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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That grike is (british.) 1. a solutionally enlarged vertical or steeply inclined joint in the surface of a karstland, extending for up to a few meters into the limestone [10]. 2. a vertical or sub-vertical cleft in a limestone pavement developed by solution along a joint or system of crisscrossing joints [20]. grikes separate clints from one another. synonyms: (british.) gryke; (french.) lapiaz; (german.) kluftkarren. see also clint; bogaz; limestone pavement.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for contamination (Keyword) returned 150 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 106 to 120 of 150

A review of past research on the hydrogeology of the Classical Karst (Kras) region and new information obtained from a two- year study using environmental tracers are presented in this paper. The main problems addressed are 1) the sources of water to the Kras aquifer resurgence zone—including the famous Timavo springs—under changing flow regimes; 2) a quantification of the storage volumes of the karst massif corresponding to flow regimes defined by hydrograph recessions of the Timavo springs; and 3) changing dynamics between deep phreatic conduit flow and shallow phreatic and epiphreatic storage within the aquifer resurgence zone as determined through changes in chemical and isotopic composition at springs and wells. Particular focus was placed on addressing the long-standing question of the influence of the Soča River on the ground waters of the aquifer resurgence zone. The results indicate that the alluvial aquifer supplied by the sinking of the Soča River on the northwestern edge of the massif contributes approximately 75% of the mean annual outflow to the smaller springs of the aquifer resurgence zone, and as much as 53% to the mean annual outflow of the Timavo springs. As a whole, the Soča River is estimated to contribute 56% of the average outflow of the Kras aquifer resurgence. The proportions of Soča River water increase under drier conditions, and decrease under wetter conditions. Time series analysis of oxygen stable isotope records indicate that the transit time of Soča River water to the Timavo springs, Sardos spring, and well B-4 is on the order of 1-2 months, depending on hydrological conditions. The total baseflow storage of the Timavo springs is estimated to be 518 million m3, and represents 88.5% of the storage capacity estimated for all flow regimes of the springs. The ratio of baseflow storage volume to the average annual volume discharged at the Timavo springs is 0.54. The Reka River sinking in Slovenia supplies substantial allogenic recharge to the aquifer; however, its influence on the northwest resurgence zone is limited to the Timavo springs, and is only a significant component of the spring discharge under flood conditions for relatively brief periods (several days to weeks). Sustainability of the trans-boundary aquifer of the Kras will benefit from maintaining high water quality in the Soča River, as well as focused water tracing experiments within the epiphreatic zone of the aquifer to better delineate the recharge zone and to identify sources of potential contamination to the Brestovica water supply well.

Groundwater contamination in caves: four case studies in Spain, 2008, Jimnezsnchez M. , Stoll H. , Vadillo I. , Lpezchicano M. , Domnguezcuesta M. Martnrosales W. And Melndezasensio M.

Groundwater quality was monitored in four Spanish caves using concentrations of nitrate, potassium, phosphorus and in some cases total organic carbon. Three of the caves are located in NW Spain and contain prehistoric cave paintings and hence have special conservation interest. Of these, two are open show caves (Tito Bustillo and Pindal Caves), while the other one (Herrerías Cave) is not managed for tours and is partially closed off to public access. The fourth cave (Las Maravillas Cave) is located in SW Spain and is opened to the public because of its geological features and natural beauty. In this paper, we compare two sampling methodologies used in the four caves. In Pindal and Herrerias Cave high temporal resolution is achieved with a dripwater collector that collects discrete samples every 48 hours. In Tito Bustillo and Las Maravillas Caves a higher spatial resolution is achieved (16 sampling points in each one), but with a frequency of sampling ranging from 15 days to 6 months. Wastewater and livestock waste appear to be the principal sources of contamination to cave waters. Caves with concentrated livestock (stables) or urban and residential wastewater systems directly situated above the cave exhibit the highest level of contamination detected in elevated concentrations of nitrogen species and in some cases depressed oxygen availability in waters.

