moving waters in the saturated zone. It is suggested that the weathering may have taken place during periods of emergence in the  Carboniferous, at the same time as the cyclothem tops were exposed to subaerial modification, as evidenced by omission surfaces and  palaeokarstic solution features. This is the first time that ghost-rock weathering has been reported from the British Isles.


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