Kryogene Karbonate im Hhleneis der Eisriesenwelt, 2008, Sptl, C.
Progressive freezing of calcium- and bicarbonate- bearing cave waters can give rise to high supersaturation and the subsequent precipitation of microscopic calcite crystals and aggregates thereof. These particles are disseminated in the ice of ice caves and may later be concentrated by sublimation or melting of ice to form thin carbonate beds in layered ice (cryogenic carbonates). Such white to light brown, silty to fine sandy layers occur in the rear of the ice-bearing part of the Eisriesenwelt cave (Werfen, Salzburg) and were previously regarded as finely disintegrated limestone powder derived from the cave ceiling. Studies using scanning electron microscopy show that this material consists of 30-200 ?m aggregates of euhedral crystals, which, according to powder Xray diffraction analyses, are near-stoichiometric low-Mg calcite. The crystal aggregates commonly show a conspicuous flat top and resemble larger floating calcite rafts known from calcite-precipitating pools in ice-free caves. There are gradual transitions between these aggregates and skeletal crystal aggregates and (hemi)spherulitic forms, respectively. The small particle size and the skeletal crystal habit strongly argue in favour of rapid crystal growth during freezing of shallow puddles of icy water. This interpretation is corroborated by the highly positive C isotope values, which, in conjunction with the O isotope data, prove the cryogenic origin of these carbonates. The proportion of detrital contamination is very low. This study is the first report of fine-grained cryogenic speleothems in an eastalpine cave. It is supposed that such sediments are more wide spread and thicker layers may represent important paleoenvironmental marker horizons.

Karst Resources and Other Applied Issues, 2008, Vesper, D. J.

Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave, 2009, Bastian F. , Alabouvette C.
Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years the cave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock art paintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and independent methods

Self-Organized Permeability in Carbonate Aquifers, 2009, Worthington S. , Ford D.

Advances over the past 40 years have resulted in a clear understanding of how dissolution processes in carbonate rocks enhance aquifer permeability. Laboratory experiments on dissolution rates of calcite and dolomite have established that there is a precipitous drop in dissolution rates as chemical equilibrium is approached. These results have been incorporated into numerical models, simulating the effects of dissolution over time and showing that it occurs along the entire length of pathways through carbonate aquifers. The pathways become enlarged and integrated over time, forming self-organized networks of channels that typically have apertures in the millimeter to centimeter range. The networks discharge at point-located springs. Recharge type is an important factor in determining channel size and distribution, resulting in a range of aquifer types, and this is well demonstrated by examples from England. Most carbonate aquifers have a large number of small channels, but in some cases large channels (i.e., enterable caves) can also develop. Rapid velocities found in ground water tracer tests, the high incidence of large-magnitude springs, and frequent microbial contamination of wells all support the model of selforganized channel development. A large majority of carbonate aquifers have such channel networks, where ground water velocities often exceed 100 m/d.

Percolation and Particle Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of a Karst Aquifer, 2009, Pronk M. , Goldscheider N. , Zopfi J. , Zwahlen F.

Recharge and contamination of karst aquifers often occur via the unsaturated zone, but the functioning of this zone has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, irrigation and tracer experiments, along with monitoring of rainfall events, were used to examine water percolation and the transport of solutes, particles, and fecal bacteria between the land surface and a water outlet into a shallow cave. Monitored parameters included discharge, electrical conductivity, temperature, organic carbon, turbidity, particle-size distribution (PSD), fecal indicator bacteria, chloride, bromide, and uranine. Percolation following rainfall or irrigation can be subdivided into a lag phase (no response at the outlet), a piston-flow phase (release of epikarst storage water by pressure transfer), and a mixed-flow phase (increasing contribution of freshly infiltrated water), starting between 20 min and a few hours after the start of recharge event. Concerning particle and bacteria transport, results demonstrate that (1) a first turbidity signal occurs during increasing discharge due to remobilization of particles from fractures (pulse-through turbidity); (2) a second turbidity signal is caused by direct particle transfer from the soil (flow-through turbidity), often accompanied by high levels of fecal indicator bacteria, up to 17,000 Escherichia coli/100 mL; and (3) PSD allows differentiation between the two types of turbidity. A relative increase of fine particles (0.9 to 1.5 lm) coincides with microbial contamination. These findings help quantify water storage and percolation in the epikarst and better understand contaminant transport and attenuation. The use of PSD as ‘‘early-warning parameter’’ for microbial contamination in karst water is confirmed.

Groundwater vulnerability assessment of regions of open karst (on example of the Ai-Petri massif, Crimea), 2009, Shestopalov V. M. , Klimchouk A. B. , Tokarev S. V. , Amelichev G. N.

Karst morphology and groundwater vulnerability of high alpine karst plateaus, 2009, Plan L. , Decker K. , Faber R. , Wagreich M. , Grasemann B.

High alpine karst plateaus are recharge areas for major drinking water resources in the Alps and many other regions. Well-established methods for the vulnerability mapping of groundwater to contamination have not been applied to such areas yet. The paper characterises this karst type and shows that two common vulnerability assessment methods (COP and PI) classify most of the areas with high vulnerability classes. In the test site on the Hochschwab plateau (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), overlying layers are mostly absent, not protective or even enhance point recharge, where they have aquiclude character. The COP method classifies 82% of the area as highly or extremely vulnerable. The resulting maps are reasonable, but do not differentiate vulnerabilities to the extent that the results can be used for protective measures. An extension for the upper end of the vulnerability scale is presented that allows identifying ultra vulnerable areas. The proposed enhancement of the conventional approach points out that infiltration conditions are of key importance for vulnerability. The method accounts for karst genetical and hydrologic processes using qualitative and quantitative properties of karst depressions and sinking streams including parameters calculated from digital elevations models. The method is tested on the Hochschwab plateau where 1.7% of the area is delineated as ultra vulnerable. This differentiation could not be reached by the COP and PI methods. The resulting vulnerability map highlights spots of maximum vulnerability and the combination with a hazard map enables protective measures for a manageable area and number of sites.

Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave, 2009, Bastian F. , Alabouvette C.

Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years the cave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock art paintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and –independent methods.

The complex discharge hydrograph for Big Spring, Missouri, can be described as the sum of two terms governed by Darcys Law. The dominant, long-term component is proportional to the regional hydraulic gradient, and constitutes about 80% of the average flow of 12.6 m3/s. Superimposed on this is a transient component with a time-constant of about 1.5 days that represents the Darcian response to sharp, rainfall-driven pulses on the head of the shallow groundwater system. This transient component delivers about 20% of the average total flow, but over short intervals can exceed the long-term component. However, the long-term component is so large that the ratio of record high flows to the average flow is only about 4x for Big Spring, and 1.5 to 4.5x for most other large Ozark springs; for comparison, this ratio is 10 to 3000x for most surface streams in Missouri. The strong correlation between the discharge of the large springs and the head in the Ozark aquifer permits the extension of the Darcian rainfall-runoff model to predict groundwater levels in wells.

Approximately 33% of China is karstic. The most extensive karst areas are in southwestern China and cover approximately 540,000 km2. Southwestern China hosts some of the most typical karst landforms in the world and has important high-quality karst water resources. Due to the rapid development of China, karst waters are threatened by various types of contamination. Detail field and laboratory investigations in five provinces including several cities in southwestern China were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Eightythree springs and underground rivers were surveyed and water samples collected from each for laboratory analyses for major ions. Four main types of karst aquifer contamination were identified based on contaminant sources: rural and agricultural pollution, pollution from urban development and industry, pollution from mining, and accidental groundwater pollution. Several representative instances for each type of contamination and their impacts on the environment are discussed in more detail. Contamination countermeasures of karst waters and a framework for overall management of karst water resources in southwestern China are provided.

The major chemical parameters, TOC and natural fluorescence of yedra spring, Malaga province, southern Spain were monitored from April 2008 to March 2009. The electrical conductivity and the concentrations of most major ions decreased following recharge periods. The TOC and NO3, representing tracers from the soil that infiltrate through the unsaturated zone, were found to vary inversely with the Mg2+ content, which is a natural indicator of groundwater residence time. Furthermore, a strong, direct relation was found between TOC and the natural fluorescence associated with humic and fulvic acids. Both parameters respond similarly to rainfall events, exhibiting significant increases during recharge followed by reductions during recession. This relation means that TOC mainly originates from organic acids. The results document rapid infiltration processes with a lag of less than one day following rainfall, which is typical of a karst aquifer with conduit flow, rapid drainage and limited natural regulation. The combined use of conventional hydrochemical parameters and natural organic tracers facilitates aquifer characterization and validates the vulnerability to contamination.

Location, Location, Location! Lava Caves on Mars for Habitat, Resources, and the Search for Life, 2010, Boston, Penelope J.

Over the course of humanity's history as a species, the use of caves, rock shelters, and other natural geological features has played an important role in our survival and cultural development. We suggest that the use of such natural features in future human exploration of Mars and Earth's moon could be a timely and practical solution to a number of potential dilemmas presented by the extreme and challenging nature of the environments on these bodies. Lava tubes, other caves, cavities, and canyon overhangs that are being identified on other planets are sites of intense scientific interest for geology, atmospheric climate records, and potentially biology. They may offer easier subsurface access for direct exploration and drilling, and could provide extractable minerals, gases, and ices. In the past few years, examples of such structures on Mars, the Moon, and potentially other bodies have increasingly come to light. Thus, the real estate is out there waiting for us to modify it for our exploration missions. The present Martian surface environment is extremely cold, dry, chemically active, and high in both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and episodic waves of high energy particles from solar proton events (SPE) necessitate the provision of robust radiation protection for habitats, workspaces, vehicles, and personal space suits. The mass penalty of providing this is a major driver in our consideration of the use of natural rock mass for radiation protection for habitats and workspaces, arguably the most massive components of an integrated human exploration equipment suite. Planetary protection considerations emerging from recent studies advocate a localization and zoning of degrees of human impact, much like that being implemented in the Antarctic as Special Regions. Containment of the primary human habitation and work activities within the confines of a subsurface habitat are highly consistent with these new approaches to Planetary Protection forward contamination. To begin to think about caves in the extraterrestrial exploration context, we have developed the notion of a complete, functioning subsurface habitat system. A suite of relatively low technology modifications to caves to improve habitability and safety are suggested. This system can integrate a spectrum of missions from both robotic precursors to human expeditionary missions and ultimately colonization.

Fast, Regional Conduit Flow to an Exceptional-Value Spring-Fed Creek: Implications for Source-Water Protection in Mantled Karst of South-Central Pennsylvania, 2010, Hurd Todd M. , Brookhartrebert Ashley, Feeney Thomas P. , Otz Martin H. , Otz Ines

Karst springs of Cumberl and County, Pennsylvania, are important water resources, but their sources and flow paths are unknown. We traced flow in a mantled-karst ground water system in the Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province using fluorescent dyes, with focuson Big Spring Creek. Upper Big Spring Creek is assigned High Quality/Exceptional Valuestat us by Pennsylvania Base don its high water quality and value as a multi-use resource with exceptional Recreational or ecological ignificance. Subsurface flow followed the geologic strike after Sulpho Rhoda mine B(Acid Red 52) dye was release don exposed carbonates. Subsurface Flow had a maximum effective line arvelo city of 2.5 km d21, which is 8 times greater than Sodium fluoresce in (AcidYellow73) dye released separately in toalosing stream over Colluvium(0.3kmd21). Sulpho Rhoda mine was detected strongly 8.9 km away at Big Spring Creek’s largest source spring (,250 ppt water; 50 pp beluate),but weak lyinan East source(2.5ppbeluate). Sodium fluoresce in was detectedafterfourweeksat0.07to 0.15 pp bineluate at springs at Hunts dale Hatchery, 9.5km from release at p the colluvial mantle. Slow flow derived from losing stream sonthe colluvial mantle likely maintains water quality of Big Spring Creek and similar systems. However, this recharge Is distant, and the flow passes below karst recharge features in the valley center, creating many opportunities for contamination. Future studies of contaminant and sediment loading stosub terrane an basin sand of source-water protection strategies that recognize These pattern sare necessary to protect these streams.

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